著者
鈴木 円 Madoka SUZUKI 昭和女子大学初等教育学科
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.892, pp.83-95, 2015-02-01

The term Spartan education, translated into Japanese as "Suparuta kyoiku" is widely used nowadays to mean "severe education." This paper reviews 12 Japanese books or articles on Spartan education published from the 1870s to the 1970s and examines how the authors have understood Spartan education and in what context they have used the term. The above materials, published from the early Meiji to post-war period, suggest that Japanese learned about the education system of ancient Sparta from Western academic sources. However, after the influential bestseller, Shintaro Ishihara's Suparuta Kyoiku(Spartan Education; A book for raising tough kids), was published, leading Japanese educators seem to have begun using the term "Suparuta kyoiku" to mean Japanese militaristic education. Historically, Western classical scholars have acknowledged the value of Spartan public education in contrast to Athenian individualistic education. However, Japanese educators seem to have failed to understand the value of Spartan education because of the change in the understanding of the term "Suparuta kyoiku." The author concludes that educators ought to have used that term with that original sense in mind.
著者
堀内 正昭 HORIUCHI Masaaki
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.873, pp.32-42, 2013-07-01

During the First Sino-Japanese War in 1894 it became necessary to construct a Provisional Makeshift Imperial Diet Building in Hiroshima. The building was completed that year in only 20 days, with the Diet assembling there the day after it was finished. It was demolished in 1898. The person in charge of the design and construction was Yorinaka Tsumaki(1859-1916). In this paper the author focuses on the method adopted in constructing the roof truss of its assembly hall, which had the largest roof, and analyzes various extant materials such as Tsumaki's transcribed lecture on how it was built, its plans, and diagrams from historical documents. Based on this research, the author has attempted to restore the truss. The roof truss of the building was not simply based on the standard roof truss technique though the techniques of queen post truss and German roof frame were applied. The time this building was built was a transition period when Japanese carpenters were not familiar with western roof truss technique, and Tsumaki needed to employ methods with which local carpenters would be comfortable. The author concludes that this roof truss is an interesting instance of the gradual diffusion of Western building techniques into Japan.
著者
井原 奉明 Ihara Tomoaki 昭和女子大学英語コミュニケーション学科
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.858, pp.86-98, 2012-04-01

AbstractThis thesis aims at clarifying the concept of Mono in Japanese, following the previous studies conducted by the same author. He takes up the newly publicized idea of Mono by NAKANISHI Susumu, that Mono is considered equivalent with mana, a proto-religious concept widely prevalent in the indigenous faith system around the South Pacific region. He expounds NAKANISHI's idea with the additional comments on the concept of mana and the related studies, and makes clear the explanatory inadequacy of the Mono=mana theory. He then introduces the phenomenological conception on space with the notion of omote(front)and ura(back)to make up for the defect of the former studies and constitute a totally consistent theory.
著者
ボルジギン フスレ(呼斯勒)
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.864, pp.38-55, 2012-10-01
著者
稲川 照芳 昭和女子大学現代教養学科
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.874, pp.1-22, 2013-08-01
著者
富本 靖 Tomimoto Yasushi
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.872, pp.14-26, 2013-06-01

The author reviews the history and the status quo of European and American physical education and explains that Japanese modern physical education has its origin in Herbert Spencer's Education; Intellectual, Moral, and Physical(1860). The author also discusses several problems in Japanese physical education that contradict the stated goals of the program, and explores measures teachers should take to resolve these contradictions. The problems are as follows. First, children have very few opportunities to learn the rules and histories of sports, though schools introduce a variety of sports into their curriculums. They put too much emphasis on moving the body. Second, since physical education is driven by competitive, results-oriented curriculums in which children do not have many chances to receive individualized instruction that matches each child's ability, physically less able children fall behind and give up, and therefore they are alienated from their teammates. This is not conducive to building team spirit. There have been attempts to address this by deemphasizing rankings and prizes, but this can nullify feelings of achievement. The author concludes that European and American styles of physical education which allow children more freedom to enjoy sports are more effective for nourishing children's all-round personality, and also strongly suggests that adopting "sport pedagogy," a comprehensive science born in recent years, will solve these problems.

1 0 0 0 学苑

著者
昭和女子大学近代文化研究所
出版者
光葉会
巻号頁・発行日
no.578, 1988-02
著者
杉橋 朝子 セージ クリスティー 宮房 寿美子 Tomoko Sugihashi Kristie Sage Sumiko Miyafusa 昭和女子大学英語コミュニケーション学科 昭和女子大学英語コミュニケーション学科 昭和女子大学英語コミュニケーション学科
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.881, pp.29-45, 2014-03-01

This paper investigates a five-week study abroad and homestay program undergone by Showa Women's University(SWU)students from various faculties and years in early 2013 at the Institute of Continuing TESOL Education, University of Queensland(ICTE-UQ), Australia. Prompted by OECD results which showed a trend that Japanese students' interest in study abroad programs is decreasing; research sought to identify from the students who participated in this program their perceived language skill improvement and language contact experiences. Feedback was sourced from a questionnaire administered by Google Forms and student reports submitted to the Centre for International Exchange(CIE). Despite an initial culture shock, and concerns with English proficiency, students developed strategies and drew on unfamiliar support systems to overcome communication issues in their multicultural learning and living environments. From this immersion, positive feedback was received regarding perceived language skill improvement, particularly for listening and speaking. Although questionnaire results do show some dissatisfaction, mainly regarding the population of Japanese students at the language school; overall, these multicultural learning and living environments had a positive effect on students' perceived English language improvement and enhanced their motivation towards communicating in English. These results indicate that short term study abroad is considered beneficial by SWU students for language skill improvement and language contact experiences. Furthermore, this paper argues that such benefits are noteworthy for SWU students in the larger context of Japanese society since English communication strategies will be required for future international events, and due to the recent revitalization of study abroad as part of Japanese education by the Abe Government. Related also is SWU's focus on globalization. Therefore, SWU students who undertake study abroad are expected to have a positive experience in regards to a heightened perception of improved language skills and language contact proficiency, coupled with an international capability.
著者
石井 正子 中村 徳子 Ishii Masako Nakamura Noriko 昭和女子大学初等教育学科 昭和女子大学初等教育学科
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.860, pp.82-97, 2012-06-01

Abstract In this paper, we review the literature regarding the education of autistic children, summarize information obtained from an inspection of educational facilities for autistic children in the United States, and point out possible problems in the treatment of autistic children. Various educational programs for autistic children, including ABA(Applied Behavior Analysis), TEACCH(Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication handicapped Children), and DIR(The Developmental, Individual Difference, Relationship-Based model), were developed in America, and that they are effective has been confirmed. For children aged 3-21 with disabilities, the federal government provides appropriate public education free of charge, as is guaranteed in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. However, parents of autistic children are required to have specialized knowledge about their child's disabilities and rehabilitation, and to have the ability to effectively take advantage of social resources. We also consider the question of whether too much emphasis is placed on educational programs tailored to individual students at the expense of the possible beneficial effects of mass education.