著者
鈴木 円 Madoka SUZUKI 昭和女子大学初等教育学科
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.892, pp.83-95, 2015-02-01

The term Spartan education, translated into Japanese as "Suparuta kyoiku" is widely used nowadays to mean "severe education." This paper reviews 12 Japanese books or articles on Spartan education published from the 1870s to the 1970s and examines how the authors have understood Spartan education and in what context they have used the term. The above materials, published from the early Meiji to post-war period, suggest that Japanese learned about the education system of ancient Sparta from Western academic sources. However, after the influential bestseller, Shintaro Ishihara's Suparuta Kyoiku(Spartan Education; A book for raising tough kids), was published, leading Japanese educators seem to have begun using the term "Suparuta kyoiku" to mean Japanese militaristic education. Historically, Western classical scholars have acknowledged the value of Spartan public education in contrast to Athenian individualistic education. However, Japanese educators seem to have failed to understand the value of Spartan education because of the change in the understanding of the term "Suparuta kyoiku." The author concludes that educators ought to have used that term with that original sense in mind.
著者
大倉 比呂志
出版者
昭和女子大学
雑誌
學苑 (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.828, pp.2-10, 2009-10-01
著者
西脇 和彦
出版者
昭和女子大学
雑誌
學苑 (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.766, pp.135-144, 2004-07-01

There are diverse materials for cultural sociology, modernology, and life history; photos, songs, interviews, news items, diarys and so on. In this paper, I choose 7 comics each representing a particular period. For example, "3-chome no Yuuhi" (by Ryouhei SAIGAN) from 'Pre-High' growth period, "Apron-obasan" & "Sazae-san" (by Machiko HASEGAWA) from 'High' growth period, "Chibimaruko-chan" (by Momoko SAKURA) from 'Low' growth period, "Tampopo-san no Uta" (by Ryouhei SAIGAN) from 'Bubble' (financial euphoria) period, and "Tonarino Yamada-kun" (by Hisaichi ISHII) & "ATASHIn'CHI" (by Eiko KERA) from 'Heisei Depression' period. They mainly depict the daily life of each period and often reflect events, episodes, well-known persons and consumer's durables of those days. So, we can see popular styles of living in each period through them. That is why comics of daily life are excellent social data. This is also an essay on cultural study using comics of daily life.
著者
高野 恵美子 Takano Emiko
出版者
昭和女子大学近代文化研究所
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.846, pp.28-39, 2011-04-01

Abstract As B.L.Whorf(1956)pointed out, each language has "fashions of speaking," Japanese speakers tend to like subjective construal, while English speakers tend to like objective construal. This paper explores how differences between English and Japanese construal affect the usage of motion verbs COME and GO in both languages. Analyzing English and Japanese COME and GO, we learned that Japanese speakers usually take the speaker's viewpoint. Thus, in Japanese, when the motion is directed towards the speaker as the goal, the verb COME(kuru)is used, and when the motion is directed away from the speaker's location, the verb GO(iku)is used. In English, however, a speaker often shifts his/her viewpoint to the hearer and takes the hearer's viewpoint perhaps because of empathy and respect for the hearer. We concluded that Japanese is a speaker-centered monologue-type language, while English is a hearer-centered dialogue-type language.
著者
番場 美恵子
出版者
昭和女子大学近代文化研究所
雑誌
学苑 = Gakuen (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
no.909, pp.37-51, 2016-07-01

Gakudo-hoiku-shisetsu(after-school childcare facility, the whole system is also called gakudo)provide after-school day-care of elementary school age children whose parents are both working, and of children of single parents. Some local governments provide after-school child-care services for all elementary school age students and in some cases gakudo is included in the services. Yokohama city provides the above services separately, using classrooms of elementary schools for the general student population, while using private houses, apartments and other facilities for the gakudo children. For the purpose of finding out(1)the effect of locating gakudo outside of schools while other students’ after-school activities take place inside schools, and(2)environmental problems related to gakudo, the author surveyed 9 gakudo facilities in K-ward, Yokohama city. The staff responded to a questionnaire and inquiries. Analysis of the results shows that having gakudo in smaller venues and with smaller numbers of children enables better communication and increased comfort; that for the children, moving to the facility after school brings about a positive change; and that locating gakudo outside of schools helps ensure that local buildings are fully utilized. But the interior and exterior environment of many of these off-site facilities remain inadequate. The change to the system that may be most urgently needed is to find better off-site venues. This is where the administration could intervene most effectively.
著者
フフバートル Huhbator BORJIGIN
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.820, pp.59-72, 2009-02-01

Putonghua is legally established as the name of the "national common language" in China at present. However, in Chinese speaking areas, discussions on the proper name of China's "national language" are endless. There are many names in use among ordinary Chinese; three of them are "Putonghua," "Guoyu" and "Huayu." "Putonguhua" is in use in the Chinese mainland, "Guoyu" had been used in Taiwan until recent years, and "Huayu" has been used in many areas and countries including Taiwan in recent years. In China it is generally believed that these names are not exclusive of each other but that they supplement each other and that these names will be used together on a long-term basis. However, due to the inconvenience of China's national language having multiple names, scholars in the Chinese speaking regions offer different theories and views supporting one of the other of the names, most often Huayu and Guoyu. Use of "Putonghua" as the common language is one of the important language policies in modern China and closely related to policies regarding languages of minority nationalities. However, discussions of the name "Putonghua," which are also related to China's national common language do not take into account the viewpoints of those who speak minority languages. The name "Hanyu" is often used as a substitute for "Putonghua" or a term for interpreting the origins of "Guoyu" or "Huayu." However, when viewed from the standpoint of minority languages, "Hanyu" is the most acceptable language name because it means "one language." It is natural according to the theory of the language name configuration.
著者
熊澤 幸子
出版者
昭和女子大学
雑誌
學苑 (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.877, pp.18-24, 2013-11-01
被引用文献数
1
著者
若林 功/八重田 淳 八重田 淳
出版者
昭和女子大学
雑誌
學苑 (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.904, pp.68-78, 2016-02-01

The importance of support in the workplace for persons with disabilities to adjust to working life has long been recognized in the literature. However, the effects of workplace support on the work adjustment of persons with disabilities have not been well documented. This paper examines whether workplace support is related to job satisfaction, performance (as evaluated by employers), organizational commitment, workplace integration, and their intention to quit their jobs. A survey of people with intellectual disabilities was conducted, and 169 answers were collected. The results of analysis of the survey are as follows: (a) workplace support consists of three factors: education, negative feedback, and supports for work performance, (b) moderate correlation was found between education and job satisfaction, (c) moderate correlation was found between organizational commitment and job satisfaction, and between workplace integration and job satisfaction; a moderate negative correlation was found between intention to quit job and job satisfaction, (d) only a weak negative correlation was found between intention to quit job and workplace support.The importance of support in the workplace for persons with disabilities to adjust to working life has long been recognized in the literature. However, the effects of workplace support on the work adjustment of persons with disabilities have not been well documented. This paper examines whether workplace support is related to job satisfaction, performance (as evaluated by employers), organizational commitment, workplace integration, and their intention to quit their jobs. A survey of people with intellectual disabilities was conducted, and 169 answers were collected. The results of analysis of the survey are as follows: (a) workplace support consists of three factors: education, negative feedback, and supports for work performance, (b) moderate correlation was found between education and job satisfaction, (c) moderate correlation was found between organizational commitment and job satisfaction, and between workplace integration and job satisfaction; a moderate negative correlation was found between intention to quit job and job satisfaction, (d) only a weak negative correlation was found between intention to quit job and workplace support.
著者
秋山 久美子 Kumiko AKIYAMA
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.902, pp.34-45, 2015-12-01

Pidan is a type of food produced by coagulation through alkaline denaturation, of the protein contained in eggs. Pidan is prepared according to traditional methods that are often unclear. Lead monoxide and copper sulfate are often used, as they were purported to promote coagulation of the egg. The current Food Sanitation Act in Japan forbids the use of chemicals that include heavy metals such as lead monoxide in the pidan preparation process. The lead content standard for pidan imported from China is 0.5 mg or less per 1 kg. In 2013, however, problems arose in China with pidan made using copper sulfate. For food safety reasons, it is desirable to make and distribute pidan within Japan. In this study, we located methods of preparing pidan in the literature, summarized them, and compared the methods. A literature search on methods of pidan preparation revealed 13 studies on coating methods, 11 on immersion methods, and 6 on mixed methods. Examination of these methods revealed that the materials used as the alkaline agent in the coating method were sodium carbonate, lime(including quicklime and lime hydrate), and plant ash. Salt was added to all coating agents. Some methods used black tea. In the immersion method, highly alkaline sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate were used as well as quicklime. Few used plant ash. Some methods added black tea leaves. In the mixed method, highly alkaline chemicals were used to coagulate the egg, similar to the immersion method, and the egg was then coated with an alkaline agent and allowed to age. We then selected one method each from among the coating and immersion methods discussed in the literature and used them to prepare pidan using chicken and quail eggs. The immersion method was easier and had a higher success rate than the coating method. In particular, immersing quail eggs for 10 days and then coating them in paraffin for 52 days sometimes resulted in "Shokatan" eggs, which have white pine needle-shaped crystals on the egg white.
著者
中土 純子
出版者
昭和女子大学近代文化研究所
雑誌
学苑 = Gakuen (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
no.916, pp.82-91, 2017-02-01

The System for Self-Support of Needy Person was established in 2000 as a second safety net, with the aim of building up a comprehensive support system that would enable poor people to attain independence and dignity. This paper traces the history of how that system was adopted, and discusses how it is related to the Public Assistance Act. The paper also looks at how the system actually works, and points out the problems it has. The author argues that customized services designed by educated and experienced professional social workers are one of the keys to the success of this system.
著者
醍醐 身奈 押谷 由夫 Daigo Mina Oshitani Yoshio
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.848, pp.24-41, 2011-06-01

Abstract This study considers the relationship between the government mandated yutori curriculum(education which aims at developing individual talent rather than learning by rote)and moral education, which is the basis of the curriculum. In addition, the authors propose some changes in the system of high school moral education. First, the authors point out that moral education played a key role in promoting zest for life among elementary and junior high school students. Second, we point out that establishing their identity is of great importance for high school students, as Eduard Spranger's "Conscience education" suggests. The state of children who have been taught under the yutori curriculum further suggest that high school students need moral education. Erik Erikson's Identity formation theory and Abraham Maslow's desire development theory lend further support. We conclude that high school students, like elementary school students, need overall moral education based on various activities that stress the relationship between students' own experiences and morality.