著者
堀内 正昭 HORIUCHI Masaaki
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.873, pp.32-42, 2013-07-01

During the First Sino-Japanese War in 1894 it became necessary to construct a Provisional Makeshift Imperial Diet Building in Hiroshima. The building was completed that year in only 20 days, with the Diet assembling there the day after it was finished. It was demolished in 1898. The person in charge of the design and construction was Yorinaka Tsumaki(1859-1916). In this paper the author focuses on the method adopted in constructing the roof truss of its assembly hall, which had the largest roof, and analyzes various extant materials such as Tsumaki's transcribed lecture on how it was built, its plans, and diagrams from historical documents. Based on this research, the author has attempted to restore the truss. The roof truss of the building was not simply based on the standard roof truss technique though the techniques of queen post truss and German roof frame were applied. The time this building was built was a transition period when Japanese carpenters were not familiar with western roof truss technique, and Tsumaki needed to employ methods with which local carpenters would be comfortable. The author concludes that this roof truss is an interesting instance of the gradual diffusion of Western building techniques into Japan.
著者
堀内 正昭
出版者
昭和女子大学
雑誌
學苑 (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.887, pp.1-26, 2014-09-01

Abstract The construction of this two-storied house ultimately owned by Mr. Matsui started around September, 1937 and was completed around February the following year. It had a Western-style room of mortar finish on the side of the entrance door, and the outer wall of the house was clapboarded with traditional bead battens. Such semi-Western houses were common in Setagaya Ward which had developed as a suburban residential area in early Showa period. Interviews with the owner of the house and research into this residence revealed that only the kitchen had been extended over 2 times. The kitchen initially occupied a wooden floor of 1 tsubo(3.3m2). The first extension of the kitchen had been done when the Matsui family moved in, and the new owner extended it to the north side. The arrangement of an 8-mat Japanese-style room on the first floor with Zashikikazari(a set of decorative features such as alcove, staggered wall shelves, built-in desk), the other 8-mat room with an alcove on the second floor, and a drawing room equipped fully with Western-style finishes on the first floor shows that in planning the house the ability to entertain visitors was important. Also the fact that there is no through pillar on the four corners of the second floor supports the conclusion that priority was given to creating a room suitable for entertaining. When the house was built, this area was called "navy village" since many families of naval personnel owned residences there. In most cases the houses were Western-style, one-storied, with exterior walls finished with sidings. Among such low rows of houses, the two-storied Matsui house must have been conspicuous. In the neighborhood of the Matsui residence, we can still see hedges, low stone walls, and other features that contribute to sociability. Certainly the Matsui residence played a great role in preserving the rich green living environment of the neighborhood. The house was demolished in 2014.
著者
堀内 正昭
出版者
昭和女子大学
雑誌
学苑 (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
no.897, pp.2-24, 2015-07

The two-storied Hirai House was built in around 1930 by an upper-middle class person, Mr Risuke Wakameda, and it is now owned by Mr Susumu Hirai. It has a Western-style room of mortar finish on the side of the entrance door, and the outer wall of the house is clapboard with traditional bead battens. Such semi-Western houses were common in Setagaya Ward, which had developed as a suburban residential area in the early Showa period. This house has two double-loaded corridors on the first floor. Therefore, the main rooms offer residents greater privacy and independence in the main rooms than contemporary houses. The major feature of this house is that there is plenty of storage space which accounted for about 20 percent of the floor space. This seems to have reflected the first owner, author and a book collector Wakameda's, preferences. Through pillars, pipe pillars between through pillars, and the other pillars on the first floor were different in size, and the three types of pillars were built in the right positions. After the war, remodeling of a flat roof on the Western-style reception room to a sloped roof and of the kitchen and bathroom fixtures such as the kitchen sink were done, but all the other parts of the house remain unchanged. In many pre-war houses, furniture installed when the house was built does not survive. But in this house there is still a valuable upholstered lounge suite in the reception room. Together with some old lighting fixtures still existing in the other parts of the house, they reveal the taste of the resident of the house around 1930.The two-storied Hirai House was built in around 1930 by an upper-middle class person, Mr Risuke Wakameda, and it is now owned by Mr Susumu Hirai. It has a Western-style room of mortar finish on the side of the entrance door, and the outer wall of the house is clapboard with traditional bead battens. Such semi-Western houses were common in Setagaya Ward, which had developed as a suburban residential area in the early Showa period. This house has two double-loaded corridors on the first floor. Therefore, the main rooms offer residents greater privacy and independence in the main rooms than contemporary houses. The major feature of this house is that there is plenty of storage space which accounted for about 20 percent of the floor space. This seems to have reflected the first owner, author and a book collector Wakameda's, preferences. Through pillars, pipe pillars between through pillars, and the other pillars on the first floor were different in size, and the three types of pillars were built in the right positions. After the war, remodeling of a flat roof on the Western-style reception room to a sloped roof and of the kitchen and bathroom fixtures such as the kitchen sink were done, but all the other parts of the house remain unchanged. In many pre-war houses, furniture installed when the house was built does not survive. But in this house there is still a valuable upholstered lounge suite in the reception room. Together with some old lighting fixtures still existing in the other parts of the house, they reveal the taste of the resident of the house around 1930.
著者
堀内 正昭
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会計画系論文集 (ISSN:13404210)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.71, no.604, pp.191-196, 2006
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this paper is to clarify all the processes of plans from the first design (European style), the second one (semi-European style) of the Diet Building until the building was finished as a temporary construction, the plan of which was discovered in 2004 in Chiba. The first plan of the Diet Building was designed by Paul Kohler, who worked at the architectural firm Ende & Bockmann in Berlin; the provisional Diet Building was completed by Adolf Stegmuller at the same firm and Shigenori Yoshii. Though the scale of the provisional Diet Building was reduced sharply and the construction was changed to wood from brick, with regard to the room arrangement both of the plans were very similar; accordingly, the idea of the first plan designed by Kohler, who had to retire because of his illness before completion, still existed.
著者
堀内 正昭
出版者
昭和女子大学短期大学部
雑誌
基盤研究(C)
巻号頁・発行日
2005

本研究は、2004年に発見された仮議事堂(初代国会議事堂:竣工1890年)の図面をきっかけに、関連文献の収集と分析を通じて仮議事堂を建築史的に復元考察しようとするものであり、研究期間中に日本建築学会を中心に計6件の論文を発表した。まず、今回発見された図面は仮議事堂の実施原図であること、工事中に設計変更がなされて竣工したことを明らかにした。また、当初の煉瓦造から木造に変更かつ縮小されたが、原案を設計したパウル・ケーラーのプランニングが継承されていたことを明らかにした。次に、わずかに遺された写真や明治期の錦絵をはじめとする絵画資料ならびに類例建築から、仮議事堂の小屋組は、当時わが国で「ドイツ小屋」と呼ばれていた技法を用いて、それをタイ・バーで補強した混合構造で造られていたと考えられること、その構法は、同時代のドイツに建てられた祝典会場のそれに酷似していたこと、それは第1回帝国議会開催に間に合わせるという工期の問題があったからに他ならず、双方とも仮設建築であったことに起因することを明らかにした。さらに、仮議事堂の屋根葺き材についてはこれまでスレート葺きと推察されてきたが、本研究では、当時のドイツでこの種の仮設建築にアスファルト・ルーフィングを用いた例が複数あり、わが国では時期的にルーフィング仕様が可能であったことから、工事の最終段階で変更がなされた可能性の高いことを考察した。こうした研究成果を通じて、期間中にとくに貴族院議場とその周辺の50分の1の模型を製作した。唯一遺された仮議事堂の外観写真を参考に、この模型を使ってとくに複雑な起伏を見せる議場周りの屋根伏せを復元的に考察するとともに、建物全体の屋根形状を明らかにした。
著者
堀内 正昭 Masaaki HORIUCHI
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.766, pp.62-68, 2004-07-01

Quedlinburg, in the state of Sachsen-Anhalt, was a capital of German kings and Holy Roman emperors at the time of the Saxonian ruling dynasty. The city had prospered as a trading town since the Middle Ages. The numerous high quality timber-framed buildings range from the 14th century to the Modern Ages. The variety of their construction methods and decoration makes Quedlinburg an exceptional example of a medieval German town. The author traces the architectural history of this town and is of the opinion that the Collegiate Church of St Servatius (c.1070-1129) is a faithful successor to Ottonian architectural style and an outstanding example of this type of building.
著者
堀内 正昭
出版者
昭和女子大学
雑誌
學苑 (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.777, pp.92-106, 2005-07-01

The Museum Island mainly goes back to the vision of Frederick William IV of Prussia, who wanted to reorganize this island in the Spree River for "a shelter of art and science". The five museums built between 1830 and 1930 reflected stylistic tendencies of classicism, historicism and neoclassicism. From a viewpoint of architectural planning they illustrated the evolution of museum design over a period of a century. In the Altesmuseum designed by Schinkel one could appreciate classical sculptures at a glance in the rotunda. In the Neuesmuseum the exhibit rooms were decorated so that the interior matched historical styles of the collection. The Alte Nationalgalerie was designed as a monumental temple which symbolized the German Empire. In the Bodemuseum the exhibits were displayed with the collection of several contemporary genre. In addition, for the first time the Pergamonmuseum had special rooms for ancient architecture and the exhibits were classified into many groups according to age and country.
著者
堀内 正昭
出版者
昭和女子大学短期大学部
雑誌
基盤研究(C)
巻号頁・発行日
1997

筆者は本研究課題に対して、法務省旧本館を取り上げ、とくに構法に関する研究を行った。まず、法務省旧本館(1888〜1895)に採用された碇聯鉄構法は、わが国において明治10年代にフランス人技師レスカスによって導入された。このレスカスの業績は地震国の耐震構法としてドイツでも知られ、ドイツ人建築家エンデ&ベックマンは、碇聯鉄構法を煉瓦造を前提にした場合に、セメント・モルタルとの併用で最強の耐震性を発揮する構法として旧本館に採用したのだった。従来、碇聯鉄構法は帯鉄を煉瓦壁の中に挿入して用いたと考えられていたが、旧本館では煉瓦壁中のみならず、火打ち梁のように建物のコーナーを固めていたことがわかった。なお、旧本館は現存最古の採用例となる。また、旧本館の廊下には防火床構法であるヴォールト煉瓦床が採用されたほか、3階床には煉瓦で被覆した鉄梁、さらに鉄筋コンクリートで補強した梁が用いられた。このように、旧本館は、1890年代以降に普及したとされる耐震ならびに防火床構法をすべて備えた先駆的な建物であった。次に、旧本館の床組は、建築仕様書によると、振れ止めで補強され、響き止めのために石炭殻が敷かれていたという。この種の床組は当時ドイツ式と呼ばれた。19世紀末のベルリンでは、根太に長さ6m以上の梁を用いた場合、90cmの間隔で根太を入れ、振れ止めで補強された。旧本館の根太の長さは762cmで、約92cmの間隔で配置されていたことから、床組の構法をドイツ式としてよい。さらに、旧本館の小屋組は、束を左右から方杖で支えたり、数多くの斜柱で支えている点でドイツに類例のないものであり、そこで用いられた部材はドイツのものよりも大きかった。そうなった理由は、日本では小屋裏を積極的に使用する必要が無かったことと、日本の耐震技術の発達を促したとされる濃尾地震(1891)を工事中に経験したことで、小屋組の耐震設計が強化されたからだと考えられる。