- 国立歴史民俗博物館研究報告 = Bulletin of the National Museum of Japanese History (ISSN:02867400)
- no.186, pp.1-29, 2014-03
伝承という概念は日本民俗学の中核にあって,学問の成立の根拠になってきた。本論文は,広島県の比婆荒神神楽を事例として伝承の在り方を考察し,「伝承を持続させるものとは何か」について検討する。この神楽は,荒神を主神として,数戸から数十戸の「名」を単位として行われ,13年や33年に1度,「大神楽」を奉納する。「大神楽」は古くは4日にわたって行われ,最後に神がかりがあった。外部者を排除して地元の人々の願いを叶えることを目的とする神楽で秘儀性が強かった。本論文は,筆者が1977年から現在に至るまで,断続的に関わってきた東城町と西城町(現在は庄原市)での大神楽の変遷を考察し,長いサイクルの神楽の伝承の持続がなぜ可能になったのかを,連続性と非連続性,変化の過程を追いつつ,伝承の実態に迫る。神楽が大きく変化する契機となったのは,1960年代に始まった文化財指定であった。今まで何気なく演じていた神楽が,外部の評価を受けることで,次第に「見られる」ことを意識し始めるようになり,民俗学者の調査や研究の成果が地域に還元されるようになった。荒神神楽は秘儀性の高いものであったが,ひとたび外部からの拝観を許すと,記念行事,記録作成,保存事業などの外部の介入を容易にさせ,行政や公益財団の主催による記録化や現地公開の動きが加速する。かくして口頭伝承や身体技法が,文字で記録されてテクスト化され,映像にとられて固定化される。資料は「資源」として流用されて新たな解釈を生み出し,映像では新たな作品に変貌し,誤解を生じる事態も起こってきた。特に神楽の場合は,文字記録と写真と映像が意味づけと加工を加えていく傾向が強く,文脈から離れて舞台化され,行政や教育などに利用される頻度も高い。しかし,そのことが伝承を持続させる原動力になる場合もある。伝承をめぐる複雑な動きを,民俗学者の介在と文化財指定,映像の流用に関連付けて検討し理論化を目指す。The concept of denshō ( tradition) has been central in the study of Japanese folklore, serving as the basis for establishing the study. This paper analyses Hiba Kōjin Kagura Performance in Hiroshima Prefecture as a case study to consider what tradition is and examine what keeps it alive. This kagura is dedicated in worship of Kōjin as a chief deity and performed in units called "myō," a group of several households. Once every 13 or 33 years, people conduct a large scale kagura, which in old times was performed for four days & nights and ended in a trance. That was a highly secret ritual held without any outsiders present and aimed at granting wishes to local people. This paper examines changes in a large scale kagura in Tōjō Town and Saijō Town (currently Shōbara City) in which the author has been intermittently involved since 1977. While reviewing the process of changes, continuity and discontinuity, the paper investigates the reality of tradition: how the long-cycle tradition of the kagura has been kept active. The kagura significantly changed in the 1960s, when it was designated as a cultural property. People had performed the kagura only casually until then, but they gradually became conscious of being "watched" as they were evaluated from outside, and the results of folklore research and studies started to contribute back to the community. Although Kōjin Kagura had been kept strictly secret, once visitors were allowed to see it, it became susceptible to external interventions, such as memorial events, recording, and preservation projects, and the trend among governments and non-profit foundations to make records and give public performances was accelerating. Thus, oral tradition and bodily techniques have become tangible by being documented in writing and recorded on film. The documents have been used as "resources" to produce new interpretations while films have transformed the performance into a new work, sometimes creating misunderstanding. Kagura in particular has a strong tendency that new meanings are added and transformations are made by documents, photos, and films. Moreover, it is frequently performed out of the context as it is used by governments and education systems. These tendencies, however, can also be a driving force to keep tradition alive. This paper is aimed at theorizing complicated movements concerned with tradition by considering them in relation to the intervention of folklorists, designation as a cultural property, and appropriation of films.