著者
隠岐 さや香 OKI Sayaka
出版者
名古屋大学大学院人文学研究科附属超域文化社会センター
雑誌
JunCture : 超域的日本文化研究 (ISSN:18844766)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.18-32, 2019-03-25

Mr. Osomatsu (Osomatsu-san) is a Japanese anime comedy series (2015–2018) based on Akatsuka Fujio’s manga series, Osomatsu-kun (1962–1969). The anime features more adult-oriented humor compared to the original manga, as it follows the lives of the sextuplet Matsuno brothers, who have fully grown up into lazy NEETs. The anime series attracted young female audiences with its character designs and its comical but delicate portrait of the everyday relationships among the brothers. The purpose of this study is to examine and explain the queer elements apparent in this series, including its bromance and accompanying incestuous connotations, human/non-human romantic relationships, and polyamorist desire between the sextuplets and the heroine, Totoko. We can find similar elements in Akatsuka’s canon, which adopts a “nonsense gag manga” style marked by a fascination with the transgression of rules. However, it is clear these elements take on different meanings in Mr. Osomatsu, with its very satiric description of today’s neoliberal market society, which excludes the Matsuno brothers from any kind of stable social relationship except with their own family. We see these queer relationships are indeed forced options for them in place of a heteronormative romantic love out of the brothers’ reach, but at the same time they make us look at a certain strategy to challenge the neoliberal norm of masculinity, to be an economically independent man capable of living a heteronormative family life. In this regard, Akatsuka’s gag heritage almost merges with the act of queering, and allows us to look into the diversities and the difficulty of masculinity in today’s Japanese society.
著者
飯田 祐子 IIDA Yuko
出版者
名古屋大学大学院人文学研究科附属超域文化社会センター
雑誌
JunCture : 超域的日本文化研究 (ISSN:18844766)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.48-63, 2019-03-25

In this paper, I examine Murata Sayaka’s works with a special focus on the concept of “genderqueer.” Genderqueer is a term born from Transgender theory, which criticizes the gender binary norm. Murata wrote about transgender characters who try to transcend gender, as well as, cisgender women, who deviate from the gender norm in extreme ways. Murata created these people to show her intolerance of the gender binary system, and by doing that, her trials resonate with the concept of genderqueer. In Convenience Store Woman, Murata reveals that “normal” is constructed with the exclusion of the others. Part of her focus is on the family system that she considers to be the most repressive. It is the basis of society and strongly gendered. The protagonist Keiko Furukura escapes from gender norms by identifying herself as a part of a convenience store. Convenience Human, the identity Furukura creates, is an allegorical non-gendered existence. In Murata’s other works, she continues to invent alternative sexuality in order to free sexual desire from the gender system. For instance, she features several types of sex with things practiced by girls, and she extends this idea and describes with enthusiasm having sex with the Earth. Her ideas are in the same direction as post-human or non-human ontology. In her most recent work, Earthian, she seeks a way to survive as an alternative post-human creature. She describes the binary confrontation “normal/abnormal” as “Earthian/alien.” The protagonists survive as aliens in the repressively gendered society, the Earth. In this paper, I demonstrate the concrete gender queerness in order to criticize the binary gender system, through Murata’s works created with her explosive imagination.
著者
安田 敏朗 Yasuda Toshiaki
出版者
名古屋大学大学院文学研究科附属「アジアの中の日本文化」研究センター
雑誌
JunCture : 超域的日本文化研究 (ISSN:18844766)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, pp.56-69, 2015-03-27

After the Great Kanto Earthquake of September 1923, the massacre of Korean residents was carried out by common Japanese influenced by groundless rumors and practices of discrimination. It is estimated that thousands of Koreans were killed, but the correct number is still unidentified. In carrying out this massacre, Japanese residents devised methods to distinguish Korean people from the Japanese. Various methods have been recorded, such as to make people repeat the names of Japanese Emperors or sing the Japanese national anthem. In this article, I will focus on one method: to make someone pronounce “15 yen 50 sen (jyuugoen gojissen)” in Japanese. This method was said to show a pronunciation difference between Korean and Japanese languages, and that if someone was Korean, she/he would pronounce the phrase as “chuukoen kochussen”. This method may have been invented by daily contacts between Japanese and Korean people before the earthquake. After the earthquake, this method spread with the diffusion of the groundless rumors throughout the Kanto district. This “15 yen 50 sen” method was documented with the memories of the Korean massacre afterwards by historians and writers. Nowadays, we hear ignominious calls such as “Kill the Korean”. In such situations, it is important to inspect the process of how such methods to distinguish people were created, and how they spread.
著者
茂木 謙之介 MOTEGI Kennosuke
出版者
名古屋大学大学院人文学研究科附属「アジアの中の日本文化」研究センター
雑誌
JunCture : 超域的日本文化研究 (ISSN:18844766)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.118-130, 2018-03-23

The purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between literature and religion in Japan from the 1980s to the 2000s. That era was a time when the concept of religion and the concept of literature were being relativized. This paper analyzes the relationship in Genso-Bungaku a book review and research magazine. There has been no research on Genso-Bungaku so far, so this paper will also initiate research on this magazine. Through its analysis, three things became clear in this paper. Firstly, the writers who contributed to the magazine used religious codes as hints for making creations. They were using myths and animisms as unrealistic stories. In the same period, religions were spreading in Japanese society, and it seems that the writers were influenced by this. Secondly, the critics used religious codes as a theory for criticism. The magazine emphasized book reviews, frequently introducing religious books. Critics would present knowledge from religious studies in book reviews and articles. It seems that background lead to the epidemic of occultism since the 1970s. Finally, a number of religious scholars were involved in the magazine. Although they utilized their knowledge of religious studies to comprehend fantasy literature, as the religious concepts became relative, that attempt failed to thrive. The magazine stopped being published at the same time as this trend.
著者
大橋 崇行 OHASHI Takayuki
出版者
名古屋大学大学院人文学研究科附属超域文化社会センター
雑誌
JunCture : 超域的日本文化研究 (ISSN:18844766)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.34-47, 2019-03-25

Previous research on girls’ novels in modern Japan has focused on delicate and sentimental stories and novels portraying fraternal relationships among girls. In fact, especially in the novels published in Shōjo no Tomo, which is one of the quintessential girls’ magazines in the early Showa era, we can see many novels following this trend. However, the girls’ magazine Shōjo Club, published by Kōdansha, which gained more support from girls, had works that tended to be quite different from these novels. Actually, it is a group of works that include girl detective novels, historical novels, and adventure novels for girls. Also, it is necessary to point out that many detective novels were also published in Shōjo no Tomo. So, in this research, I will compare Makyō no ni Shōjo (Two Girls in the Demon, 1952–53) written by Saijō Yaso with such novels. This novel is notable because it was written as an adventure novel for boys which was originally titled Kotei no Daimajin (The Great Deity of the Lake Bottom, 1950), which was rewritten for girls. Therefore, by analyzing how this work was revised, it is possible to read what Saijō Yaso thought about what elements were necessary for girls’ novels. And in this study, I focus on how the mystery is positioned for girl readers. And, in an adventure novel whose main character is a girl detective, I conclude that the girls’ novel of Saijō Yaso was featured in bringing in fraternal relationships of girls as seen in girls’ novels. Through analyzing this work, I would like to confirm the diversity of entertainment novels for girls in Japan during the Showa period. At the same time, by considering differences from boys’ novels, I analyze the diversity of gender that was organized among girl readers.
著者
隠岐 さや香 OKI Sayaka
出版者
名古屋大学大学院人文学研究科附属超域文化社会センター
雑誌
JunCture : 超域的日本文化研究 (ISSN:18844766)
巻号頁・発行日
no.10, pp.18-32, 2019-03-25

Mr. Osomatsu (Osomatsu-san) is a Japanese anime comedy series (2015–2018) based on Akatsuka Fujio's manga series, Osomatsu-kun (1962–1969). The anime features more adult-oriented humor compared to the original manga, as it follows the lives of the sextuplet Matsuno brothers, who have fully grown up into lazy NEETs. The anime series attracted young female audiences with its character designs and its comical but delicate portrait of the everyday relationships among the brothers. The purpose of this study is to examine and explain the queer elements apparent in this series, including its bromance and accompanying incestuous connotations, human/non-human romantic relationships, and polyamorist desire between the sextuplets and the heroine, Totoko. We can find similar elements in Akatsuka's canon, which adopts a "nonsense gag manga" style marked by a fascination with the transgression of rules. However, it is clear these elements take on different meanings in Mr. Osomatsu, with its very satiric description of today's neoliberal market society, which excludes the Matsuno brothers from any kind of stable social relationship except with their own family. We see these queer relationships are indeed forced options for them in place of a heteronormative romantic love out of the brothers' reach, but at the same time they make us look at a certain strategy to challenge the neoliberal norm of masculinity, to be an economically independent man capable of living a heteronormative family life. In this regard, Akatsuka's gag heritage almost merges with the act of queering, and allows us to look into the diversities and the difficulty of masculinity in today's Japanese society.ファイル差し替え(2019/4/10).本稿はカルチュラル・タイフーン(東京藝術大学、2016年7月3日)での研究発表「アニメ『おそ松さん』にみるクィアネスとその社会・文化的文脈」の内容に加筆・修正したものである。
著者
加島 正浩 KASHIMA Masahiro
出版者
名古屋大学大学院人文学研究科附属超域文化社会センター
雑誌
JunCture : 超域的日本文化研究 (ISSN:18844766)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, pp.190-192, 2020-03-26

木村文洋監督作『息衝く』上映 日時:2019年10月3日(木), 会場:名古屋大学人文学研究科棟1階130号室
著者
木下 耕介 Kinoshita Kosuke
出版者
名古屋大学大学院文学研究科附属日本近現代文化研究センター
雑誌
Juncture : 超域的日本文化研究 (ISSN:18844766)
巻号頁・発行日
no.3, pp.140-153, 2012-03

In recent years, both in Hollywood cinema and Japanese cinema, we can find an interesting phenomenon in which a considerable number of narrative films has presented stories of two diegetic worlds intersecting with each other. For example, in Hollywood cinema, blockbuster franchises such as the Matrix series (1999-2003), Harry Potter series (1993-2010), and Avatar (2009) with no exception have constructed two diegetic worlds. Typically in these films, one is the world we occupy (our so-called "reality") and the other is usually a strange, fantastic world. In Japanese cinema, animation films such as Perfect Blue (1998) and Summer Wars (2009) also deal with this dual-diegesis narrative. Notably, this kind of dual-diegesis narrative is rather unusual, according to the norm of classical Hollywood cinema. For what reason have these films become popular both in United States and in Japan? This essay tries to answer this question, apprehending the dual-diegetic structure as a spatial metaphor for today's information society in which we have two lives: one dwelling in reality and the other in cyberspace. Cyberspace is a quite new concept for ordinary people, therefore we sometimes feel embarrassed, puzzled, or even uneasy and terrified in cyberspace. The dual-diegesis narratives we find onscreen are in a sense reflections of this sort of cultural experience we have. However, at the same time, from another point of view, dual-diegesis narratives can also be said to offer us a visual sketch, which I call a "folk mindscape," visually and spatially depicting a cognitive map of cyberspace with which we can comprehend our new cultural experience with a greater sense of security in our minds. Dual-diegesis narratives can also be understood as arguments or statements over the issue of embodiment/disembodiment. The pair of theoretical terms is now familiar in the discourse of posthumanism, the new theoretical trend which tries to question the definition of humanity, decentering the cultural position human beings have historically held and relocating it in a new context which includes concerns for state-of-the-art information technologies, animal rights and so on. In dual-diegesis narratives, the arguments over such theoretical issue take the shape of the protagonists' journey, in which he/she departs from (corpo-)reality and explores the virtuality, but finally comes back to reality, where he/she originally belongs. From the two standpoints mentioned above, this essay tries to interpret contemporary popular films as having something to do with our new cultural experience, which was brought on rather abruptly, when we were left unprepared, by the information technology revolution.
著者
水野 勝仁 Mizuno Masanori
出版者
名古屋大学大学院文学研究科附属日本近現代文化研究センター
雑誌
JunCture : 超域的日本文化研究 (ISSN:18844766)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2, pp.92-104, 2011-03-01

This article examines what the "plane" in Masaki Fujihata's works is. Although Fujihata is known as one of the most famous media artists, the work Unformed Symbols is not that well known--just an animation work which Fujihata started his artistic career from. In making this, and other works--i.e. the "sculpture," Forbidden Fruits and interactive art works like Beyond Pages--however, he discovered, for himself, the possibility of computer graphics, and, as I explore in this paper, came to tackle the problem of the plane with, for perhaps the first rime, the computer. I consider three of Fujihata's works in order to consider chis handling of the plane as it exists in his works. First, I compare the plane in Forbidden Fruits with Leo Steinberg's the flatbed picture plane. This consideration makes clear that the plane is no longer the privileged role for the image in a collection of data. Secondly, I make a comparison between the interactive work Beyond Pages and the Graphical User Interface in order to show that the plane in the computer, through both artwork and utilitarian feature, becomes too thin to grasp with our hands. Thirdly, I ponder why the animation Unformed Symbols overlaps the image with the real, showing that there is no difference between the plane and the solid in this "thin" world. Accordingly, I conclude that Fujihata may have created a new plane itself by creating a "thinness" which causes a "switchover between dimensions" to that of the plane. Incidentally, the architect Junya Ishigami 's Table, which has a very thin tabletop, shows some similarities to Fujihata's "thin" plane. And furthermore, in his architectural critique, Taro Igarashi refers to the tabletop of Table as Superflat. Thus, I finally point out that Fujihata's "thin" plane shares a homology with Superflat, which, as proposed by the artist Takashi Murakami and developed into the discussion about information by the philosopher Hiroki Azuma, has come to be fundamental concept for modern Japanese art, and also suggest this "switchover between dimensions."
著者
楊 韜 YANG Tao
出版者
名古屋大学大学院人文学研究科附属「アジアの中の日本文化」研究センター
雑誌
JunCture : 超域的日本文化研究 (ISSN:18844766)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.40-59, 2018-03-23

In the 1930’s of China, the so-called “Cartoon (漫画, Manhua)” was a very comprehensive concept, not only did it refer to “cartoon” and “comic”, but also “sketch” in the art field. For example, Ye qianyu (葉浅予, 1907–1995) successfully created the comic series Mr.Wang (王先生) and at the same time published two series of sketches, A Collection of Sketches by Qianyu (浅予速写集; 1936), and Sketches of Travels (旅行漫画; 1936). This thesis discusses the characteristics of this two series of sketches, by comparing these with another author’s sketches, and explores how Ye Qianyu established the art genre and concept of “Cartoon” in China.
著者
栗田 秀法 KURITA Hidenori
出版者
名古屋大学大学院人文学研究科附属「アジアの中の日本文化」研究センター
雑誌
JunCture : 超域的日本文化研究 (ISSN:18844766)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.170-173, 2018-03-23

町田市立国際版画美術館 2017年4月22日–6月18日, 横尾忠則現代美術館 2017年9月9日-2018年2月4日(10月12日–11月17日 臨時休館)
著者
鄒 韻 ZOU Yun
出版者
名古屋大学大学院人文学研究科附属「アジアの中の日本文化」研究センター
雑誌
JunCture : 超域的日本文化研究 (ISSN:18844766)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.74-87, 2018-03-23

This paper discusses discourses regarding lesbianism in the Taisho period and proposes a new position where the borderline within the dichotomous structure of female heterosexuality / homosexuality does not only involve sexuality but is also entangled with gender, identity, and body image. In the 1910s, sexology became more prevalent in Japanese discourse. Psychopathia Sexualis, written by Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing, is the foundation of sexology in Japan. Sawada Junjiro and Habuto Eiji wrote Hentai seiyokuron (Sexual Pervsion Theory) based on Krafft-Ebing’s book and emphasized that female homosexuals were more mentally oriented and more gender transgressive. Thus, female homosexual discourse diverged from an essentialist understanding of sexuality and created its own discursive space, connecting female homosexuality with the image of masculine women. The “same-sex love” scandal took place in 1920 when sexuality became a more popular topic. In the reporting of this news, we can see how the schema in which homosexual women being equated with masculine women had already been confirmed by the media under the influence of sexology. Homosexuality no longer described homosexual actions, but homosexual persons, and was also connected with their personalities. On the other hand, the intimate relationships among young female students converged from “ome” (written as “men and women” or “manly woman”) to “S,” which means sisterhood, due to the influence of sexology. Yoshiya Nobuko’s Hanamonogatari (Flower Tales) series is a representative work of the Taisho period about the pseudo-love story between shojos. Shirayuri is a story that closely resembles the “same-sex love” scandal. The representation of “S” in this story is told from the perspective of female eroticism, even though the characters are feminine and are enclosed in the gender role of “good wife, wise mother.” The romantic friendship of young female students did not produce a narrative of homosexuality but played the role of provoking romanticism and sentimental emotions. Thus, in the Taisho period, intimate relationships among young female students are divided into two directions: pathological female homosexuality and feminine romantic friendship.
著者
岡 英里奈 Oka Erina
出版者
名古屋大学大学院文学研究科附属「アジアの中の日本文化」研究センター
雑誌
JunCture : 超域的日本文化研究 (ISSN:18844766)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, pp.118-129, 2015-03-27

Shimazaki Toson’s novel Yoakemae tells the story of the Meiji Restoration in Magomejuku – a post station of the Nakasen-do Road in the Edo Period. Toson wrote the novel by referring to many historical records, and Shimazaki Masaki’s Arinomama is one of those records. Arinomama is the autobiography of Shimazaki Masaki, who is Toson’s father and the model for Aoyama Hanzo, Yoakemae’s hero. Toson made Hanzo’s history based on Arinomama, but he often interweaved truth and fiction, especially the scene of Hanzo’s Otaki-Sanrou (praying to Gogoku-Jinja in Otaki, Ontakesan). This article makes a comparison between Yoakemae and Arinomama and examines how Yoakemae narrates the history of Hanzo/Masaki. While Masaki’s Otaki-Sanrou in Arinomama is for the healing of Masaki’s father, Hanzo’s Otaki-Sanrou in Yoakemae tells another meaning, that of finding his way as “Hirata-Monjin” (a disciple of Hirata Atsutane’ Koku-gaku). In this paper, I view this difference as the problem of modernization in Yoakemae’s narrative history and argue that the problem is in the representation of modern novels. Yoakemae describes Hanzo as a modern individual by changing the meaning of Otaki-Sanrou and drawing Otaki as another potos. In the point of representation, Modernism of Yoakemae’s narrative clearly exists.
著者
溝渕 久美子 MIZOBUCHI Kumiko
出版者
名古屋大学大学院文学研究科附属「アジアの中の日本文化」研究センター
雑誌
JunCture : 超域的日本文化研究 (ISSN:18844766)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, pp.80-91, 2014-03-28

This paper focuses on the National Cinema Screenplay Prize, and discusses a screenplay contest that was held in wartime Japan. From 1914 to 1944, the National Cinema Screenplay Contest, sponsored by Department of the Interior and the Japan Film Society, was held with the intention of generating national cinema. The Japanese government tried to collect screenplays written by the people suitable for this new genre. At the 1st contest, people with various backgrounds (in terms of class, gender, employment, and residence) submitted 209 works. Kurosawa Akira's work received the Johokyoku-Sho (second place) and Shindo Kaneto's work earned honorable mention. Most studies mentioning this contest focus only on Kurosawa and Shindo from the viewpoint of their career during wartime; they ignore Koito Nobu and her work Hahakogusa (Jersey Cudweed), even though that was the only work adopted to film by Tasaka Tomotaka after the contest. In this paper, I will focus on Koito Nobu and Hahakogusa in order to examine the complexity of contests held in wartime Japan. The National Cinema Screenplay Prize was based on the national film policy, designed to generate national cinema. Hahakogusa, on the other hand, was a melodrama that depicted the relationship between a mother and her step children, which does not seem to fit the typical image of national cinema at the contest. Considering her career, her favorite novels, and her previous works, it is likely that Koito simply wrote a story that she wanted to write rather than what organizers. This contest was a part of the wartime mobilization efforts by the government, and therefore, Hahakogusa and Koito were used to fit that purpose. The movie Hahakogusa was highly praised as an example of national cinema, and Koito was treated as a female icon that contributed to wartime society.
著者
日比 嘉高 HIBI Yoshitaka
出版者
名古屋大学大学院人文学研究科附属超域文化社会センター
雑誌
JunCture : 超域的日本文化研究 (ISSN:18844766)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, pp.186-189, 2020-03-26

あいちトリエンナーレ2019は、愛知芸術文化センター、名古屋市美術館、四間道・円頓寺、豊田市美術館・豊田市駅周辺において、2019年8月1日から10月14日まで開催された。
著者
大木 龍之介 OOKI Ryunosuke
出版者
名古屋大学大学院文学研究科附属「アジアの中の日本文化」研究センター
雑誌
Juncture : 超域的日本文化研究 (ISSN:18844766)
巻号頁・発行日
no.8, pp.194-208, 2017-03

In the field of shojo manga studies, feminist theorists favor the subgenres of "shojo fight," "shojo science fiction" and "boy's love" when demonstrating the gender diversity and indefinability in shojo manga. In doing so, they tend to stigmatize the subgenre called "otome chic," which depicts the daily lives and romances of teenage girls, as reinforcing heterosexism and heterosexual kinship. However, "otome chic" magazines, which are targeted at elementary and junior high school girls, feature many shojo manga that resist and subvert gender stereotypes, heteronormativity, and patriarchy. While critics dismiss the shojo manga magazine Hana to Yume as mere "otome chic," some of the series it publishes performatively subvert gender, heterosexism, and kinship, and radically proliferate gender parodies from the inside to the outside of shojo manga through their commercial repetitions. The magazine features a lot of gender-bending manga, most of which were met with commercial success, especially Hanazakari no Kimitachi e by Nakajo Hisaya, as well as manga like Akachan to Boku, which troubles the kinship norm; Newyork Newyork, which depicts a gay couple's situation; and Oresama Teacher, which parodies gender norms. Moreover, Tsubaki Izumi, the author of Oresama Teacher, serializes her manga Gekkan Shojo Nozaki-kun in Gangan Online, an online version of boy's manga magazine Gangan published by Square Enix, expanding her "otome chic" style outside the field of shojo manga. An animated version was produced based on Gekkan Shojo Nozakikun in 2014, which became a major hit. Because their manga repeatedly deconstructs gender normative privilege and displaces the gendered signifier from its signified through their discursive practices, it can be said that Hana to Yume crosses the border of gender itself. In this article, I show that a friction exists between the shojo manga, which are favored by "shojo manga studies," and "otome chic" manga such as Hana to Yume. Afterward, I illustrate how the shojo manga in Hana to Yume succeed in crossing the border of gender stereotypes in and out of the field of shojo manga by analyzing Akachan to Boku, Newyork Newyork, Oresama Teacher, and Gekkan Shojo Nokaki-kun.