著者
木村 豊
出版者
日本オーラル・ヒストリー学会
雑誌
日本オーラル・ヒストリー研究 (ISSN:18823033)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, pp.125-144, 2012-09-08 (Released:2018-12-10)

The purpose of this article is to examine the internal migration of a person burnt out by an urban air raid. With the expansion of air raids on Japan's urban centers during the war, a large number of civilians were burnt out of their homes. Therefore, the government pushed forward a plan to have such people emigrate to farm villages. However, such people have so far not been studied in historical research. We carried out an interview investigation in a farm village in Hokkaido to which such people migrated. Therefore, in this report, we want to consider the local emigration of a person burnt out by an urban air raid based on interview data.
著者
滝口 良
出版者
日本オーラル・ヒストリー学会
雑誌
日本オーラル・ヒストリー研究 (ISSN:18823033)
巻号頁・発行日
no.10, pp.57-76, 2014-09-06

Since the collapse of the socialist state, it has been common for Mongolians to engage in commercial activity. In the socialist era, however, commercial activity was thought to be immoral, and people who engaged in business were condemned as "resellers." A drastic change in morality regarding commercial activity has occurred, and this poses certain questions, for example: has the socialist-era conception of morality regarding commerce disappeared completely? How has the introduction of the free market economy influenced the understanding of commerce in Mongolia? By analyzing the life story of one trader, I illustrate the state of commerce in the socialist period and the transfiguration of ethical discourse that has occurred in contemporary Mongolia. My findings show that the moral justification for contemporary commerce takes the form of historical interpretations that reconfigure traders' reputed notoriety, and that furthermore, there is a discourse of cursing traders engendered by envy.
著者
鈴木 隆雄
出版者
日本オーラル・ヒストリー学会
雑誌
日本オーラル・ヒストリー研究 (ISSN:18823033)
巻号頁・発行日
no.6, pp.67-77, 2010-09-12

Recently, there are active discussions on "Tojisha" studies in Japan. "Tojisha" means "the person concerned." In this paper, I considered the development possibility of minority studies on "the person concerned" or "Tojisha" ethnographers among the minority. I surveyed some advantages and difficulties of being "Tojisha" ethnographers in the field. First, one of the advantages of the "Tojisha" ethnographers is that the "Tojisha" person belongs to the same culture and community, so he/she does not have to study the culture and community. Next, one of the difficulties of the "Tojisha" ethnographers in the field would be that they would be confused as fellow ethnographers. By just being in the same culture and community, they may empathize too much with each other. They empathize but may lack the objectivity, since they can see from the point of view of the same culture and community. These advantages and difficulties could be the cause of problems, because these two things tend to be advantages and difficulties that are likely to be inextricably linked by fact. Therefore, I will introduce "Autoethnography" as a writing method of the "Tojisha" ethnographers.
著者
鈴木 明美
出版者
日本オーラル・ヒストリー学会
雑誌
日本オーラル・ヒストリー研究 (ISSN:18823033)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2, pp.154-164, 2006

This paper has a purpose to analyze a collaborative work of Etsu Inagaki Sugimoto. Sugimoto wrote a book called A Daughter of the Samurai in English in 1925. The book received wide recognition both in America and Europe. Although A Daughter of the Samurai classified as an autobiography, we could clarify the book as a work of fiction. I would like to show a collaborator of this book, an American woman called Florence Mills Wilson. Sugimoto and Wilson were life long friends, worked together with their united hearts and minds. Their cross-cultural experiences led to a collaborative work of a life story of a daughter of the samurai, contained full of sympathy.
著者
竹峰 誠一郎
出版者
日本オーラル・ヒストリー学会
雑誌
日本オーラル・ヒストリー研究 (ISSN:18823033)
巻号頁・発行日
no.5, pp.153-175, 2009-09-12

This article discusses the U.S. nuclear testing issues in the Marshall Islands, focusing on the Ailuk people who are "overlooked victims," developing the idea not only with the testimonies of 48 Ailuk people but also using the U.S. official documents. It is clear that the effects of the U.S. nuclear test have also extended to the Ailuk atoll located 525km away from the hypocenter, though the U.S. government has not officially admitted the fact yet. The finding suggests that the U.S. has underestimated the nuclear test effects on the local people in the Marshall Islands. This article is also unique in terms of the oral history methodology, in which a pile of the declassified U.S. official documents are compared with the testimonies of survivors that were exhaustively gathered through fieldworks.
著者
小倉 康嗣
出版者
日本オーラル・ヒストリー学会
雑誌
日本オーラル・ヒストリー研究 (ISSN:18823033)
巻号頁・発行日
no.7, pp.137-155, 2011-09-10

What kind of wisdom does the life story studies provide? And what kind of effects is made on human being and society by the life story studies? Further, what is the problem in practicing that? In this paper, I shall discuss these problems by considering actual case practices in my research production and the reader's reaction. First of all, the essential substance of the life story approach to holistic life is made clear. The second point is that the life story approach to the holistic life provides the ability to generate, which is developed between interviewee, interviewer/writer and reader. This is the "what" which the life story studies provide. The third point is that the social/sociological meaning of this ability to duplicate is to deepen and expand democracy, which constructs a new historical and social reality. In conclusion, I would argue that research expression is required in order to connect the "how" with the "what".
著者
中原 逸郎
出版者
日本オーラル・ヒストリー学会
雑誌
日本オーラル・ヒストリー研究 (ISSN:18823033)
巻号頁・発行日
no.9, pp.94-106, 2013-09-11

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the conditions for the succession of a traditional Japanese art. For this purpose, I have selected Kamishichiken, one of the five geisha communities of Kyoto that have fostered a culture of hospitality. I analyzed the aspects of succession by participant observation and by collecting the conversations of hosts and guests. In comparison with the Gion-kobu geisha community, I found Kamishichiken is small in scale and self-enclosed but focused on the quality of arts. Furthermore, it has a close relationship with Nishijin textile merchants. And I found that "patrons," called danna, have three features: financial patron, educator of geisha, and individual developing in relation to Kamishichiken. From the viewpoint of the customer, we can see the synergism of social change in the distinctive geisha community by interlacing micro and macro perspectives. Although changes are inevitable, by looking at the change and continuity from various perspectives it is possible to understand the geisha community within the context of broader social changes.
著者
門野 里栄子
出版者
日本オーラル・ヒストリー学会
雑誌
日本オーラル・ヒストリー研究 (ISSN:18823033)
巻号頁・発行日
no.9, pp.124-137, 2013-09-11

The ghost is omitted from academic researches of the Battle of Okinawa. However, people have told ghost stories after the war. The purpose of this paper is to explore the possibility that ghosts can be another voice narrating the Battle of Okinawa through relationships between ghosts and people who tell about the battle. Some people can "see" ghosts, in other words, imagine them with reality. Such people live in a middle area that is neither near nor far from death. They have no intense experiences of war, but know about traces of it. On the other hand, ghosts are invisible to those of the younger generation who do not know about war and to the people who faced death during the war. This is because ghosts exist in the border area between the world of life and the world of death. Ghosts of Okinawa not only perform individual acts but also convert private experience into public memory by their fearfulness.
著者
八木 良広
出版者
日本オーラル・ヒストリー学会
雑誌
日本オーラル・ヒストリー研究 (ISSN:18823033)
巻号頁・発行日
no.8, pp.63-69, 2012-09-08

This article is my report on current A-bomb issues and the current social conditions of the hibakusha's life. It is made up of two sections. In the first section, I explain the current issues in the field by showing one recent movement of the hibakusha groups, the action of which I am concerned with. That is, recently it is becoming easier to undertake dialogue with hibakusha. Although it is necessary for us to foster activity that conveys hibakushas' experiences of the bombs to subsequent generations, and promote the construction of a "New Narrative" about them, there is an important problem we must consider. Next, in the second section, I describe my research experiences and future subjects. We need to take account of our research posture in order to have a dialogue with them. Recalling research experiences and considering interactions with subjects are the same task, and it is important to describe and look carefully at them. Furthermore, I refer in this essay to the social significance and meaning of academic research.
著者
平野 邦輔
出版者
日本オーラル・ヒストリー学会
雑誌
日本オーラル・ヒストリー研究 (ISSN:18823033)
巻号頁・発行日
no.7, pp.89-109, 2011-09-10

本稿では、日系アメリカ人がマイノリティとしての自分達の立場を考えた際の「私達」という概念の包括性と境界について考察を行う。特に、全米日系アメリカ人市民協会(Japanese American Citizens League:JACL)の1994年からの同性婚に対する公的な賛成に至った論理展開に注目し、JACL会員、その他の日系人組織の活動家、そしてセクシャルマイノリティの日系人がマイノリティという言葉を考えた際、マイノリティとしての「私達」という概念が、他のカテゴリー集団をどう含むのか、とりわけセクシャルマイノリティの人々の問題をどのように「私達」の問題と考えているのかについて、新しい社会運動の視点から、2008年8月のフィールドトリップで得たインタビューデータとJACL機関紙であるPacific Citizen誌を主に使用し分析を行う。日系人集団におけるマイノリティがマジョリティに受け入れられようと働きかけるとき、マイノリティは既存の概念よりもより包括的な「私達」の概念の代替案を提示する言説戦略を用いて、パラダイムシフトを図る。つまり、周縁に置かれた者ほど、中心に含まれる人々をも含む包括的な「私達」の概念を使用し、中心の人間達の「私達」という概念に訴えかけ、今度は自分達が周縁に置かれないための代替案を提示してゆく。日系人組織内部では、人種・性的指向が、つまり純血/混血・異性愛者/その他の性的指向保持者、の2項対立が、それぞれ集団内部での中心-周縁構造を構成する要素として相互に作用し合っている。日系人集団においては混血であるよりも非異性愛者であるほうが、より周縁に置かれる構図が成立しており、「私達」の概念は、非異性愛者が提示する場合が最も包括的となる傾向がある。
著者
川崎 瑞穂
出版者
日本オーラル・ヒストリー学会
雑誌
日本オーラル・ヒストリー研究 (ISSN:18823033)
巻号頁・発行日
no.9, pp.107-123, 2013-09-11

In the Arakawa-Shiroku area (located in the City of Chichibu, Saitama Prefecture), there are old kagura (a Shinto-based folk performing arts particular to the location), called "Shinmeishakagura". Because of the lack of documentation, the understanding of kagura's history is difficult. Yadenji Hamanaka (one of the successors of this performance tradition) holds much knowledge of the traditional past. This paper will explain the traditions and shed light on some interesting aspects of kagura. Concerning the understanding of the successors, kagura is known to get its influences from kabuki, and many successors of kagura performance understood this. In the research of this paper, I clarify that kagura contains a very complicated background of influences. This result leads us to the conclusion that there is a stratified structure in the successors' understandings of their art.
著者
橋本 裕之
出版者
日本オーラル・ヒストリー学会
雑誌
日本オーラル・ヒストリー研究 (ISSN:18823033)
巻号頁・発行日
no.4, pp.19-33, 2008-10-11

The absolute confidence in the effective use of orality is the essence of the fieldwork in human sciences and social sciences. In other words, the questions and answers in the fieldwork constructs the major part. However, this seems to reflect the limits of orality also in the current conditions of fieldwork. I have in the past implemented a fieldwork in Ohashi of Matsudo city in Chiba prefecture about the dance of three lions (shishi) and experienced a very strange happening with the horns that adorn the head of the lion. With this report on the episode, I have been led to examine and provide the limits of the effective use of orality. I can present the key to the innovation of a cognitive model of the fieldwork that has been acknowledged as being dependent on orality. Actually the potential model is not dependent on the unnatural cognitive expansion based on the conversational dialogue model. What I mean is that not only the knowledge as in "knowing that," the knowledge as in "knowing how" is also considered as important. And finally, I provide the necessity of understanding the discourses presented by those who are involved in the context of the rehearsal process.
著者
酒井 アルベルト
出版者
日本オーラル・ヒストリー学会
雑誌
日本オーラル・ヒストリー研究 (ISSN:18823033)
巻号頁・発行日
no.4, pp.85-105, 2008-10-11

非行に走る子供たち、つまり13か14歳の子は正にそれだよ。迷っていてどうすればいいのか分かっていない。日本の学校では授業を理解できないし、宿題を手伝ってくれる人もいない。ブラジルに送られたら、向こうに適応できないから余計駄目になる。また日本に帰っても仕事がないから外でブラブラしている。何をすればいいの?もちろん泥棒ね。他に何もすることが出来ない! Rさん1990年代に始まった南米諸国から日本への労働者の動きにおいて、近年の滞在の長期化・定住化に伴い、深刻な問題の一つとして認識されているのは第2世代の言語教育である。「デカセギ」と呼ばれているこのコミュニティの大半はポルトガル語を公用語とするブラジル出身者、次いでペルー人をはじめとするスペイン語圏のラテンアメリカ出身者から構成されている。本稿は、筆者が行った調査をもとに、デカセギの定住化の傾向を母語に関わる言説から議論するものである。「ポルトガル語」や「スペイン語」が語りの中でどのようなシンボルとして、またどのような位置にあるのかを分析し、「母語を話す」行為の枠組みを読み解くことを試みる。そこで、いくつかのストーリーを分析し、その結果「疎外要素としての母語」と「コミュニティの統合要素としての母語」という対照的な語りが浮かび上がった。