著者
別枝 行夫 別枝 行夫 ベッシ ユキオ
出版者
東京女子大学比較文化研究所
雑誌
東京女子大学比較文化研究所紀要 (ISSN:05638186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.70, pp.33-48, 2009

The Yasukuni problem has raised the question of Japan's sense of war responsibility and this issue has persisted on a political level throughout the postwar era. From a political standpoint, there are two distinct issues:one is domestic and the other has foreign significance.In 1975,the Japanese Prime Minister MIKI Takeo visited the Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo on August 15, the anniversary of the end of World War Two. Prime Minister Miki's visit was the first visit to Yasukuni on August 15 by a Japanese prime minister after World War Two. Miki announced that this was an 'unofficial'visit and he was going there in a private capacity. In this case, the visit did not develop into an international source of protest.However, in 1985, Prime Minister NAKASONE Yasuhiro visited the Yasukuni Shrine on August 15. Nakasone said that he was visiting in the capacity of prime minister of Japan,so this was an 'official'visit. For China and Korea the fact that the Yasukuni shrine includes 14 'Class-A War Criminals' made Nakasone's visit to the Shrine, official or unofficial, an international issue.The purpose of this study is to explicate the backgrounds of Japan's Prime Ministers by outlining the relevant international and domestic political history from 1945 to 1987.
著者
芝 健介
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学比較文化研究所紀要 (ISSN:05638186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, pp.67-88, 2001

1995年にドイツの代表的週刊誌『シュピーゲル』は、そのニュルンベルク裁判50周年特集号に「勝者の裁き」という見出しをつけた。すでに1985年の40周年特集号で同誌は、カイテルやリッベントロップ、フリック等、死刑判決を受けた被告の、刑執行直後の遺体写真をセンセーショナルにとりあげ、「時代の犠牲者」というメッセージを暗示していた。こうした見方、扱い方は、日本ではさらに激しく表示され、1996年の東京裁判50周年のシンポジウム(『争論・東京裁判とは何だったのか』築地書館、1997年参照)では、ナチ体制の犯罪、わけてもホロコースト(ユダヤ人絶滅政策)が、日本の「通常の」戦争犯罪と比較し、類をみぬ犯罪であったにもかかわらず、ニュルンベルク裁判よりも厳しい判決が東京裁判では下された、というイメージが参加者の想起するところにはかならないことも判明した。いずれにしても、裁判への強い関心とはうらはらに史上未曾有の大規模な戦犯裁判自体の意義は、おしのけられがちで、歴史のテーマとしても貶価されがちだったことは否めない。最近まで、ニュルンベルク裁判と東京裁判との比較も、本格的系統的におこなわれるようなことはほとんどなく、なされても副次的なこころみにすぎなかったのが実情である。東京裁判はニュルンベルク裁判をモデルとしながらも、それとは重大な相違を帰結することになった。小稿では、ヨーロッパと「極東」の両戦犯裁判の間に横たわるこの重大な差異についてさまざまな角度から特徴づけることを念頭におきながら、(1)戦犯裁判の成立過程(裁判憲章と構成)、(2)連合国の戦犯追及政策への枢軸側の対応、(3)なぜ多くの犠牲者の問題がなおざりにされたのか、わけても「アジア」の民衆被害者の貶価の問題、(4)判決と裁判証拠・ドキュメント史料の4点にわたって比較検討吟味した。小稿は、比較文化研究所総合研究プロジェクト・近現代における戦争終結過程の研究(松沢哲成教授主宰)に参加した筆者のささやかな成果であるが、2000年5月17日夕、ボーフム(ルール大学)でおこなったドイツ語の講演を基本的に再録したもので、このようなテーマで話す貴重な機会を筆者にお与え下さったノルベルト・フライ教授Professor Dr・Norbert Frei, Neuere und Neueste Geschichte an der Ruhr-Universitat Bochumに心から感謝申し上げる。また同大学日本学科のレギーネ・マティーアス教授Professorin Dr. Regine Mathiasはじめ、鋭い質問を投げかけ、熱心に耳を傾けて下さった方がたにも感謝申し上げたい。なお付表Anhang Aは、ニュルンベルク国際軍事裁判と12のニュルンベルク継続裁判の計199名の被告に対する判決一覧で、継続裁判で首席検察官をつとめたテーラー准将の、今ではなかなか入手しがたくなった著書Telford Taylor, Die Nurnberger Prozesse, Zurich 1951,S. 160-166.から再録させていただいたが、たとえば最初のへルマン・ヴイルへルム・ゲーリングの場合、ゲーリングが日本流にいえば姓Familiennameであるから、本来ならばGoring, Hermann Wilhelmとコンマを挿んで(フォンを称号にしている人の場合、たとえばヨアヒム・フォン・リッベントロップの場合も同様にvon Ribbentrop, Joachimと)表記しなければならない。しかし原頁尊重からオリジナルのままとしたので御注意いただきたい。Anhang Bは、東京裁判25名の被告に対する判決一覧で、折しもドイツ滞在中だった筆者作成のものであるが、関東(Kwantung)軍、張鼓峰(Changkufeng)事件、ノモンハン(Nomonhan)事件等の欧文表記法について東京から懇切に御教示いただいた松沢哲成教授にも感謝申し上げたい。
著者
菱田 信彦
出版者
東京女子大学比較文化研究所
雑誌
東京女子大学比較文化研究所紀要 (ISSN:05638186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, pp.59-76, 2017

Elves and goblins in J. K. Rowling's "Harry Potter" books seem to be rather different from their traditional images we see in British folktales. Rowling's elves are pathetic, hardly able to act for their own sake, delighted only when they are treated well by witches and wizards. On the other hand, goblins are clever and assertive, and always stick to their goals. In Harry's last battle with Voldemort told in the seventh book, a goblin, Griphook, plays a crucial part. It seems that in Rowling's works goblins are given more positive roles than elves, which is not the case in most traditional folktales. However, learning to be kind to house-elves is also very important for Harry, because house-elves work best for those who are kind to them, and acquiring their help means a lot in the battles Harry fights. In the seventh book, Harry digs a grave for Dobby, the house-elf who has died to save him. Harry does this just for Dobby's memory, not to get help from house-elves. This selfless service of Harry's moves Griphook, usually a stubborn and defiant goblin, and he agrees to join forces with Harry in his task to defeat Voldemort. Elves and Goblins described in Rowling's works show that just being kind can change the world.
著者
川村 輝典
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学比較文化研究所紀要 (ISSN:05638186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, pp.41-56, 1991

1. The purpose of this paper is to call into question the term "Kokai-ism" a term denoting the concept that the ideal stand of the Christian Church in Japan is evangelical, superdenominational, and independent. Judged from this point of view, many important elements of the real church of Japan in Meiji Era are excluded. 2. Thus the establishment of Presbyterian churches by C. Carrothers, H. Loomis, and J. C. Hepburn has, as a consequence of sentimental reasoning, been treated relatively negatively and as yet not ecclesiastically. From a scientific point of view, this gives the impression of careless thinking. 3. The breakdown of Kokai-ism was achieved not by the independent work of the Presbyterian churches but by the nonecclesiastical character of the Kokai herself. The Presbyterian Church of Japan founded one new church after another and with the Dutch Reformed Church and the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland established the United Church of Japan. 4. The establishment of the United Church of Japan in October, 1877, was quite opportune and an incident of great historical importance for the Reformed Presbyterian Church in Japan. The original ideal of Kokai-ism has been realized not in herself but in the United Church of Japan. This church was established by the several churches, each of which maintained the clear character of the denomination and was as yet not closed, but wished to unite herself with the Congregational Church of Japan.
著者
屋名池 誠
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学比較文化研究所紀要 (ISSN:05638186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, pp.23-40, 2003

Japanese has a unique writing system, which allows you to write horizontally as well as vertically. It was not until late Edo Period or Early Meiji Period (around 1860 -1870) that horizontal writing was introduced. Before then there was only vertical writing. This paper examines the reasons why the horizontal writing was possible to occur in these periods. The reasons are: 1. When a language with a different direction of writing contacts another, it is not unusual that they influence each other and produce variants. 2. However, it is not easy for a variant to settle in an already existing language. In order for it to settle down, there should be some conditions in which the new variant would be socially accepted in the speech community. 3. Horizontal writing may have been accepted as part of the extensive Westernization that was carried out in those periods. This would be a reason why the innovation in the direction of Japanese writing occurred in the middle of the 19th century.
著者
栗原 純
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学比較文化研究所紀要 (ISSN:05638186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, pp.37-62, 1993

This article deals with the Japan's ruling policy toward her first colony, Taiwan. From the first, the Meiji government took an ambiguous attitude toward the colony with the alternative of giving the same legal status to it as to Japan proper, or governing it as a pure colony. And two factors influenced this policy ; the political situation in Taiwan and the relationship between the government and the Diet. First of all, in order to suppress the armed resistance of Taiwan people against Japanese rule, the government committed large-scale troops to the colony and at the same time appointed among military or naval officers a Taiwan governor, who was charged with strong authorities for administration, justice, legislation, and army. The government tried to deprive the Diet, which was then led by political parties, of the voice in the administration of Taiwan. But to meet the need of a tremendous sum of money for ruling the colony, including the military cost, it was necessary to refer a budget for Taiwan to the Diet. While the power over administration, justice, and army was granted through the Imperial decree, as to that of legislation the government wanted to gain the parliamentary approval to it. Thus the government submitted "the bill on laws and ordinances to be enforced toward Taiwan" to the ninth session of the Imperial Diet held in 1896. However, because it was to provide the Taiwan governor with the legislative, that bill was faced with a strong objection in the Diet under the name of a violation of the constitution. In March 1896, it was barely passed as the 63rd law, whose term of validity was just 3 years. This did not solve the essential problem of whether Taiwan would be under the constitution or not. In Taiwan, under the 63rd law, the anti-Japan resistance became so hard that the government was forced to spend much money in repressing it. Because of financial pressure, the government aimed to increase a land tax, which brought about its opposition with political parties and the repeated change of cabinet. Besides the date of enforcement of new treaties was just around the corner. The government had succeeded in the amendment of unequal treaties around the Japan-China War. But in this case too, it remained unsettled whether these new treaties would be applied to Taiwan or not. After all, the government concluded that both new treaties and the constitution would be effective in Taiwan, and expressed it officially. But before the end of the validity of the 63rd law, the government had the Diet recognize its prolongation. Thus based on the 63rd law with a unconstitutional taint, an authoritarian and dictatorial military rule was established in Taiwan.
著者
北條 文緒
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大學附屬比較文化研究所紀要 (ISSN:05638186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, pp.61-78, 1990

This essay traces how the theme of time travel has unfolded in English children's novels of this century. I have chosen to examine some examples which particularly deal with the theme from a moral point of view, trying to bring into harmony the two worlds, the present and the past, and to show readers their location in the continuity of history. They are Frances Hodgson Burnett, The Secret Garden, Alison Uttley, A Traveller in Time, Lucy Boston, The Children of Green Knowe, Phllipa Pearce, Tom's Midnight Garden, and some books for children by Penelope Lively. Before considering each work, I offer a brief survey of the background against which the time travel motif in children's literature should be considered. One feature is picked out for special attention: in the transition from Victorian to Edwardian literature it may be observed that the Victorian sense of the solidity of the visible world is encroached on by a sense of the unseen, the sense of another world which exists outside time. I also point out that in some stories the 'other world' is the world of the past, a world which no longer exists but proves nonetheless to be as real as the actual world. In the discussion of the books mentioned above, my points are as follows: The Secret Garden, though it has no claim to be considered in the context of this discussion, is noteworthy, because in this story all the devices, or settings, of those stories of time fantasy written more or less with moral intent are present; the juxtaposition of two worlds so different from each other that people recognize the people from the other world as ghosts; the physical or emotional isolation of the children who are the main characters; the experience of gaining strength and maturity through meeting and developing an intimacy with people from the past; various objects which have survived from the past telling them that the past was certainly there; and finally the mother figure who has a close relation to the world of the past and who serves as a mentor and protector of the children. In A Traveller in Time and The Children of Green Knowe, picturesque and poetic images of the people of far-gone times are beautifully created, but nostalgic longing for the past (though it is an understandable impulse at the time when England was going through various kinds of transformation) is too strong in the authors so that, despite the fact that the children finally come back to the present-day world and take their place in it, our overall impression is that the children remain suspended between the two worlds with their hearts still on the shadowy figures of the other world. It must also be noted that in these books the children are not simply ghosts in the eye of the people of the 'other world'; they acquire their own identity by becoming one with somebody from that world. Tom's Midnight Garden introduces a new aspect by dealing with the nearer past, which still remains in the memory of some living people; the Victorian garden where Tom plays with Hatty is the world of Hatty's memory into which Tom is admitted. However, if Hatty and Tom meet in her dream, which is her memory, why is it that Tom, when he gets back to his own time, finds under the floor of his room a pair of Hatty's skates with Hatty's note saying she is leaving them to the boy whom she once met? Tom brings the skates back to the other world, and the two of them skate side by side, each wearing the identical shoes. This use of the two pair of skates has often been criticised as a flaw in this almost flawless masterpiece. My argument is that the pair of skates which has broken through, as it were, the wall dividing the timecontrolled and the timeless worlds might be regarded as an objective correlative of the intensity of Hatty's memory. The two pairs of skates stand for the independent identities of Hatty and Tom, ensuring Tom's firm footing in his own world while leaving him something solid by which to remember to the bliss of his midnight garden. The essay ends by making a brief survey of the books for children by Penelope Lively, who in her constant return to the theme of the past and the present is the most obvious successor of the above-mentioned children's novelists. It illustrates how such books as The Driftway, The House in Norham Gardens and A Stitch in Time embody her message that, while it is only through personal memory that we have authentic access to the past, we nonetheless must live in history accomodating all changes. The argument concludes by considering how the traditional devices established in The Secret Garden have been handed down, modified and transformed, right through to the present day novels for children.
著者
松川 成夫
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大學附屬比較文化研究所紀要 (ISSN:05638186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, pp.1-20, 1962-06
著者
小川 圭治
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大學附屬比較文化研究所紀要 (ISSN:05638186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, pp.32-48, 1977-01

Hong De Yong (洪大容1731〜1783) was an excellent encyclopedist and scientist who played an active part in the scientific history of Korea. According to his concept, the universe is infinite and boundless with countless stars filling it up. This is almost equal to J. Bruno's concept of the universe. This article aims to introduce an outline of his theory of the infinite universe which is developed in his work called "Yi Shan Wen Da" (〓山問答), and to investigate its origin. My conclusions are as follows. 1. His theory is based on The Hsiian Yeh Teaching (宣夜説), which was one of the ancient Chinese cosmologies. 2. His theory destroyed the traditional theories such as the cosmic dual forces (陰陽説) and the five natural elements (五行説) by difining the relation between the sun and the earth.
著者
平瀬 徹也
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学比較文化研究所紀要 (ISSN:05638186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, pp.23-40, 1997

It is natural that most writers on atrocities tend to put emphasis on their own case, whether they are witnesses or researchers. But that is not always conducive to a balanced judgement of the case. To avoid this, the present author proposes the differentiation of atrocities of the 20th century into three categories - (a) the madness of battlefield, (b) the madness of war, and (c) the madness of ideology. The madness of battlefield is rather accidental like the Son My (My Lai) Massacre in the Vietnam War or the Nanking Massacre in the Sino-Japanese War. Though the outcome is often extremely bloody and horrible, this kind of atrocity is not caused by government decision. On the other hand, the madness of war is usually more deliberate and calculated. Like the Japanese ill-treatment of the Allied POWs and the Allied strategic bombings during the Second World War, it is the product of national policy. It is not just the outburst of individual or group cruelty. The madness of ideology is also the product of national policy. But as in the cases of the "Holocaust" and the "Goulag Archipelago", it is caused by special ideologies which choose particular races, classes, or religious sects as mortal and unworthy of humanitarian treatment. Even old people and children are not spared cruelties and massacres in this case. The present author thinks that failure to differentiate these three categories of atrocities makes obscure the true character of each case. We must guard ourselves against the confusion of memory and history. If necessary, we must be prepared to scrutinize and calculate.
著者
古澤 頼雄
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学比較文化研究所紀要 (ISSN:05638186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, pp.13-25, 2005

文化が人間のあり方に大きく影響することは様々な事象によって自明のことであるが、人間のあり方に文化を超えたかなりの共通性があることもまた見逃せない事実である。そのひとつに社会的スティグマ(烙印)がある。社会的スティグマとは、ひとが相手を自分とは異質なもの、汚れたものと見ることによって、相手の存在によって自分の幸せが脅かされると思えたり、理解したくないという気持ちから、相手と一層距離を置きたいと考える心理である。このことは、大勢の人たちが共通にもっている見方からはずれた対象に対して特に顕著にあらわれる。高齢者、異人種・民族、障害者、貧困者などが社会的スティグマの標的になることはしばしば見聞きするところであるが、それだけではない。ここでは、血縁のない家族を創ろうとする人たちが血縁をもつことは家族にとってごく当たり前と思っている人たちから浴びせられる社会的スティグマに焦点を当てながら、どのようにして非血縁家族は構築されていくかを、"不妊治療の選択→養子を迎える決断→幼年養子を迎える"という家族のライフサイクルによって考察し、非血縁家族を構築する人たちの社会的スティグマへの挑戦を通して、改めて家族とは何かを考える。
著者
中村 ちよ
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大學附屬比較文化研究所紀要 (ISSN:05638186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, pp.17-35, 1984

Pearces "Tom's Midnight Garden" und Endes "Momo" gehoren beide zum Genre der Phantasieliteratur. Sie haben Zeitprobleme als Hauptthema, aber ihr Wesenscharakter unterscheidet sich von der "time fantasy", die in der englischen Kinderliteratur ofters vorkommt. Diese Zeitphantasie funktioniert derart, dass die Hauptfiguren der Werke sich zwischen der Gegenwart und der Vergangenheit bzw. der Zukunft hin und her bewegen, und dass die dadurch entstehenden Ereignisse sich um so interessanter gestalten. Die Werke der oben genannten Autoren behandeln jedoch die "Zeit" selbst als Hauptthema. Sie stellen die innere, subjektive Zeit der physischen, objektiven gegeniiber und entwickeln daraus ihre Handlung. Die Hauptperson im "Tom's Midnight Garden" vergleicht die Zeit des alltaglichen Lebens mit der geheimnisvollen Zeit der Mitternacht, die die Erinnerungen einer alten Frau beherrscht. Dadurch wird versucht klar zu machen, was die Zeit eigentlich ist und wie sie tatsachlich wirkt. Pearce beabsichtigt in ihrem Buch, die unfassbare Zeitstromung zu verbildlichen und zugleich die innere Zeit zu verwirklichen. In dieser Hinsicht erinnert das Buch an Prousts "A la Recherche du Temps perdu". Das Zeitproblem, eines der grossten in der europaischen Literatur des 20. Jahrhunderts, ist durch dieses Werk meines Wissens zum erstenmal in die Jugenddichtung aufgenommen worden. Ende kontrastiert ebenso wie Pearce die Uhrzeit mit der psychischen Zeit, die mit dem menschlichen Herz wahrgenommen wird, und lasst die Romanheldin dariiber nachdenken, was das Wesen der Zeit ist. Es sei bemerkt, dass Ende sich zu diesem Problem mehr vom philosophischen und allegorischen Standpunkt aus verhalt. Er kommt dann zu der Erkenntnis : Zeit ist Leben. Damit erklart er die Uberwindung der physischen Zeit. In diesem Sinne steht er offenbar in enger Beziehung zu Rilkes Auffassung in den "Aufzeichnungen des Make Laurids Brigge". Die Gedanken, "Zeitkapitalist" und "Zeitbank", rufen mir jene Stelle von Nikolaj Kusmitsch in den "Aufzeichnungen" ins Gedachtnis zuriick. Die Einfuhrung des inneren Zeitbewusstseins in die Jugendliteratur kann nicht beziehungslos mit dem sich immer intensivisierenden materiellen und geistigen Druck der Leistungsgesellschaft auf einzelne Individuen sein. Dieser Zug verstarkt sich trotz des wirtschaftlichen Gedeihens besonders nach dem Ende des Zweiten Weltkriegs und diese Krise dringt sogar in das Leben der Kinder. Das Werk Endes gibt uns zu verstehen, dass es uber die physische Zeit hinaus eine durch das Herz empfundene Zeit gibt, und dass die richtige Erfassung dieser Zeit die Innewerdung des wahren Lebens bedeutet.