著者
田村 裕子
出版者
お茶の水女子大学
雑誌
人間文化論叢 (ISSN:13448013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, pp."4-1"-"4-9", 2005

This paper notes that, in his diary, called Taiki, Fujiwara Yorinaga (1120〜1156), born in a family that produced regents/chief advisers to the Emperor during the era of rule by retired Emperors, refers to his deceased real mother as the "person of old", and its implied meaning is examined. In the background of this reference to her as the "person of old" was the existence of Minamoto Shishi, the legal wife of Tadazane, Yorinaga's father, who became Yorinaga's adoptive mother. She was something guaranteeing his legitimacy as a successor. It is this Shishi that Yorinaga identified as his mother, whom he must respect. However, the existence of his real mother was not entirely disregarded in his mind ; there are entries in his diary in which feeling of deep attachment to her can be detected. The reference to his real mother as the "person of old" represents internal fulfillment of the positioning of his two mothers, and symbolizes strong persistence in attaining the status of a regent/chief adviser to the Emperor, as well as the suppressed feelings for his real mother under that persistence, on the part of Yorinaga,who was shortly to rush headlong toward the civil war of the Hogen era.
著者
久保田 育子
出版者
お茶の水女子大学
雑誌
人間文化論叢 (ISSN:13448013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.335-343, 2006

This paper focuses on Gallathea written by John Lyly in 1591. Gallathea was one of the first English plays to use the heroines in male disguise. On the English Renaissance stage, women's roles were played by boy actors, who were considered to be immature as their gender/sex had not yet developed fully to adulthood. I will highlight the multiple gender identities of boy actors and female characters and also the confusions of gender/sex created by Lyly's duplication of cross-gender disguise. In Gallathea, the two heroines disguised as boys fall in love with each other and their tangled sexual relationship shows aspects of the polymorphously perverse. The paper is divided into three parts. I will first illustrate the setting of the world of Gallathea and Lyly's design. The second part examines the relationship between male attire and constructions of male gender. In the third, I would like to explore the representation of women in breeches, which has been symbolized as invasion of the sexual norm. My focus is on the fabrication of the male gender/sex created by male clothing. The ambiguities of gender identity created by cross-gender casting and cross-gender disguises show the plasticity and multiplicity of gender/sex and sexuality.
著者
佐藤 美和
出版者
お茶の水女子大学
雑誌
ジェンダー研究 : お茶の水女子大学ジェンダー研究センター年報 (ISSN:13450638)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, pp.91-105, 2008-03

In this paper, I show importance of interpreting legalization of same-sex partnerships as a process of "the politics of recognition" for gay and lesbian, through featuring on the argument about legalization of partnerships in U.S.A. In the first section, I survey evolution of lawsuits to demand the right to marry for same-sex couples, from that in 70's to Goodridge decision of the Massachusetts Supreme Court in 2003. From Beahr decision of the Hawaii Supreme Court in 1993 to Goodridge decision, judgments to recognize the right to marry for same-sex couples continued. Then followed those decisions, the problem of same-sex marriage was focused as a political problem and the backlash by conservative groups broke out. I explore such phenomenon by introducing the perspective of "the politics of recognition", propounded by C. Taylor. Then I urge importance of consideration to the essential of the politics of recognition: that is not only an achievement of equal rights but a demand for transformation of majority itself. Therefore, it is a process achieving equality accompanied with social understanding and transformation not raising a single acquisition aim to call "marriage".
著者
関根 令夫
出版者
お茶の水女子大学
雑誌
研究紀要
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, pp.31-49, 2002

多くのスポーツでは,競技を行う上で左利きの選手が優位な場合が多く見られる。しかし,和弓(以下弓道とする)の場合,左射法(的に対して右体側が面するような半身の姿勢。以下,左射法とする)は,ほとんど行われていない。身体的な障害があるような極く少数を除き,伝統的に右射法で,弓を引くことが義務づけられている。弓道において,右射法は,日本文化の継承という意味で当然である。左射法が認められていない具体的な理由は,行射の際,上座に対し背中(尻)を向けることのないようにというしきたりや,団体競技の時の危険性や,審判・競技運営上の問題がその根拠とされている。そこで,早気対応法として,左射法の有効性について考えると,高校生(3年間)や大学生(4年間)という短い選手期間の中で,一度,早気になってしまうと,短期間で早気を克服するには困難である場合が多い。早気矯正法の一つとしての左射法を使う考え方は,中国の弓術書「射学正宗」にみることができる。筆者は,右射法で,早気のために十分な稽古ができない間,左射法で練習をすれば,伸び合いも十分に行うことが出來る(運動学習における転移)と考える。この点に関しては,脳生理学(左右脳の機能差)の研究を待たなければならない。また,アーチェリーにおける狙いの指導の中では,危険性もともなうため,弓を持つ手を利き目で決定したり,利き手が左優位の射手には,左用の弓を使う左射法を考慮しなければならないとしている。弓道においても,アーチェリーのように狙いの危険性から考えても,弓道の利き眼に関しての指導法は,改善されるべき内容である。本研究が,弓道初心者指導方法の基礎資料や効果的な指導方法の一助となれば幸いである。科学的な面も視野に入れ,競技としての弓道・伝統的日本文化としての弓道に寄与できるものと考える。
著者
難波 知子
出版者
お茶の水女子大学
雑誌
人間文化論叢 (ISSN:13448013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.41-50, 2006

This article aims at reconsidering the history of women's school uniforms from the viewpoints of the educational system, students, and uniform production in modern Japan. Though the historical studies of school uniforms have focused on the control of students' bodies and clothing by schools, this article moreover notices the significance that women students realized in their uniforms, and the situation that their uniforms were made in the transition from Kimono style to Western style. The composition of this article is as follows. First, it gives an outline of the history of women's school uniforms from the Meiji era to the early Showa era. Second, it elaborates the process of wearing HAKAMA which women students longed to put on in the 30's of the Meiji era. And third, it considers the practical situation that the school uniforms were made, worn by students and controlled by schools. To conclude, in modern Japan women's school uniforms were formed as a culture by interrelationship among schools, students, and uniform production. Schools instituted uniforms for the realization of educational policy and the regulation of clothing. On the other hand, women students created their original meanings and dressing in their school uniforms. And the school uniforms as a culture prevailed involving the changes of styles of living in clothing, for example, from Kimono style to Western style and from sewing at home to buying products in stores.
著者
松尾 江津子
出版者
お茶の水女子大学
雑誌
人間文化論叢 (ISSN:13448013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, pp.85-93, 2005

In the studies of William Shakespeare's Othello, Iago's latent homosexuality has been discussed since the mid-twentieth century. This kind of investigation, however, is criticized for nothing more than motive-hunting of Iago's malignity and taking homosexuality as pathology. Recent sexuality studies, which have brought to light various aspects of male alliance in early modern England, show that physical intimacies between men in those days were far from pathology but rather admired as "friendship." On the other hand, "sodomy" was condemned even though it seems that the acts of "sodomy" actually had little difference from the very acts that Englishmen regarded as "friendship" ; the accusation of sodomy might be considered as one of the political manipulations concerning class, gender, race, and nationality. If the play represents Iago's desire as ambiguously at once "sodomy" and "friendship," the play can be interpreted to reveal the equivocations involved in the system of male alliance. This article, which reconsiders Iago's homosexual desire for Othello in the cultural and political context of early modern England, reexamines, thereby, a historical moment in which Otherness was being constructed through discourse of sodomy.