著者
Jianjun Gao Zhenxue Tian Xu Yang
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
BioScience Trends (ISSN:18817815)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020.01047, (Released:2020-02-19)
参考文献数
7
被引用文献数
58 1742

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus is spreading rapidly, and scientists are endeavoring to discover drugs for its efficacious treatment in China. Chloroquine phosphate, an old drug for treatment of malaria, is shown to have apparent efficacy and acceptable safety against COVID-19 associated pneumonia in multicenter clinical trials conducted in China. The drug is recommended to be included in the next version of the Guidelines for the Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Pneumonia Caused by COVID-19 issued by the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China for treatment of COVID-19 infection in larger populations in the future.
著者
Jianjun Gao Zhenxue Tian Xu Yang
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
BioScience Trends (ISSN:18817815)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.1, pp.72-73, 2020-02-29 (Released:2020-03-16)
参考文献数
7
被引用文献数
1545 1742

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus is spreading rapidly, and scientists are endeavoring to discover drugs for its efficacious treatment in China. Chloroquine phosphate, an old drug for treatment of malaria, is shown to have apparent efficacy and acceptable safety against COVID-19 associated pneumonia in multicenter clinical trials conducted in China. The drug is recommended to be included in the next version of the Guidelines for the Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Pneumonia Caused by COVID-19 issued by the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China for treatment of COVID-19 infection in larger populations in the future.
著者
Basel Abdelazeem Ahmed K. Awad Merihan A. Elbadawy Nouraldeen Manasrah Bilal Malik Amman Yousaf Sarah Alqasem Sandi Banour Sarah Magdy Abdelmohsen
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics (ISSN:18817831)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.1, pp.14-22, 2022-02-28 (Released:2022-03-09)
参考文献数
42
被引用文献数
10

Accumulating evidence has been reported regarding the effect of curcumin as a dietary antiviral on patients with COVID-19; however, findings are controversial. Our systematic review aimed to evaluate the effects of curcumin in patients with COVID-19. Electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Central, and Google Scholar) were systematically searched to identify only randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that assessed curcumin in patients with COVID-19 from inception to September 23, 2021 relevant keywords. The Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials was used to evaluate the risk of bias. After a critical review of 1,098 search hits, only six RCTs were selected for discussion. A total of 480 patients were included, with 240 amongst the curcumin groups and 240 in the control group. The lymphocyte count was significantly higher in the curcumin group compared to the placebo group. Curcumin was found to decrease the number of T-helper 17 cells, downregulate T-helper-17 cell‐related factors, reduce levels of T-helper-17 cell‐related cytokines, yet increase the gene expression of Treg transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), and decrease T-Box transcription factor 21 (TBX21). Our review revealed that curcumin might have a positive effect on relieving COVID-19 related inflammatory response due to its powerful immune‐modulatory effects on cytokines production, T-cell responses, and gene expression. These findings suggest that curcumin confers clinical benefits in patients with COVID-19. However, due to the limited number of the included studies, further high-quality studies are needed to establish the clinical efficacy of the curcumin.
著者
Liying Dong Shasha Hu Jianjun Gao
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics (ISSN:18817831)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.1, pp.58-60, 2020-02-29 (Released:2020-03-08)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
939

The SARS-CoV-2 virus emerged in December 2019 and then spread rapidly worldwide, particularly to China, Japan, and South Korea. Scientists are endeavoring to find antivirals specific to the virus. Several drugs such as chloroquine, arbidol, remdesivir, and favipiravir are currently undergoing clinical studies to test their efficacy and safety in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China; some promising results have been achieved thus far. This article summarizes agents with potential efficacy against SARS-CoV-2.
著者
Yi Su Yun Ling Yuyan Ma Lili Tao Qing Miao Qingfeng Shi Jue Pan Hongzhou Lu Bijie Hu
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
BioScience Trends (ISSN:18817815)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020.03340, (Released:2020-12-18)
参考文献数
22
被引用文献数
4

The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of multiple treatments, especially hydroxychloroquine, used in different disease stages of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). All consecutive patients with COVID-19 admitted to Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center (Shanghai, China) between January 20, 2020, and April 30, 2020, were enrolled, and their clinical data were retrospectively collected. Binary logistic regression was used to screen the factors associated with disease aggravation, and multivariable analyses with the Cox proportional hazards model were used to estimate the effects of prognostic factors on the improvement time and PCR conversion days in throat swabs and stool swabs. A total of 616 patients, including 50 (8.11%) severe and 18 (2.92%) critical patients, were enrolled in our retrospective cohort study. The early use of hydroxychloroquine was a protective factor associated with disease aggravation (95% CI: 0.040-0.575, p = 0.006). Clinical improvement by 20 days was significantly different between patients with hydroxychloroquine used early and those with hydroxychloroquine not used (p = 0.016, 95% CI: 1.052-1.647). The median time to clinical improvement was 6 days in the hydroxychloroquine used early group, compared with 9 days in the without hydroxychloroquine used group and 8 days in the with hydroxychloroquine not used early group (p < 0.001). Hydroxychloroquine used early was associated with earlier PCR conversion in both throat swabs (HR = 1.558, p = 0.001) and stool swabs (HR = 1.400, p = 0.028). The use of hydroxychloroquine at an early stage is a potential therapeutic strategy for treating patients before irreversible severe respiratory complications occur. The early use of hydroxychloroquine decreased the improvement time and the duration of COVID-19 detection in throat and stool swabs.
著者
Masashi Ohe Ken Furuya Houman Goudarzi
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics (ISSN:18817831)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2021.01005, (Released:2021-02-19)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
1 5

An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, which began in Wuhan, China in December 2019, has rapidly spread all over the world. The World Health Organization characterized the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) as a pandemic in March 2020. In the absence of specific treatments for the virus, treatment options are being examined. Drug repurposing is a process of identifying new therapeutic uses for approved drugs. It is an effective strategy to discover drug molecules with new therapeutic indications. This strategy is time-saving, low-cost, and has a minimal risk of failure. Several existing approved drugs such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, doxycycline, azithromycin, and ivermectin are currently in use because of their efficacy in inhibiting COVID-19. Multidrug therapy, such as a combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, a combination of doxycycline and ivermectin, or a combination of ivermectin, doxycycline, and azithromycin, has been successfully administered. Multidrug therapy is efficacious because the mechanisms of action of these drugs differ. Moreover, multidrug therapy may prevent the emergence of drug-resistant SARS-CoV-2.
著者
Meirong Wang Juan Qi Yujuan Liu
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics (ISSN:18817831)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2023.01022, (Released:2023-06-16)
参考文献数
30
被引用文献数
1

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines have been shown to be effective in protecting people from severe disease progression, hospitalisation and death. However, a wide range of side effects have been reported worldwide. New onset or flare-up of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an extremely rare adverse event following COVID-19 vaccination, with the majority of cases presenting with mild symptoms. Unfortunately, there have been cases of fatal complications. In this mini-review, we have summarised the clinical characteristics of a total of 35 currently reported cases of AIH after COVID-19 vaccination and suggest that patients with autoimmune diseases may be at higher risk of developing AIH after vaccination.
著者
Masashi Ohe Ken Furuya Houman Goudarzi
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics (ISSN:18817831)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.39-41, 2021-02-28 (Released:2021-03-10)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
1 5

An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, which began in Wuhan, China in December 2019, has rapidly spread all over the world. The World Health Organization characterized the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) as a pandemic in March 2020. In the absence of specific treatments for the virus, treatment options are being examined. Drug repurposing is a process of identifying new therapeutic uses for approved drugs. It is an effective strategy to discover drug molecules with new therapeutic indications. This strategy is time-saving, low-cost, and has a minimal risk of failure. Several existing approved drugs such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, doxycycline, azithromycin, and ivermectin are currently in use because of their efficacy in inhibiting COVID-19. Multidrug therapy, such as a combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, a combination of doxycycline and ivermectin, or a combination of ivermectin, doxycycline, and azithromycin, has been successfully administered. Multidrug therapy is efficacious because the mechanisms of action of these drugs differ. Moreover, multidrug therapy may prevent the emergence of drug-resistant SARS-CoV-2.
著者
Xiqi Hu Jun Peng Wei Tang Ying Xia Peipei Song
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
BioScience Trends (ISSN:18817815)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2023.01221, (Released:2023-09-17)
参考文献数
145
被引用文献数
1

Diet and circadian rhythms have been found to have a profound impact on health, disease, and aging. Skipping breakfast, eating late, and overeating have adverse effects on the body's metabolism and increase the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Disturbance of circadian rhythms has been associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and other diseases. Abnormal deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) and tau proteins in the brain and impaired synaptic function are linked to cognitive dysfunction. A restrictive diet following the circadian rhythm can affect the metabolism of lipids, glucose, and amino acids such as branched chain amino acids and cysteine. These metabolic changes contribute to autophagy through molecular mechanisms such as adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), rapamycin (mTOR), D-β-hydroxybutyrate (D-BHB), and neuropeptide Y (NPY). Autophagy, in turn, promotes the removal of abnormally deposited proteins and damaged organelles and improves cognitive function, ultimately prolonging lifespan. In addition, a diet restricted to the circadian rhythm induces increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the forebrain region, regulating autophagy and increasing synaptic plasticity, thus enhancing cognitive function. Consequently, circadian rhythm-restricted diets could serve as a promising non-pharmacological treatment for preventing and improving cognitive dysfunction and prolonging lifespan.
著者
Dorna Derakhshan Erfan Taherifard Ehsan Taherifard Sarvin Sajedianfard Ali Derakhshan
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
Intractable & Rare Diseases Research (ISSN:21863644)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, no.2, pp.109-112, 2020-05-31 (Released:2020-06-15)
参考文献数
23
被引用文献数
1

Immunodeficiency 10 is an autosomal recessive disorder presenting with iris hypoplasia, muscular hypotonia and nonprogressive myopathy, recurrent bacterial infections, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, hypohidrosis and nail dysplasia caused by the mutation of stromal interaction molecule 1 gene (STIM1). Herein, we present a new case of STIM1 mediated immunodeficiency, carrying a novel frameshift mutation. Our patient presented with nephrotic syndrome, hypotonia, myopathy, recurrent bacterial infections, thrombocytopenia and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. She is now 23 months old and is on steroid, cyclosporine and monthly IVIG. She has had no recent significant infections and is receiving rehabilitation therapy to improve her motor skills. Rare genetic syndromes should be suspected in patients of consanguineous parents, who present with a set of different manifestations. Gathering all the patient's manifestations together and looking them as one disease should be encouraged.
著者
Tetsuya Asakawa Qingxian Cai Jiayin Shen Ying Zhang Yongshuang Li Peifen Chen Wen Luo Jiangguo Zhang Jinfeng Zhou Hui Zeng Ruihui Weng Feng Hu Huiquan Feng Jun Chen Jie Huang Xiaoyin Zhang Yu Zhao Liekui Fang Rongqing Yang Jia Huang Fuxiang Wang Yingxia Liu Hongzhou Lu
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
BioScience Trends (ISSN:18817815)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2023.01039, (Released:2023-03-14)
参考文献数
278
被引用文献数
4

Over three years have passed since the COVID-19 pandemic started. The dangerousness and impact of COVID-19 should definitely not be ignored or underestimated. Other than the symptoms of acute infection, the long-term symptoms associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, which are referred to here as "sequelae of long COVID (LC)", are also a conspicuous global public health concern. Although such sequelae were well-documented, the understanding of and insights regarding LC-related sequelae remain inadequate due to the limitations of previous studies (the follow-up, methodological flaws, heterogeneity among studies, etc.). Notably, robust evidence regarding diagnosis and treatment of certain LC sequelae remain insufficient and has been a stumbling block to better management of these patients. This awkward situation motivated us to conduct this review. Here, we comprehensively reviewed the updated information, particularly focusing on clinical issues. We attempt to provide the latest information regarding LC-related sequelae by systematically reviewing the involvement of main organ systems. We also propose paths for future exploration based on available knowledge and the authors' clinical experience. We believe that these take-home messages will be helpful to gain insights into LC and ultimately benefit clinical practice in treating LC-related sequelae.
著者
Itsuro Kazama
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics (ISSN:18817831)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020.03095, (Released:2020-10-29)
参考文献数
30
被引用文献数
21

Regardless of the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a high proportion of patients struggle with persistent respiratory or systemic symptoms after recovery. This is called "postCOVID syndrome", for which pulmonary fibrosis is one of the pathogenesis. Besides T-lymphocytes and macrophages, mast cells also contribute to the development of cytokine storm and thus stimulate the activity of fibroblasts. Additionally, by the exocytotic release of fibroblast-activating factors, mast cells directly facilitate the progression of pulmonary fibrosis. In our previous basic studies, anti-allergic drugs (olopatadine, ketotifen), antibiotics (clarithromycin) and corticosteroids (hydrocortisone, dexamethasone) inhibited the process of exocytosis and showed their potency as highly effective mast cell stabilizers. Given such pharmacological properties of these commonly used drugs, they may be useful in the treatment of post-COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis and in relieving the symptoms of post-COVID syndrome.
著者
Hongzhou Lu
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
BioScience Trends (ISSN:18817815)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020.01020, (Released:2020-01-28)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
744

As of January 22, 2020, a total of 571 cases of the 2019-new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) have been reported in 25 provinces (districts and cities) in China. At present, there is no vaccine or antiviral treatment for human and animal coronavirus, so that identifying the drug treatment options as soon as possible is critical for the response to the 2019-nCoV outbreak. Three general methods, which include existing broad-spectrum antiviral drugs using standard assays, screening of a chemical library containing many existing compounds or databases, and the redevelopment of new specific drugs based on the genome and biophysical understanding of individual coronaviruses, are used to discover the potential antiviral treatment of human pathogen coronavirus. Lopinavir /Ritonavir, Nucleoside analogues, Neuraminidase inhibitors, Remdesivir, peptide (EK1), abidol, RNA synthesis inhibitors (such as TDF, 3TC), anti-inflammatory drugs (such as hormones and other molecules), Chinese traditional medicine, such ShuFengJieDu Capsules and Lianhuaqingwen Capsule, could be the drug treatment options for 2019-nCoV. However, the efficacy and safety of these drugs for 2019- nCoV still need to be further confirmed by clinical experiments.
著者
Hongzhou Lu
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
BioScience Trends (ISSN:18817815)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.1, pp.69-71, 2020-02-29 (Released:2020-03-16)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
744

As of January 22, 2020, a total of 571 cases of the 2019-new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) have been reported in 25 provinces (districts and cities) in China. At present, there is no vaccine or antiviral treatment for human and animal coronavirus, so that identifying the drug treatment options as soon as possible is critical for the response to the 2019-nCoV outbreak. Three general methods, which include existing broad-spectrum antiviral drugs using standard assays, screening of a chemical library containing many existing compounds or databases, and the redevelopment of new specific drugs based on the genome and biophysical understanding of individual coronaviruses, are used to discover the potential antiviral treatment of human pathogen coronavirus. Lopinavir /Ritonavir, Nucleoside analogues, Neuraminidase inhibitors, Remdesivir, peptide (EK1), abidol, RNA synthesis inhibitors (such as TDF, 3TC), anti-inflammatory drugs (such as hormones and other molecules), Chinese traditional medicine, such ShuFengJieDu Capsules and Lianhuaqingwen Capsule, could be the drug treatment options for 2019-nCoV. However, the efficacy and safety of these drugs for 2019- nCoV still need to be further confirmed by clinical experiments.
著者
Masashi Ohe Haruki Shida Satoshi Jodo Yoshihiro Kusunoki Masahide Seki Ken Furuya Houman Goudarzi
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
BioScience Trends (ISSN:18817815)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020.03058, (Released:2020-04-05)
参考文献数
6
被引用文献数
47

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic that has developed in late 2019 and 2020 is a serious threat to human health. With no vaccines or drugs approved for prevention and treatment until now, all efforts at drug design and/or clinical trials of already approved drugs are worthy and creditable. Using structure-based drug selection for identification of SARS-CoV-2 protease inhibitors, old drugs such as macrolides (MAC) were predicted to be effective for COVID-19. Lately, the anti-viral effects of macrolides have attracted considerable attention. Very recently, hydroxychloroquine in combination with azithromycin treatment was reported to be effective for COVID-19. We believe that treatments with macrolides alone or in combination with other drugs are promising and open the possibility of an international strategy to fight this emerging viral infection.
著者
Shivdas Naik Soumendra Nath Haldar Manish Soneja Netto George Mundadan Prerna Garg Ankit Mittal Devashish Desai Praveen Kumar Trilangi Sayan Chakraborty Nazneen Nahar Begam Bisakh Bhattacharya Ganesh Maher Niranjan Mahishi Chaithra Rajanna Swasthi S Kumar Bharathi Arunan J Kirtana Ankesh Gupta Diksha Patidar Parul Kodan Prayas Sethi Animesh Ray Pankaj Jorwal Arvind Kumar Neeraj Nischal Sanjeev Sinha Ashutosh Biswas Naveet Wig
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics (ISSN:18817831)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2021.01093, (Released:2021-10-30)
参考文献数
26
被引用文献数
81

Post COVID-19 sequelae are a constellation of symptoms often reported after recovering from COVID-19. There is a need to better understand the clinical spectrum and long-term course of this clinical entity. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical features and risk factors of post COVID-19 sequelae in the North Indian population. This prospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary healthcare centre in Northern India between October 2020 and February 2021. Patients aged >18 years with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were recruited after at least two weeks of diagnosis, and details were captured. A total of 1234 patients were recruited and followed up for a median duration of 91 days (IQR: 45-181 days). Among them, 495 (40.1%) had persistent symptoms post-discharge or recovery. In 223 (18.1%) patients, the symptoms resolved within four weeks; 150 (12.1%) patients had symptoms till 12 weeks, and 122 (9.9%) patients had symptoms beyond 12 weeks of diagnosis/symptom-onset of COVID-19. Most common symptoms included myalgia (10.9%), fatigue (5.5%), shortness of breath (6.1%), cough (2.1%), insomnia (1.4%), mood disturbances (0.48%) and anxiety (0.6%). Patients who were hospitalized were more likely to report fatigue as a feature of long COVID. Hypothyroidism (OR: 4.13, 95% CI: 2.2-7.6, p-value < 0.001) and hypoxia (SpO2 ≤ 93%) (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4, p-value 0.012) were identified as risk factors for long COVID sequelae. In conclusion, long COVID symptoms were common (22%), and 9.9% had the post COVID-19 syndrome. Myalgias, fatigue and dyspnoea were common symptoms. Patients with hypothyroidism and hypoxia during acute illness were at higher risk of long COVID.
著者
Jianjun Gao Shasha Hu
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
BioScience Trends (ISSN:18817815)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020.03072, (Released:2020-04-13)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
38

Drugs that are specifically efficacious against SARS-CoV-2 have yet to be established. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have garnered considerable attention for their potential to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Increasing evidence obtained from completed clinical studies indicates the prospects for chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine to treat COVID-19. More randomized control clinical studies are warranted to determine the feasibility of these two drugs in treating COVID-19.
著者
Shivdas Naik Soumendra Nath Haldar Manish Soneja Netto George Mundadan Prerna Garg Ankit Mittal Devashish Desai Praveen Kumar Trilangi Sayan Chakraborty Nazneen Nahar Begam Bisakh Bhattacharya Ganesh Maher Niranjan Mahishi Chaithra Rajanna Swasthi S Kumar Bharathi Arunan J Kirtana Ankesh Gupta Diksha Patidar Parul Kodan Prayas Sethi Animesh Ray Pankaj Jorwal Arvind Kumar Neeraj Nischal Sanjeev Sinha Ashutosh Biswas Naveet Wig
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics (ISSN:18817831)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.5, pp.254-260, 2021-10-31 (Released:2021-11-21)
参考文献数
26
被引用文献数
81

Post COVID-19 sequelae are a constellation of symptoms often reported after recovering from COVID-19. There is a need to better understand the clinical spectrum and long-term course of this clinical entity. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical features and risk factors of post COVID-19 sequelae in the North Indian population. This prospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary healthcare centre in Northern India between October 2020 and February 2021. Patients aged >18 years with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were recruited after at least two weeks of diagnosis, and details were captured. A total of 1234 patients were recruited and followed up for a median duration of 91 days (IQR: 45-181 days). Among them, 495 (40.1%) had persistent symptoms post-discharge or recovery. In 223 (18.1%) patients, the symptoms resolved within four weeks; 150 (12.1%) patients had symptoms till 12 weeks, and 122 (9.9%) patients had symptoms beyond 12 weeks of diagnosis/symptom-onset of COVID-19. Most common symptoms included myalgia (10.9%), fatigue (5.5%), shortness of breath (6.1%), cough (2.1%), insomnia (1.4%), mood disturbances (0.48%) and anxiety (0.6%). Patients who were hospitalized were more likely to report fatigue as a feature of long COVID. Hypothyroidism (OR: 4.13, 95% CI: 2.2-7.6, p-value < 0.001) and hypoxia (SpO2 ≤ 93%) (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4, p-value 0.012) were identified as risk factors for long COVID sequelae. In conclusion, long COVID symptoms were common (22%), and 9.9% had the post COVID-19 syndrome. Myalgias, fatigue and dyspnoea were common symptoms. Patients with hypothyroidism and hypoxia during acute illness were at higher risk of long COVID.
著者
Yuka Sumikawa Noriko Yamamoto-Mitani
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
BioScience Trends (ISSN:18817815)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.55-57, 2021-02-28 (Released:2021-03-15)
参考文献数
9
被引用文献数
9

Transitional care is indispensable in successfully transitioning patients from hospital to home and preventing adverse events during this process. There were restricted services in several hospitals for minimizing the spread of COVID-19. Therefore, hospitals could not provide adequate transitional care that possibly resulted in poor post-discharge outcomes in patients. Some hospitals have now combined infection prevention with face-to-face opportunities, i.e., requiring reservations for transitional care consultation and restricting pre-discharge conferences. Several hospitals started providing pre-discharge conferences using apps, where patients/family caregivers and care teams could have face-to-face discussions about medical and nursing care plans, goals, and preferences. However, building a relationship between patient/family and medical/nursing staff and providing decision-making, psychological support, and risk assessment generally performed in person are still in demand. New hybrid strategies should be developed and evaluated to provide transitional care while using online systems and minimal face-to-face support during the pandemic.
著者
Fangyuan Shi Zongtao Li Lingjin Kong Yuanchao Xie Tao Zhang Wenfang Xu
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics (ISSN:18817831)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.3, pp.117-120, 2014-06-30 (Released:2014-07-17)
参考文献数
10
被引用文献数
4 41

As a RNA polymerase inhibitor, 6-fluoro-3-hydroxypyrazine-2-carboxamide commercially named favipiravir has been proved to have potent inhibitory activity against RNA viruses in vitro and in vivo. A four-step synthesis of the compound is described in this article, amidation, nitrification, reduction and fluorination with an overall yield of about 8%. In addition, we reported the crystal structure of the title compound. The molecule is almost planar and the intramolecular O−H•••O hydrogen bond makes a 6-member ring. In the crystal, molecules are packing governed by both hydrogen bonds and stacking interactions.