著者
鈴木 円 Madoka SUZUKI 昭和女子大学初等教育学科
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.892, pp.83-95, 2015-02-01

The term Spartan education, translated into Japanese as "Suparuta kyoiku" is widely used nowadays to mean "severe education." This paper reviews 12 Japanese books or articles on Spartan education published from the 1870s to the 1970s and examines how the authors have understood Spartan education and in what context they have used the term. The above materials, published from the early Meiji to post-war period, suggest that Japanese learned about the education system of ancient Sparta from Western academic sources. However, after the influential bestseller, Shintaro Ishihara's Suparuta Kyoiku(Spartan Education; A book for raising tough kids), was published, leading Japanese educators seem to have begun using the term "Suparuta kyoiku" to mean Japanese militaristic education. Historically, Western classical scholars have acknowledged the value of Spartan public education in contrast to Athenian individualistic education. However, Japanese educators seem to have failed to understand the value of Spartan education because of the change in the understanding of the term "Suparuta kyoiku." The author concludes that educators ought to have used that term with that original sense in mind.
著者
高野 恵美子 Takano Emiko
出版者
昭和女子大学近代文化研究所
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.846, pp.28-39, 2011-04-01

Abstract As B.L.Whorf(1956)pointed out, each language has "fashions of speaking," Japanese speakers tend to like subjective construal, while English speakers tend to like objective construal. This paper explores how differences between English and Japanese construal affect the usage of motion verbs COME and GO in both languages. Analyzing English and Japanese COME and GO, we learned that Japanese speakers usually take the speaker's viewpoint. Thus, in Japanese, when the motion is directed towards the speaker as the goal, the verb COME(kuru)is used, and when the motion is directed away from the speaker's location, the verb GO(iku)is used. In English, however, a speaker often shifts his/her viewpoint to the hearer and takes the hearer's viewpoint perhaps because of empathy and respect for the hearer. We concluded that Japanese is a speaker-centered monologue-type language, while English is a hearer-centered dialogue-type language.
著者
日野 由希 大津 玉子 Yuki Hino Tamako Otsu
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.805, pp.A49-A58, 2007-11-01

Our country experienced remarkable economic growth after World War II through the construction of a production system based on capitalism. Under such circumstances, many traditional technologies, which had been handed down from generation to generation orally, were judged to have low productivity from the viewpoints of sales volume and labor cost. Accordingly, the social structure for manufacturing such traditional products was decimated, and numerous precious techniques (know-hows) and technologies have disappeared. In this research, the dyeing and weaving industry was selected as a target for study, especially the industry for traditional dyeing technology Bingata in Naha-city of Okinawa prefecture. The change of the methods for the passing down of technologies before and after World War II as well as various structural and social problems the district has been experiencing, were investigated through the on-site interviews and the collection of historical materials.
著者
堀内 正昭 HORIUCHI Masaaki
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.873, pp.32-42, 2013-07-01

During the First Sino-Japanese War in 1894 it became necessary to construct a Provisional Makeshift Imperial Diet Building in Hiroshima. The building was completed that year in only 20 days, with the Diet assembling there the day after it was finished. It was demolished in 1898. The person in charge of the design and construction was Yorinaka Tsumaki(1859-1916). In this paper the author focuses on the method adopted in constructing the roof truss of its assembly hall, which had the largest roof, and analyzes various extant materials such as Tsumaki's transcribed lecture on how it was built, its plans, and diagrams from historical documents. Based on this research, the author has attempted to restore the truss. The roof truss of the building was not simply based on the standard roof truss technique though the techniques of queen post truss and German roof frame were applied. The time this building was built was a transition period when Japanese carpenters were not familiar with western roof truss technique, and Tsumaki needed to employ methods with which local carpenters would be comfortable. The author concludes that this roof truss is an interesting instance of the gradual diffusion of Western building techniques into Japan.
著者
中西 裕
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.841, pp.49-68, 2010-11-01
著者
井原 奉明 Ihara Tomoaki
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.870, pp.83-94, 2013-04-01

Abstract It is the author's present design to determine, by an exhaustive analysis of the existing findings and evidence, how the conception of mono is understood and applied around the Jodai era. This study is the first step toward the primary research of the cosmology of the concept. Such a task pertains to linguistics, philosophy and other related academic fields. The author begins with a critical inquiry into Ms. Hasegawa's study of mono. For more integrated explication, he hypothesizes it derives from the idea of mana of the Pacific region. The adequacy was illustrated by an extensive clarification of how the concept acquires a variety of meanings and captures spatially-directed significances as a null symbol within the phenomenological "lived" space of subjectivity.
著者
井原 奉明 Ihara Tomoaki 昭和女子大学英語コミュニケーション学科
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.858, pp.86-98, 2012-04-01

AbstractThis thesis aims at clarifying the concept of Mono in Japanese, following the previous studies conducted by the same author. He takes up the newly publicized idea of Mono by NAKANISHI Susumu, that Mono is considered equivalent with mana, a proto-religious concept widely prevalent in the indigenous faith system around the South Pacific region. He expounds NAKANISHI's idea with the additional comments on the concept of mana and the related studies, and makes clear the explanatory inadequacy of the Mono=mana theory. He then introduces the phenomenological conception on space with the notion of omote(front)and ura(back)to make up for the defect of the former studies and constitute a totally consistent theory.
著者
井原 奉明
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.785, pp.A1-A9, 2006-03-01
著者
吉田 昌志
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.845, pp.53-64, 2011-03-01
著者
富本 靖 Tomimoto Yasushi
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.872, pp.14-26, 2013-06-01

The author reviews the history and the status quo of European and American physical education and explains that Japanese modern physical education has its origin in Herbert Spencer's Education; Intellectual, Moral, and Physical(1860). The author also discusses several problems in Japanese physical education that contradict the stated goals of the program, and explores measures teachers should take to resolve these contradictions. The problems are as follows. First, children have very few opportunities to learn the rules and histories of sports, though schools introduce a variety of sports into their curriculums. They put too much emphasis on moving the body. Second, since physical education is driven by competitive, results-oriented curriculums in which children do not have many chances to receive individualized instruction that matches each child's ability, physically less able children fall behind and give up, and therefore they are alienated from their teammates. This is not conducive to building team spirit. There have been attempts to address this by deemphasizing rankings and prizes, but this can nullify feelings of achievement. The author concludes that European and American styles of physical education which allow children more freedom to enjoy sports are more effective for nourishing children's all-round personality, and also strongly suggests that adopting "sport pedagogy," a comprehensive science born in recent years, will solve these problems.
著者
中津川 研一 NAKATSUGAWA Kenichi
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.866, pp.38-41, 2012-12-01

Excessive active oxygens in the body can cause aging and various diseases. Antioxidant enzymes present in the body clear the excessive active oxygens. However, these enzymes become weaker with age. Antioxidants are expected to eliminate the active oxygens that remain after the actions of antioxidant enzymes. Vitamin C contained in juice is a well-known antioxidant, as are catechins in teas and polyphenols in red wines. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the antioxidants in our everyday beverages. The evaluation of the antioxidants in various beverages was performed by FREE(Free Radical Elective Evaluator)(Diacron International Ltd.)and BAP(Biological Anti-oxidant Potential)kit(Diacron International Ltd.). BAP uses the reactions below:1. FeCl3+AT(colorless)→[FeCl3-AT(coloring)] 2. [FeCl3-AT(coloring)]+BP(e-)→FeCl2+AT(colorless)+BP (AT: thiocyanate, BP: antioxidant) The antioxidant capacities in various kinds of soft drinks, teas and wines were evaluated by measuring the changes in absorbance. High antioxidant capacities were found in beverages containing a lot of vitamin C, catechins and polyphenols.
著者
原田 俊明
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.829, pp.A24-A74, 2009-11-01
著者
久下 裕利
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.805, pp.2-20, 2007-11-01
著者
吉田 昌志
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.855, pp.45-58, 2012-01-01