著者
田村 裕子
出版者
お茶の水女子大学
雑誌
人間文化論叢 (ISSN:13448013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, pp."4-1"-"4-9", 2005

This paper notes that, in his diary, called Taiki, Fujiwara Yorinaga (1120〜1156), born in a family that produced regents/chief advisers to the Emperor during the era of rule by retired Emperors, refers to his deceased real mother as the "person of old", and its implied meaning is examined. In the background of this reference to her as the "person of old" was the existence of Minamoto Shishi, the legal wife of Tadazane, Yorinaga's father, who became Yorinaga's adoptive mother. She was something guaranteeing his legitimacy as a successor. It is this Shishi that Yorinaga identified as his mother, whom he must respect. However, the existence of his real mother was not entirely disregarded in his mind ; there are entries in his diary in which feeling of deep attachment to her can be detected. The reference to his real mother as the "person of old" represents internal fulfillment of the positioning of his two mothers, and symbolizes strong persistence in attaining the status of a regent/chief adviser to the Emperor, as well as the suppressed feelings for his real mother under that persistence, on the part of Yorinaga,who was shortly to rush headlong toward the civil war of the Hogen era.
著者
久保田 育子
出版者
お茶の水女子大学
雑誌
人間文化論叢 (ISSN:13448013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.335-343, 2006

This paper focuses on Gallathea written by John Lyly in 1591. Gallathea was one of the first English plays to use the heroines in male disguise. On the English Renaissance stage, women's roles were played by boy actors, who were considered to be immature as their gender/sex had not yet developed fully to adulthood. I will highlight the multiple gender identities of boy actors and female characters and also the confusions of gender/sex created by Lyly's duplication of cross-gender disguise. In Gallathea, the two heroines disguised as boys fall in love with each other and their tangled sexual relationship shows aspects of the polymorphously perverse. The paper is divided into three parts. I will first illustrate the setting of the world of Gallathea and Lyly's design. The second part examines the relationship between male attire and constructions of male gender. In the third, I would like to explore the representation of women in breeches, which has been symbolized as invasion of the sexual norm. My focus is on the fabrication of the male gender/sex created by male clothing. The ambiguities of gender identity created by cross-gender casting and cross-gender disguises show the plasticity and multiplicity of gender/sex and sexuality.
著者
難波 知子
出版者
お茶の水女子大学
雑誌
人間文化論叢 (ISSN:13448013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.41-50, 2006

This article aims at reconsidering the history of women's school uniforms from the viewpoints of the educational system, students, and uniform production in modern Japan. Though the historical studies of school uniforms have focused on the control of students' bodies and clothing by schools, this article moreover notices the significance that women students realized in their uniforms, and the situation that their uniforms were made in the transition from Kimono style to Western style. The composition of this article is as follows. First, it gives an outline of the history of women's school uniforms from the Meiji era to the early Showa era. Second, it elaborates the process of wearing HAKAMA which women students longed to put on in the 30's of the Meiji era. And third, it considers the practical situation that the school uniforms were made, worn by students and controlled by schools. To conclude, in modern Japan women's school uniforms were formed as a culture by interrelationship among schools, students, and uniform production. Schools instituted uniforms for the realization of educational policy and the regulation of clothing. On the other hand, women students created their original meanings and dressing in their school uniforms. And the school uniforms as a culture prevailed involving the changes of styles of living in clothing, for example, from Kimono style to Western style and from sewing at home to buying products in stores.
著者
松尾 江津子
出版者
お茶の水女子大学
雑誌
人間文化論叢 (ISSN:13448013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, pp.85-93, 2005

In the studies of William Shakespeare's Othello, Iago's latent homosexuality has been discussed since the mid-twentieth century. This kind of investigation, however, is criticized for nothing more than motive-hunting of Iago's malignity and taking homosexuality as pathology. Recent sexuality studies, which have brought to light various aspects of male alliance in early modern England, show that physical intimacies between men in those days were far from pathology but rather admired as "friendship." On the other hand, "sodomy" was condemned even though it seems that the acts of "sodomy" actually had little difference from the very acts that Englishmen regarded as "friendship" ; the accusation of sodomy might be considered as one of the political manipulations concerning class, gender, race, and nationality. If the play represents Iago's desire as ambiguously at once "sodomy" and "friendship," the play can be interpreted to reveal the equivocations involved in the system of male alliance. This article, which reconsiders Iago's homosexual desire for Othello in the cultural and political context of early modern England, reexamines, thereby, a historical moment in which Otherness was being constructed through discourse of sodomy.
著者
味岡 京子
出版者
お茶の水女子大学
雑誌
人間文化論叢 (ISSN:13448013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.1-11, 2006

The World's Columbian Exposition was held in Chicago, USA, in 1893. There was a pavilion in the exposition known as the Woman's Building, which was completely organized and managed by women. This writing discloses the background to how Japan became part of the Woman's Building and what the exhibition was like, and considers Japan's purpose at that time and how it interacted with Western trends. The Japanese government spent a large amount of money for taking part in The World's Columbian Exposition with the prime purpose of promoting trade and introducing Japanese art to the world. Since it was the preceding year to the Sino-Japanese War, it seems that they also had the intention to appeal for Japan's superiority as the only modernized country in Asia and justify its colonial orientation. Women's art-a subject to which scant attention had been paid in Japan-was redefined in the process of modernization by providing new meanings through exhibits at the Woman's Building. This article aims to emphasize the role of women in modernization through the relationship between art and women, by revealing the status of women artists and what was expected of them.
著者
内村 理奈
出版者
お茶の水女子大学
雑誌
人間文化論叢 (ISSN:13448013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.131-139, 2006
被引用文献数
1

In a comparative analysis of clothing worn by corpses, I looked at descriptions of clothing found in corpse records of Paris and Lyon-Beaujolais in the 1770s. Statistical results revealed that the mention of silver buttons and silver buckles on shoes appears quite frequently in Paris records while there is little mention of them in records of Lyon-Beaujolais. The popularity of large square, silver buckles among Parisian men from the early 18th century onwards seems to have continued for a rather long period. The comparison strongly indicated that local differences in clothing in Paris and Lyon-Beaujolais were minor variations in ornamentation, such as buckles on shoes, rather than differences in the style of garments worn.
著者
松下 真記 MATSUSHITA Maki マツシタ マキ
出版者
お茶の水女子大学大学院人間文化研究科
雑誌
人間文化論叢 (ISSN:13448013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.161-173, 2006

The subject of this article is a type of capital initial letter represented as if it were a three-dimensional object carved in metal. Its central ridge forms the spine of the letter which then seems to be hollowed on either side. It appears in manuscripts illuminated in Padua or Venice in the late 1450's. Outstanding examples are found in the well-known copy of Strabo's Geography in the Latin translation of Guarino, which was sent as a present by the Venetian condottiere Jacopo Marcello to Rene of Anjou in 1459. Millard Meiss once ascribed its invention to the Paduan painter Andrea Mantegna and named it "Littera Mantiniana" (Mantegna's letter) because he believed that the illuminator of Strabo's work was certainly Mantegna, while other scholars nowadays insist that it was invented by Veronese copyist Felice Feliciano. In this article, I observe its first examples in Geography of Strabo in the terms of the characteristic of its three-dimentionality, and analyze again the possibility of Mantegna or Feliciano as its inventor.
著者
安城 寿子
出版者
お茶の水女子大学
雑誌
人間文化論叢 (ISSN:13448013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, pp.1-12, 2005

COMME des GARCONS de Rei KAWAKUBO et sa creation sont apprecies comme avant-garde de mode s'accompagnant d'une seule image artistique ou choquante: On dit qu'elle ne cesse pas de confronter sa creation a toutes les preoccupations esthetiques ou morales et etonner les spectateurs et les journalistes depuis ses vetements detruits des annees 1980. Mais la styliste et son travail sont-ils toujours representes sous cette forme? Il nous faut remarquer que la representation changera selon le sujet representant et avec le temps. En effet nous voyons leurs representations variables a travers l'analyse des documents des annees 1970-80. Vers la fin des annees 1970 c'est-a-dire avant son debut a Paris, ses collections etaient recommandees dans les revues japonaises non pas comme expression de l'idee originale mail comme habits de bonne qualite, simples et confortables. Pourtant un peu plus tard, les journalistes francais ont traduit ses premieres collections par manifestation de l'esthetique traditionnelle japonaise, tandis que Kawakubo agissait elle-meme tout comme une styliste qui ne prend sa source dans rien de concret, y compris le folklore. Et c'est apres avoir fait ses premiers pas a Paris que Kawakubo s'est fait "deleguee de la mode tokyoite" puis ses collections ont commence a etre parlees au point de vue artistique et quelque peu philosophique au Japon. Nous devons donc nous demander si COMME des GARCONS dont nous parlions est un.
著者
李 志暎
出版者
お茶の水女子大学
雑誌
人間文化論叢 (ISSN:13448013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.291-303, 2006

Based on a preceding study that a lot of patterns circulated throughout the development of a topic in a business meeting between Japanese, tending to put off a conclusion, this study provides a comparative analysis with a meeting between Koreans. As a result, the big difference with J (Japanese) was scarcely observed to be about the number of patterns for all topics. However, a difference became clear for the process of a topic reaching a decision. As for J, the ratio of circulation topics emerged highly "before decision", and for K (Koreans), "after decision". This suggested that the process before decisions were made were different between the two groups. In this way it is thought that the expectations of Koreans engaged in business towards making a decision rather than discussing related topics are different from that of Japanese. Thus, this may be another factor that contributes to the perception that "the Japanese do not give conclusions".
著者
近藤 雅恵
出版者
お茶の水女子大学
雑誌
人間文化論叢 (ISSN:13448013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, pp.289-296, 2005

In Japanese, written form and oral form are historically different. In this research I tried to find some regularity in transformations of oral form in written media. They are, for example, OMBIN-KA, curtailed vowel, shortcut form, and so on.