著者
鈴木 円 Madoka SUZUKI 昭和女子大学初等教育学科
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.892, pp.83-95, 2015-02-01

The term Spartan education, translated into Japanese as "Suparuta kyoiku" is widely used nowadays to mean "severe education." This paper reviews 12 Japanese books or articles on Spartan education published from the 1870s to the 1970s and examines how the authors have understood Spartan education and in what context they have used the term. The above materials, published from the early Meiji to post-war period, suggest that Japanese learned about the education system of ancient Sparta from Western academic sources. However, after the influential bestseller, Shintaro Ishihara's Suparuta Kyoiku(Spartan Education; A book for raising tough kids), was published, leading Japanese educators seem to have begun using the term "Suparuta kyoiku" to mean Japanese militaristic education. Historically, Western classical scholars have acknowledged the value of Spartan public education in contrast to Athenian individualistic education. However, Japanese educators seem to have failed to understand the value of Spartan education because of the change in the understanding of the term "Suparuta kyoiku." The author concludes that educators ought to have used that term with that original sense in mind.
著者
高野 恵美子 Takano Emiko
出版者
昭和女子大学近代文化研究所
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.846, pp.28-39, 2011-04-01

Abstract As B.L.Whorf(1956)pointed out, each language has "fashions of speaking," Japanese speakers tend to like subjective construal, while English speakers tend to like objective construal. This paper explores how differences between English and Japanese construal affect the usage of motion verbs COME and GO in both languages. Analyzing English and Japanese COME and GO, we learned that Japanese speakers usually take the speaker's viewpoint. Thus, in Japanese, when the motion is directed towards the speaker as the goal, the verb COME(kuru)is used, and when the motion is directed away from the speaker's location, the verb GO(iku)is used. In English, however, a speaker often shifts his/her viewpoint to the hearer and takes the hearer's viewpoint perhaps because of empathy and respect for the hearer. We concluded that Japanese is a speaker-centered monologue-type language, while English is a hearer-centered dialogue-type language.
著者
堀内 正昭 HORIUCHI Masaaki
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.873, pp.32-42, 2013-07-01

During the First Sino-Japanese War in 1894 it became necessary to construct a Provisional Makeshift Imperial Diet Building in Hiroshima. The building was completed that year in only 20 days, with the Diet assembling there the day after it was finished. It was demolished in 1898. The person in charge of the design and construction was Yorinaka Tsumaki(1859-1916). In this paper the author focuses on the method adopted in constructing the roof truss of its assembly hall, which had the largest roof, and analyzes various extant materials such as Tsumaki's transcribed lecture on how it was built, its plans, and diagrams from historical documents. Based on this research, the author has attempted to restore the truss. The roof truss of the building was not simply based on the standard roof truss technique though the techniques of queen post truss and German roof frame were applied. The time this building was built was a transition period when Japanese carpenters were not familiar with western roof truss technique, and Tsumaki needed to employ methods with which local carpenters would be comfortable. The author concludes that this roof truss is an interesting instance of the gradual diffusion of Western building techniques into Japan.
著者
中西 裕
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.841, pp.49-68, 2010-11-01
著者
井原 奉明 Ihara Tomoaki
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.870, pp.83-94, 2013-04-01

Abstract It is the author's present design to determine, by an exhaustive analysis of the existing findings and evidence, how the conception of mono is understood and applied around the Jodai era. This study is the first step toward the primary research of the cosmology of the concept. Such a task pertains to linguistics, philosophy and other related academic fields. The author begins with a critical inquiry into Ms. Hasegawa's study of mono. For more integrated explication, he hypothesizes it derives from the idea of mana of the Pacific region. The adequacy was illustrated by an extensive clarification of how the concept acquires a variety of meanings and captures spatially-directed significances as a null symbol within the phenomenological "lived" space of subjectivity.
著者
井原 奉明 Ihara Tomoaki 昭和女子大学英語コミュニケーション学科
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.858, pp.86-98, 2012-04-01

AbstractThis thesis aims at clarifying the concept of Mono in Japanese, following the previous studies conducted by the same author. He takes up the newly publicized idea of Mono by NAKANISHI Susumu, that Mono is considered equivalent with mana, a proto-religious concept widely prevalent in the indigenous faith system around the South Pacific region. He expounds NAKANISHI's idea with the additional comments on the concept of mana and the related studies, and makes clear the explanatory inadequacy of the Mono=mana theory. He then introduces the phenomenological conception on space with the notion of omote(front)and ura(back)to make up for the defect of the former studies and constitute a totally consistent theory.
著者
吉田 昌志
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.855, pp.45-58, 2012-01-01
著者
永岡 都 Nagaoka Miyako
出版者
昭和女子大学近代文化研究所
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.848, pp.78-90, 2011-06-01

Abstract The development of contemporary music reached its peak and a turning point at Expo 70 in Osaka. However, not enough attention has been paid to the composers then working, and how their works influenced succeeding generations. In this study I focus on Karlheinz Stockhausen, who produced the Auditorium of the German Pavilion, and examine his theories and practice of space music, or Raummusik. My conclusions are as follows:1 Stockhausen's Raummusik is synonymous with the concept of Lokalisationsraum(the idea that listeners recognize space through sound)presented by Herbert Eimert.2 For Stockhausen, the serialization of distance and direction in space implied the completion of the total-serialism.3 The performances in the Auditorium at Expo 70 were the first perfect realization of Raummusik, but the space-design as a closed system was very different from Japanese composers' attempts at acoustic design.
著者
吉田 弥生
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.831, pp.61-70, 2010-01-01
著者
ボルジギン フスレ(呼斯勒)
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.864, pp.38-55, 2012-10-01
著者
竹田 喜美子 小林 靖子 Kimiko TAKEDA Yasuko KOBAYASHI 昭和女子大学生活環境学科 昭和女子大学大学院生活学科研究専攻:(現)(株)シナジー
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.777, pp.77-91, 2005-07-01

The research focused on the entrance design of apartment houses where troubles between pet-keepers and non-pet-keepers occur one after another. The researchers analyzed the architectural and mental factors which worsen their relationships aiming to establish a system for the peaceful cohabitation of dwellers of both types, and explore the would-be plan of sharing a space which would enhance pet communication. The other purpose of this research is to get the basic knowledge of the cohabiting environment for elderly pet-keepers. From the results, the following proposals can be made. 1. As a system, the management association of the apartment house makes it compulsory for the pet-keepers to register their pets and join the 'Keepers' Society' which makes rules for keeping pets, strives to keep good manners concerning pet-keeping, acts to cultivate the dwellers' community for the keepers, and tries to mediate with the non-keepers for their understanding and cooperation. 2. For shared space to enhance pet communication and to avoid troubles, the following ideas would be beneficial. a. To avoid troubles, the apartments with 'divided entrances' where the keeper and non-keeper use their own entrance is desirable. b. Another idea is that 'shared entrances' have some merit in that they give chances to the dwellers to communicate. c. The most desirable model is to build outside and to one side of the 'divided entrance' for pet-keepers a space with seating and equipment for pets so that non-keepers who love animals can mingle with keepers if they wish while non-keepers who dislike animals can avoid contact. 3. To make a supporting system for the elderly pet-keepers, the 'shared entrance' is desirable. One could expect the elderly keepers to become friends with other keepers when they meet at the entrance. These meetings may motivate them to participate more in the 'Keepers' Society'. With this system, it is more likely that the offer of pet-sitting or pet-adoption will be extended to the elderly when needed.
著者
稲川 照芳 昭和女子大学現代教養学科
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.874, pp.1-22, 2013-08-01
著者
松本 孝 /若林 ゆう /池田 啓一 /山倉 文幸 若林 ゆう 池田 啓一 Keiichi IKEDA Fumiyuki YAMAKURA
出版者
昭和女子大学近代文化研究所
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.818, pp.35-39, 2008-12-01

Peroxynitrite, which is formed from the reaction of superoxide radical and nitric oxide, can cause specific structural modifications in proteins such as the addition of a nitro group onto aromatic residues. These modifications can cause perturbations in the properties of the proteins, such as conformation, catalytic activity, susceptibility to proteolysis, and immunogenicity, resulting in several human diseases. Finding a specific peroxynitrite scavenger is, therefore, of considerable importance. Accordingly, we assessed the scavenging ability of several biomolecules purchased from commercial sources on nitration of a protein by peroxynitrite at physiologic CO2 condition in vitro. In sixteen molecules tested, reduced redox-cofactors, and polyphenol-compounds were effective scavengers against peroxynitrite-mediated protein nitration in vitro and one of these, epigallocatechine was the most effective. It was also noticed that tryptophan and serotonin creatinine sulfate possessed relatively high scavenging abilities against peroxynitrite-mediated protein nitration in vitro.