著者
鈴木 円 Madoka SUZUKI 昭和女子大学初等教育学科
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.892, pp.83-95, 2015-02-01

The term Spartan education, translated into Japanese as "Suparuta kyoiku" is widely used nowadays to mean "severe education." This paper reviews 12 Japanese books or articles on Spartan education published from the 1870s to the 1970s and examines how the authors have understood Spartan education and in what context they have used the term. The above materials, published from the early Meiji to post-war period, suggest that Japanese learned about the education system of ancient Sparta from Western academic sources. However, after the influential bestseller, Shintaro Ishihara's Suparuta Kyoiku(Spartan Education; A book for raising tough kids), was published, leading Japanese educators seem to have begun using the term "Suparuta kyoiku" to mean Japanese militaristic education. Historically, Western classical scholars have acknowledged the value of Spartan public education in contrast to Athenian individualistic education. However, Japanese educators seem to have failed to understand the value of Spartan education because of the change in the understanding of the term "Suparuta kyoiku." The author concludes that educators ought to have used that term with that original sense in mind.
著者
高野 恵美子 Takano Emiko
出版者
昭和女子大学近代文化研究所
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.846, pp.28-39, 2011-04-01

Abstract As B.L.Whorf(1956)pointed out, each language has "fashions of speaking," Japanese speakers tend to like subjective construal, while English speakers tend to like objective construal. This paper explores how differences between English and Japanese construal affect the usage of motion verbs COME and GO in both languages. Analyzing English and Japanese COME and GO, we learned that Japanese speakers usually take the speaker's viewpoint. Thus, in Japanese, when the motion is directed towards the speaker as the goal, the verb COME(kuru)is used, and when the motion is directed away from the speaker's location, the verb GO(iku)is used. In English, however, a speaker often shifts his/her viewpoint to the hearer and takes the hearer's viewpoint perhaps because of empathy and respect for the hearer. We concluded that Japanese is a speaker-centered monologue-type language, while English is a hearer-centered dialogue-type language.
著者
フフバートル Huhbator BORJIGIN
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.820, pp.59-72, 2009-02-01

Putonghua is legally established as the name of the "national common language" in China at present. However, in Chinese speaking areas, discussions on the proper name of China's "national language" are endless. There are many names in use among ordinary Chinese; three of them are "Putonghua," "Guoyu" and "Huayu." "Putonguhua" is in use in the Chinese mainland, "Guoyu" had been used in Taiwan until recent years, and "Huayu" has been used in many areas and countries including Taiwan in recent years. In China it is generally believed that these names are not exclusive of each other but that they supplement each other and that these names will be used together on a long-term basis. However, due to the inconvenience of China's national language having multiple names, scholars in the Chinese speaking regions offer different theories and views supporting one of the other of the names, most often Huayu and Guoyu. Use of "Putonghua" as the common language is one of the important language policies in modern China and closely related to policies regarding languages of minority nationalities. However, discussions of the name "Putonghua," which are also related to China's national common language do not take into account the viewpoints of those who speak minority languages. The name "Hanyu" is often used as a substitute for "Putonghua" or a term for interpreting the origins of "Guoyu" or "Huayu." However, when viewed from the standpoint of minority languages, "Hanyu" is the most acceptable language name because it means "one language." It is natural according to the theory of the language name configuration.
著者
秋山 久美子 Kumiko AKIYAMA
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.902, pp.34-45, 2015-12-01

Pidan is a type of food produced by coagulation through alkaline denaturation, of the protein contained in eggs. Pidan is prepared according to traditional methods that are often unclear. Lead monoxide and copper sulfate are often used, as they were purported to promote coagulation of the egg. The current Food Sanitation Act in Japan forbids the use of chemicals that include heavy metals such as lead monoxide in the pidan preparation process. The lead content standard for pidan imported from China is 0.5 mg or less per 1 kg. In 2013, however, problems arose in China with pidan made using copper sulfate. For food safety reasons, it is desirable to make and distribute pidan within Japan. In this study, we located methods of preparing pidan in the literature, summarized them, and compared the methods. A literature search on methods of pidan preparation revealed 13 studies on coating methods, 11 on immersion methods, and 6 on mixed methods. Examination of these methods revealed that the materials used as the alkaline agent in the coating method were sodium carbonate, lime(including quicklime and lime hydrate), and plant ash. Salt was added to all coating agents. Some methods used black tea. In the immersion method, highly alkaline sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate were used as well as quicklime. Few used plant ash. Some methods added black tea leaves. In the mixed method, highly alkaline chemicals were used to coagulate the egg, similar to the immersion method, and the egg was then coated with an alkaline agent and allowed to age. We then selected one method each from among the coating and immersion methods discussed in the literature and used them to prepare pidan using chicken and quail eggs. The immersion method was easier and had a higher success rate than the coating method. In particular, immersing quail eggs for 10 days and then coating them in paraffin for 52 days sometimes resulted in "Shokatan" eggs, which have white pine needle-shaped crystals on the egg white.
著者
醍醐 身奈 押谷 由夫 Daigo Mina Oshitani Yoshio
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.848, pp.24-41, 2011-06-01

Abstract This study considers the relationship between the government mandated yutori curriculum(education which aims at developing individual talent rather than learning by rote)and moral education, which is the basis of the curriculum. In addition, the authors propose some changes in the system of high school moral education. First, the authors point out that moral education played a key role in promoting zest for life among elementary and junior high school students. Second, we point out that establishing their identity is of great importance for high school students, as Eduard Spranger's "Conscience education" suggests. The state of children who have been taught under the yutori curriculum further suggest that high school students need moral education. Erik Erikson's Identity formation theory and Abraham Maslow's desire development theory lend further support. We conclude that high school students, like elementary school students, need overall moral education based on various activities that stress the relationship between students' own experiences and morality.
著者
中西 裕
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.853, pp.41-52, 2011-11-01
著者
日野 由希 大津 玉子 Yuki Hino Tamako Otsu
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.805, pp.A49-A58, 2007-11-01

Our country experienced remarkable economic growth after World War II through the construction of a production system based on capitalism. Under such circumstances, many traditional technologies, which had been handed down from generation to generation orally, were judged to have low productivity from the viewpoints of sales volume and labor cost. Accordingly, the social structure for manufacturing such traditional products was decimated, and numerous precious techniques (know-hows) and technologies have disappeared. In this research, the dyeing and weaving industry was selected as a target for study, especially the industry for traditional dyeing technology Bingata in Naha-city of Okinawa prefecture. The change of the methods for the passing down of technologies before and after World War II as well as various structural and social problems the district has been experiencing, were investigated through the on-site interviews and the collection of historical materials.
著者
堀内 正昭 HORIUCHI Masaaki
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.873, pp.32-42, 2013-07-01

During the First Sino-Japanese War in 1894 it became necessary to construct a Provisional Makeshift Imperial Diet Building in Hiroshima. The building was completed that year in only 20 days, with the Diet assembling there the day after it was finished. It was demolished in 1898. The person in charge of the design and construction was Yorinaka Tsumaki(1859-1916). In this paper the author focuses on the method adopted in constructing the roof truss of its assembly hall, which had the largest roof, and analyzes various extant materials such as Tsumaki's transcribed lecture on how it was built, its plans, and diagrams from historical documents. Based on this research, the author has attempted to restore the truss. The roof truss of the building was not simply based on the standard roof truss technique though the techniques of queen post truss and German roof frame were applied. The time this building was built was a transition period when Japanese carpenters were not familiar with western roof truss technique, and Tsumaki needed to employ methods with which local carpenters would be comfortable. The author concludes that this roof truss is an interesting instance of the gradual diffusion of Western building techniques into Japan.
著者
中西 裕
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.841, pp.49-68, 2010-11-01
著者
井原 奉明 Ihara Tomoaki 昭和女子大学英語コミュニケーション学科
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.858, pp.86-98, 2012-04-01

AbstractThis thesis aims at clarifying the concept of Mono in Japanese, following the previous studies conducted by the same author. He takes up the newly publicized idea of Mono by NAKANISHI Susumu, that Mono is considered equivalent with mana, a proto-religious concept widely prevalent in the indigenous faith system around the South Pacific region. He expounds NAKANISHI's idea with the additional comments on the concept of mana and the related studies, and makes clear the explanatory inadequacy of the Mono=mana theory. He then introduces the phenomenological conception on space with the notion of omote(front)and ura(back)to make up for the defect of the former studies and constitute a totally consistent theory.
著者
田中 マユミ Mayumi Tanaka
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.776, pp.2-15, 2005-06-01

This research is to investigate how we can practically support children with Learning Disabilities (LD). The concept of LD is used differently in such fields as education, medicine, and the actual functions of life. This paper first examines these conceptual differences. Then, to assess LD, the paper discusses different cognitive processes and mental abilities based on psychological assessment batteries such as WISC-III and K-ABC. Finally, some case studies of LD children are presented and, based on the results of the assessment, some practical support methods which use their strengths in cognitive processes are proposed.
著者
井原 奉明
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.785, pp.A1-A9, 2006-03-01
著者
吉田 昌志
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.845, pp.53-64, 2011-03-01
著者
富本 靖 Tomimoto Yasushi
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.872, pp.14-26, 2013-06-01

The author reviews the history and the status quo of European and American physical education and explains that Japanese modern physical education has its origin in Herbert Spencer's Education; Intellectual, Moral, and Physical(1860). The author also discusses several problems in Japanese physical education that contradict the stated goals of the program, and explores measures teachers should take to resolve these contradictions. The problems are as follows. First, children have very few opportunities to learn the rules and histories of sports, though schools introduce a variety of sports into their curriculums. They put too much emphasis on moving the body. Second, since physical education is driven by competitive, results-oriented curriculums in which children do not have many chances to receive individualized instruction that matches each child's ability, physically less able children fall behind and give up, and therefore they are alienated from their teammates. This is not conducive to building team spirit. There have been attempts to address this by deemphasizing rankings and prizes, but this can nullify feelings of achievement. The author concludes that European and American styles of physical education which allow children more freedom to enjoy sports are more effective for nourishing children's all-round personality, and also strongly suggests that adopting "sport pedagogy," a comprehensive science born in recent years, will solve these problems.
著者
中津川 研一 NAKATSUGAWA Kenichi
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.866, pp.38-41, 2012-12-01

Excessive active oxygens in the body can cause aging and various diseases. Antioxidant enzymes present in the body clear the excessive active oxygens. However, these enzymes become weaker with age. Antioxidants are expected to eliminate the active oxygens that remain after the actions of antioxidant enzymes. Vitamin C contained in juice is a well-known antioxidant, as are catechins in teas and polyphenols in red wines. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the antioxidants in our everyday beverages. The evaluation of the antioxidants in various beverages was performed by FREE(Free Radical Elective Evaluator)(Diacron International Ltd.)and BAP(Biological Anti-oxidant Potential)kit(Diacron International Ltd.). BAP uses the reactions below:1. FeCl3+AT(colorless)→[FeCl3-AT(coloring)] 2. [FeCl3-AT(coloring)]+BP(e-)→FeCl2+AT(colorless)+BP (AT: thiocyanate, BP: antioxidant) The antioxidant capacities in various kinds of soft drinks, teas and wines were evaluated by measuring the changes in absorbance. High antioxidant capacities were found in beverages containing a lot of vitamin C, catechins and polyphenols.