著者
別枝 行夫 別枝 行夫 ベッシ ユキオ
出版者
東京女子大学比較文化研究所
雑誌
東京女子大学比較文化研究所紀要 (ISSN:05638186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.70, pp.33-48, 2009

The Yasukuni problem has raised the question of Japan's sense of war responsibility and this issue has persisted on a political level throughout the postwar era. From a political standpoint, there are two distinct issues:one is domestic and the other has foreign significance.In 1975,the Japanese Prime Minister MIKI Takeo visited the Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo on August 15, the anniversary of the end of World War Two. Prime Minister Miki's visit was the first visit to Yasukuni on August 15 by a Japanese prime minister after World War Two. Miki announced that this was an 'unofficial'visit and he was going there in a private capacity. In this case, the visit did not develop into an international source of protest.However, in 1985, Prime Minister NAKASONE Yasuhiro visited the Yasukuni Shrine on August 15. Nakasone said that he was visiting in the capacity of prime minister of Japan,so this was an 'official'visit. For China and Korea the fact that the Yasukuni shrine includes 14 'Class-A War Criminals' made Nakasone's visit to the Shrine, official or unofficial, an international issue.The purpose of this study is to explicate the backgrounds of Japan's Prime Ministers by outlining the relevant international and domestic political history from 1945 to 1987.
著者
菱田 信彦
出版者
東京女子大学比較文化研究所
雑誌
東京女子大学比較文化研究所紀要 (ISSN:05638186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, pp.59-76, 2017

Elves and goblins in J. K. Rowling's "Harry Potter" books seem to be rather different from their traditional images we see in British folktales. Rowling's elves are pathetic, hardly able to act for their own sake, delighted only when they are treated well by witches and wizards. On the other hand, goblins are clever and assertive, and always stick to their goals. In Harry's last battle with Voldemort told in the seventh book, a goblin, Griphook, plays a crucial part. It seems that in Rowling's works goblins are given more positive roles than elves, which is not the case in most traditional folktales. However, learning to be kind to house-elves is also very important for Harry, because house-elves work best for those who are kind to them, and acquiring their help means a lot in the battles Harry fights. In the seventh book, Harry digs a grave for Dobby, the house-elf who has died to save him. Harry does this just for Dobby's memory, not to get help from house-elves. This selfless service of Harry's moves Griphook, usually a stubborn and defiant goblin, and he agrees to join forces with Harry in his task to defeat Voldemort. Elves and Goblins described in Rowling's works show that just being kind can change the world.
著者
小檜山 ルイ
出版者
東京女子大学比較文化研究所
雑誌
東京女子大学比較文化研究所紀要 (ISSN:05638186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.81, pp.1-23, 2020

During the hottest and most humid periods of the year, nineteenth- and twentiethcentury Protestant missionaries stationed in Asia often took refuge in cooler spots in highland regions. This article first traces the origins of Karuizawa, which was one of these missionary resorts in Asia and is a major summer resort in Japan. Then it illustrates the character of Karuizawa as a North American missionary and Christian space. It explains how and why Protestant missionaries began to visit Karuizawa and build summerhouses there, how they tried to create a community based on openness, equality and autonomy, and how they introduced "innocent" entertainment and leisure practices such as tennis, music concerts, and visiting each others' homes to take the place of traditional Japanese equivalents such as bathing in hot springs, drinking parties, and consorting with geisha. The article also observes that women were in the majority and that the general atmosphere encouraged American-style courtship practices among young single residents.The article then explores how wealthy Japanese began to build summerhouses for themselves in the area around the missionary community. It argues that missionary practices influenced the Japanese. North American customs of courtship and marriage had a particularly significant impact. Japanese literary works portray Karuizawa as as pace for "romantic love," and it was on a Karuizawa tennis court that the then-Crown Prince Akihito first met the then-Ms. Michiko Shoda, his future bride, in 1957. More recently, Karuizawa has become the site of commercial wedding chapels run by business entities such as Hoshino Resorts, Inc.
著者
安藤 信広
出版者
東京女子大学比較文化研究所
雑誌
東京女子大学比較文化研究所紀要 (ISSN:05638186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.72, pp.1-16, 2011-01-01

This paper considers the thoughts of Japanese people and an aspect of language through the unique circumstances of reading Aesop's Fables in Chinese. Aesop's Fables have been translated into various languages and published in many countries from ancient times till the present day. Although the first translation of this work was published in Japan and China by the Jesuits in the 16th and 17th centuries, a new translation did not appear for a long time after that.
著者
桶脇 博敏(1964-)
出版者
東京女子大学比較文化研究所
雑誌
東京女子大学比較文化研究所紀要 (ISSN:05638186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.74, pp.49-63, 0000

Tombstones accounts for three-quarters of the corpus of Latin inscriptions (Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum) and are estimated number about 250,000 or more. In one study,R.P. Saller and B.D. Shaw investigated Roman family relations based on the data about the commemorator's relationship with the deceased and concluded that the nuclear family was characteristic of many regions of Western Europe as early as the Roman Empire.Later, from the same point of view, P. Gallivan and P. Wilkins attempted to quantify some of the epigraphic evidence relating to the family in Roman Italy during the early empire and reported great regional variations in Italian commemorative practices. This was true of the North, where the slave (or ex-slave) population was represented far less than elsewhere. Building onto previous studies, I investigate the conclusions that can be drawn about family relations in the Western Roman Empire and Italy, especially:1. Did family members commemorated on tombstones live together in the same household?2. Why were illegitimate children (spurii filii) represented far more in Northern Italy?
著者
曽我 芳枝
出版者
東京女子大学比較文化研究所
雑誌
東京女子大学比較文化研究所紀要 (ISSN:05638186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.72, pp.17-30, 2011

This paper is a comparative discussion based on Clara's Meiji Diary of how non-Japanese people,with different values and beliefs,took to and understood gagaku,especially, bugaku, which has one of the richest histories of any part of Japanese culture.Clara Whitney,an American girl,came to Japan because of her father's work in 1875(8th year of Meiji), a time when Eastern and Western cultures were coming into contact. She saw ancient Japanese bugaku and tried to understand its cultural world,so completely different from the Western one she knew, with curiosity and passion.I tried to trace which bugaku pieces Clara watched at the beginning of the Meiji Era using evidence from the official Gagakuroku (Musical Activities of the Gagaku Department, Bureau of Ceremonies, Imperial Household Agency), and musicians' diaries. I discovered that the pieces performed in the gagaku rehearsal room between 1878 and 1879 were Manzairaku, Kitoku, Tagyuraku, Bairo and Rakuson. By reviewing Gagakuroku and Clara's Meiji Diary, I have discovered what gagaku was like in the early Meiji era and sensed how the Gagaku Department was trying to spread the cultures of the Japan and West with the aim of promoting exchanges and interactions between Eastern and Western cultures.Clara Whitney was a part of a historic period in the early Meiji era when gagaku underwent a significant transformation and played a role in making the culture known overseas.
著者
浅川 伸一
出版者
東京女子大学比較文化研究所
雑誌
東京女子大学比較文化研究所紀要 (ISSN:05638186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.75, pp.1-18, 2014-01-01

A neural network model to read aloud proposed. Although two succeeded models\r were proposed so far, some problems still remained unsolved. The problems are the way\r of implementation about the“lookup table”in the dual route cascaded model, and the\r existence of“division of labor”in the triangle model. The model proposed here was\r intended to integrate both models in order to give a solution to these problems. The model\r is consisted of two local perceptrons to deal with information of orthography and\r semantics, and a gating perceptron to adjust outputs of local perceptrons. Introducing a\r Gaussian function and its interpretation, this model can describe contribution of semantics\r clearly. This model can also explain the grapheme-to-phoneme-correspondence rule to\r read regular words, and the way of reading irregular words. According to this model,\r there is no difference between the dual route cascaded model and the triangle model. The\r outward difference between these models can be absorbed in a variance parameter. The\r variance parameter will be adjusted or learned through training many times. Therefore,\r this model can formulate for the problems in which both models could not describe. This\r model can be regarded as an extended and generalised version of previous models which\r are absorbed in this model.
著者
小室 尚子
出版者
東京女子大学比較文化研究所
雑誌
東京女子大学比較文化研究所紀要 (ISSN:05638186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.74, pp.37-48, 2013

Myotei Mondo is a book of great significance as it is the first book and only one of its era on catechism written by a Japanese author, Fucan Fabian, and was published at the beginning of the 17th century, a period of Japanese history during which Christians were persecuted. After writing the book, however, Fucan Fabian gave up with his Christian faith and about 20 years later, he published his next work, Hadaiusu an anti-Christian book.The title Hadaiusu combines the characters'ha', meaning'confute', and'daiusu',meaning'God'My primary interest is the reasons behind Fucan Fabian change of view of Christianity. I speculate that the major factor was that he could not understand the doctrine of God. He may have had a lot of information about God, but he never grasped the real sense of the doctrine.In this paper, I will draw a parallel between Myotei Mondo and Hadaiusu and will then analyze Fucan Fabian's understanding of the doctrine of Christianity, especially his understanding of God. I hope to delve into the reason for the difficulty Japanese people have in accepting Christianity. I would like to explore whether there are particular aspects of the doctrine about God and Christianity that are difficult for Japanese people to accept.
著者
香川 由紀子
出版者
東京女子大学比較文化研究所
雑誌
東京女子大学比較文化研究所紀要 (ISSN:05638186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, pp.21-39, 2017

This paper examines the image of the "fairy" held by today's Japanese people through analysis of questionnaire responses, and analysis of juvenile literature and young-adult fiction from the point of view of gender. Results are as follows.According to the data obtained from the questionnaire, many female Japanese university students typically picture a "fairy" as a tiny, cute girl in a romantic dress with wings, such as Tinker Bell from Peter Pan. This image corresponds to the "fairies" depicted in juvenile literature. In some works, the cute, romantic appearance of the fairies reflects the desire of the heroine, who is around ten years old, to overcome her inferiority complex; in other works, it reflects the female readers' dreams for a happy, romantic marriage. On the other hand, young-adult fiction portrays the existence of various types of fairies from Western folklore, including male ones, but they also have a cute appearance; at the same time, it creates the original beautiful strong male fairy with wings.The cute appearance of fairies reflects the Japanese people's tendency to regard "tiny things" and "good, old things" as "cute," even if they are uncanny or fearful objects. With the admiration for the West added to this, the romantic beautiful fairies have become the ideal for Japanese girls.
著者
青山 なを
出版者
東京女子大学比較文化研究所
雑誌
比較文化 (ISSN:04408047)
巻号頁・発行日
no.11, pp.105-169,図2p, 1965-02