著者
鈴木 円 Madoka SUZUKI 昭和女子大学初等教育学科
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.892, pp.83-95, 2015-02-01

The term Spartan education, translated into Japanese as "Suparuta kyoiku" is widely used nowadays to mean "severe education." This paper reviews 12 Japanese books or articles on Spartan education published from the 1870s to the 1970s and examines how the authors have understood Spartan education and in what context they have used the term. The above materials, published from the early Meiji to post-war period, suggest that Japanese learned about the education system of ancient Sparta from Western academic sources. However, after the influential bestseller, Shintaro Ishihara's Suparuta Kyoiku(Spartan Education; A book for raising tough kids), was published, leading Japanese educators seem to have begun using the term "Suparuta kyoiku" to mean Japanese militaristic education. Historically, Western classical scholars have acknowledged the value of Spartan public education in contrast to Athenian individualistic education. However, Japanese educators seem to have failed to understand the value of Spartan education because of the change in the understanding of the term "Suparuta kyoiku." The author concludes that educators ought to have used that term with that original sense in mind.
著者
熊澤 幸子
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
学苑 (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
no.877, pp.18-24, 2013-11
被引用文献数
1
著者
堀内 正昭 HORIUCHI Masaaki
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.873, pp.32-42, 2013-07-01

During the First Sino-Japanese War in 1894 it became necessary to construct a Provisional Makeshift Imperial Diet Building in Hiroshima. The building was completed that year in only 20 days, with the Diet assembling there the day after it was finished. It was demolished in 1898. The person in charge of the design and construction was Yorinaka Tsumaki(1859-1916). In this paper the author focuses on the method adopted in constructing the roof truss of its assembly hall, which had the largest roof, and analyzes various extant materials such as Tsumaki's transcribed lecture on how it was built, its plans, and diagrams from historical documents. Based on this research, the author has attempted to restore the truss. The roof truss of the building was not simply based on the standard roof truss technique though the techniques of queen post truss and German roof frame were applied. The time this building was built was a transition period when Japanese carpenters were not familiar with western roof truss technique, and Tsumaki needed to employ methods with which local carpenters would be comfortable. The author concludes that this roof truss is an interesting instance of the gradual diffusion of Western building techniques into Japan.
著者
関口 靜雄 岡本 夏奈 阿部 美香
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
学苑 (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
no.905, pp.82-93, 2016-03
著者
ボルジギン フスレ
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
学苑 (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
no.864, pp.38-55, 2012-10
著者
井原 奉明 Ihara Tomoaki
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
学苑 (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
no.870, pp.83-94, 2013-04

Abstract It is the author's present design to determine, by an exhaustive analysis of the existing findings and evidence, how the conception of mono is understood and applied around the Jodai era. This study is the first step toward the primary research of the cosmology of the concept. Such a task pertains to linguistics, philosophy and other related academic fields. The author begins with a critical inquiry into Ms. Hasegawa's study of mono. For more integrated explication, he hypothesizes it derives from the idea of mana of the Pacific region. The adequacy was illustrated by an extensive clarification of how the concept acquires a variety of meanings and captures spatially-directed significances as a null symbol within the phenomenological "lived" space of subjectivity.
著者
井原 奉明 Ihara Tomoaki 昭和女子大学英語コミュニケーション学科
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.858, pp.86-98, 2012-04-01

AbstractThis thesis aims at clarifying the concept of Mono in Japanese, following the previous studies conducted by the same author. He takes up the newly publicized idea of Mono by NAKANISHI Susumu, that Mono is considered equivalent with mana, a proto-religious concept widely prevalent in the indigenous faith system around the South Pacific region. He expounds NAKANISHI's idea with the additional comments on the concept of mana and the related studies, and makes clear the explanatory inadequacy of the Mono=mana theory. He then introduces the phenomenological conception on space with the notion of omote(front)and ura(back)to make up for the defect of the former studies and constitute a totally consistent theory.
著者
関口 靜雄 岡本 夏奈 阿部 美香
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
学苑 (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
no.900, pp.60-69, 2015-10
著者
稲川 照芳 昭和女子大学現代教養学科
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.874, pp.1-22, 2013-08-01

1 0 0 0 IR 英語と私

著者
小野 茂
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
学苑 (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
no.874, pp.64-71, 2013-08
著者
早川 陽 Yo Hayakawa
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
学苑 (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
no.896, pp.2-18, 2015-06

In the field of Japanese art education, the pigments employed in traditional Japanese paintings are rarely used, though using them in an educational context could be very valuable in imparting an understanding of Bijutsu Bunka(art culture)currently required in curriculum guidelines. In an attempt to explore how they can be adopted in today's art education, this paper explores two Japanese traditional painting technique books from the Taisho Period and highlights the common characteristics of the pigments described in the books and compares them with pigments that have survived from those times, or have been more recently developed for use in traditional-style paintings. The origins of various Japanese pigments are organized in such a way that they can be used as educational material. In order to provide background for this research, the first chapter considers how Japanese traditional paintings are created, displayed and enjoyed today. Also the significance of Bijutsu Bunka, which was newly specified in curriculum guidelines, is discussed. The second chapter, focusing on the refinement and elutriation of pigments used in Japanese traditional paintings, categorizes and organizes the features of the pigments used. The third chapter refers to the above two books and considers the changes made since then in the types of the pigment. The final chapter summarizes the characteristics of the pigments and gives a general view of how they were traditionally used and concludes that the pigments, many of which have been refined by elutriation, can be utilized effectively in the field of art education today. The author believes that intercourse between the past and present, and understanding and appreciating traditional art, offer new possibilities in the future of art education.
著者
岸山 睦
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
学苑 (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
no.853, pp.1-10, 2011-11
著者
大倉 比呂志
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
学苑 (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
no.900, pp.2-9, 2015-10

1 0 0 0 IR 文学の役割

著者
中村 豪
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
学苑 (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
no.888, pp.24-31, 2014-10
著者
富本 靖 Tomimoto Yasushi
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.872, pp.14-26, 2013-06-01

The author reviews the history and the status quo of European and American physical education and explains that Japanese modern physical education has its origin in Herbert Spencer's Education; Intellectual, Moral, and Physical(1860). The author also discusses several problems in Japanese physical education that contradict the stated goals of the program, and explores measures teachers should take to resolve these contradictions. The problems are as follows. First, children have very few opportunities to learn the rules and histories of sports, though schools introduce a variety of sports into their curriculums. They put too much emphasis on moving the body. Second, since physical education is driven by competitive, results-oriented curriculums in which children do not have many chances to receive individualized instruction that matches each child's ability, physically less able children fall behind and give up, and therefore they are alienated from their teammates. This is not conducive to building team spirit. There have been attempts to address this by deemphasizing rankings and prizes, but this can nullify feelings of achievement. The author concludes that European and American styles of physical education which allow children more freedom to enjoy sports are more effective for nourishing children's all-round personality, and also strongly suggests that adopting "sport pedagogy," a comprehensive science born in recent years, will solve these problems.