著者
Noriharu Umetsu Yuichi Shirai
出版者
Pesticide Science Society of Japan
雑誌
Journal of Pesticide Science (ISSN:1348589X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.2, pp.54-74, 2020-05-20 (Released:2020-05-20)
参考文献数
114
被引用文献数
8 8

General trends and strategies for novel pesticides are summarized. Global pesticide sales and pesticide discovery research are also briefly reviewed. At least 105 chemical pesticides have been launched during the past decade or are under development: 43 fungicides, 34 insecticides/acaricides, 6 nematicides, 21 herbicides, and 1 herbicide safener. Most of them are safe to humans and environmentally friendly. The most developed fungicides are SDHI (succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors), DMI (demethylation inhibitors), QoI (quinone outside inhibitors), and QiI (quinone inside inhibitors). Due to the development of resistance to fungicides with existing modes of action, many fungicides possessing various novel modes of action have been launched or are under development. The trend of insecticide development is changing from organophosphorus, carbamate, and synthetic pyrethroids to nicotinic and diamide insecticides. During the past decade, compounds possessing a variety of novel modes of action have also been launched or are under development. Flupyradifurone and flupyrimin, exhibiting extremely low honeybee toxicity, have been developed and subjected to practical use. Herbicides possessing varied modes of action, such as acetolactate synthase, p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, protoporphyrinogen oxidase, and very-long-chain fatty acid elongase inhibition, have been developed, but no herbicides possessing a novel mode action have commercialized in nearly 30 years. It is of interest that cyclopyrimorate, which was recently launched, and tetflupyrolimet, which is under development, have novel modes action: homogentisate solanesyltransferase (HST) and dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) inhibition, respectively. The development of useful acaricides and nematicides is also progressing. Some natural product origin pesticides are getting attention.
著者
Daisuke Hagiwara
出版者
Pesticide Science Society of Japan
雑誌
Journal of Pesticide Science (ISSN:1348589X)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.D20-017, (Released:2020-05-21)
参考文献数
8

Increasing numbers of azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (ARAf) in the environment have become a global public health issue. We surveyed tulip bulbs that were imported from the Netherlands and found that 6.3–15.8% of bulbs were contaminated by ARAf with a tandem-repeat mutation in the promoter region of the cyp51A gene. We also showed that fungicide treatment of the tulip bulbs by benomyl or prochloraz effectively reduced the rate of isolation. This is the first report demonstrating a method of eliminating human fungal pathogens from plant bulbs.
著者
Atsushi Ishihara Kana Ando Anna Yoshioka Koichi Murata Yu Kokubo Noriko Morimoto Naoki Ube Yukinori Yabuta Makoto Ueno Shin-ichi Tebayashi Kotomi Ueno Kumiko Osaki-Oka
出版者
Pesticide Science Society of Japan
雑誌
Journal of Pesticide Science (ISSN:1348589X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.2, pp.89-96, 2019-05-20 (Released:2019-05-20)
参考文献数
36
被引用文献数
3

We investigated the effect of treatment with hot water extracts from the spent mushroom substrates (SMSs) of Lentinula edodes and Hypsizygus marmoreus on the resistance of rice leaves to Pyricularia oryzae infection. The spraying of the SMS extracts clearly suppressed the development of lesions caused by Py. oryzae infection. The accumulation of phytoalexins momilactones A and B, oryzalexin A, and sakuranetin was markedly induced by the spraying of extracts. The enhanced expression of defense related genes PR1b and PBZ was also found in leaves sprayed with the extracts. Treatments with the extracts also affected phytohormone levels. The levels of N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenine and trans-zeatin markedly increased in response to treatment, whereas the levels of salicylic and jasmonic acids were largely unchanged.
著者
志野 真実子 濱田 崇宏 重松 由夫 平瀬 寒月 番場 伸一
出版者
Pesticide Science Society of Japan
雑誌
Journal of Pesticide Science (ISSN:1348589X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.4, pp.233-239, 2018-11-20 (Released:2018-11-20)
参考文献数
29
被引用文献数
10

新規水稲用除草剤シクロピリモレートの作用機構を解析した.シロイヌナズナをシクロピリモレートで処理すると白化症状が見られ,プラストキノンの減少に伴ってホモゲンチジン酸が顕著に蓄積した.また,植物中で代謝物のデスモルフォリノカルボニルシクロピリモレート(DMC)が検出された.このことから,シクロピリモレートまたはDMCが,プラストキノン生合成経路で4-ヒドロキシフェニルピルビン酸ジオキシゲナーゼの下流で働くホモゲンチジン酸ソラネシルトランスフェラーゼ(HST)活性を阻害すると予想された.そこで,シロイヌナズナのHSTを用いてin vitro試験を行ったところ,シクロピリモレートは弱いHST阻害活性を,DMCは強いHST阻害活性を有していることが明らかとなった.さらに,DMC類縁体のHST阻害活性と白化活性には正の相関が認められた.以上の結果は,シクロピリモレートおよびDMCの作用点はHSTであり,本剤は商用利用される除草剤における新規作用機作をもつことを示している.
著者
Kazuharu Arakawa Masaru Tomita
出版者
Pesticide Science Society of Japan
雑誌
Journal of Pesticide Science (ISSN:1348589X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.3, pp.282-288, 2006 (Released:2006-08-24)
参考文献数
52
被引用文献数
14 21

The advent of high-throughput measurement technologies has resulted in the rapid accumulation of “omics” information including genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome data. This increase in data acquisition has lead to a demand for an efficient computational platform for in silico analysis. The G-language software suite provides a comprehensive workbench for large-scale omics research and systems biology. The suite includes a bioinformatics research framework G-language Genome Analysis Environment, which contains a Gene Prediction Accuracy Classification benchmarking tool for the quantification of the sensitivity of genome informatics analysis methods to genome annotation completeness. Omics data processed in this environment can be visualized with KEGG-based pathway mapping web service, and Genome-based Modeling System enables automatic prototyping of metabolic pathway models from the genome. The software suite covers various domains of omics, with the goal of integrating all of these data for research into systems biology.
著者
Xusheng Shao Zewen Liu Xiaoyong Xu Zhong Li Xuhong Qian
出版者
Pesticide Science Society of Japan
雑誌
Journal of Pesticide Science (ISSN:1348589X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.1, pp.1-9, 2013-02-20 (Released:2013-02-20)
参考文献数
34
被引用文献数
9 45

Neonicotinoids ushered in a new era of crop protection, and several molecules headed up a billion-dollar industry. As one of the largest agricultural and most populous countries, China plays an essential role in the development of neonicotinoids. This review delves into the production, application and innovation of neonicotinoids throughout China.
著者
Kotaro Koiwai Kana Morohashi Kazue Inaba Kana Ebihara Hirotatsu Kojima Takayoshi Okabe Ryunosuke Yoshino Takatsugu Hirokawa Taiki Nampo Yuuta Fujikawa Hideshi Inoue Fumiaki Yumoto Toshiya Senda Ryusuke Niwa
出版者
Pesticide Science Society of Japan
雑誌
Journal of Pesticide Science (ISSN:1348589X)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.D20-072, (Released:2021-02-04)
参考文献数
40

Insect growth regulators (IGRs) can be developed by elucidating the molecular mechanisms of insect-specific biological events. Because insect molting, and metamorphosis are controlled by ecdysteroids, their biosynthetic pathways can serve as targets for IGR development. The glutathione S-transferase Noppera-bo (Nobo), which is conserved in dipteran and lepidopteran species, plays an essential role in ecdysteroid biosynthesis. Our previous study using 17β-estradiol as a molecular probe revealed that Asp113 of Drosophila melanogaster Nobo (DmNobo) is essential for its biological function. However, to develop IGRs with a greater Nobo inhibitory activity than 17β-estradiol, further structural information is warranted. Here, we report five novel non-steroidal DmNobo inhibitors. Analysis of crystal structures of complexes revealed that DmNobo binds these inhibitors in an Asp113-independent manner. Among amino acid residues at the substrate-recognition site, conformation of conserved Phe39 was dynamically altered upon inhibitor binding. Therefore, these inhibitors can serve as seed compounds for IGR development.
著者
Tetsu Ando Masanobu Yamamoto
出版者
Pesticide Science Society of Japan
雑誌
Journal of Pesticide Science (ISSN:1348589X)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.D20-046, (Released:2020-10-15)
参考文献数
99

Since the first identification of bombykol, sex pheromones of about 700 moth species have been elucidated. Additionally, field evaluations of synthetic pheromones and their related compounds have revealed the male attraction of another 1,300 species. These pheromones and attractants are listed on the web-sites, “Pheromone Database, Part I.” Pheromone components are classified according to their chemical structures into two major groups (Types I and II) and miscellaneous. Based on our previous review published in 2004, studies reported during the last two decades are highlighted here to provide information on the structure characteristics of newly identified pheromones, current techniques for structure determination, new enantioselective syntheses of methyl-branched pheromones, and the progress of biosynthetic research. Besides the moth sex pheromones, various pheromones and allomones from many arthropod species have been uncovered. These semiochemicals are being collected in the “Pheromone Database, Part II.” The chemical diversity provides a wonderland for natural product chemists.
著者
伊左治 俊策 吉永 直子 寺石 政義 小川 大輔 加藤 悦子 奥本 裕 土生 芳樹 森 直樹
出版者
Pesticide Science Society of Japan
雑誌
Journal of Pesticide Science (ISSN:1348589X)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.D18-036, (Released:2018-08-03)
参考文献数
29
被引用文献数
1 2

イネ(Oryza sativa)は干ばつで枯死するとその後に給水しても復活することはないが,酢酸水溶液を与えたイネは,乾燥ストレスで一度地上部が枯れながらも,再給水すると新たに地上部を伸長させる特異な乾燥耐性を獲得する.処理中の酢酸代謝を解明するために,13Cで標識した酢酸をイネに処理し,LC-MS及び13C-NMRで13C標識された酢酸代謝物を追跡した.根抽出物のLC-MS及び13C-NMRの分析結果から,処理された酢酸はイネ体内に取り込まれ,グルタミン酸デカルボキシラーゼ(GAD)によってγ-アミノ酪酸(GABA)に代謝されると示唆された.酢酸処理したイネのGABA蓄積量を調べると,根に続いて地上部でGABAが蓄積され,また地上部のGABA蓄積量に比例して乾燥ストレスに対する生存率が増加した.以上から,地上部のGABA蓄積が酢酸によるイネの乾燥耐性に寄与する可能性がある.
著者
Motohiro Tomizawa
出版者
Pesticide Science Society of Japan
雑誌
Journal of Pesticide Science (ISSN:1348589X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.3, pp.177-183, 2004 (Released:2004-09-07)
参考文献数
63
被引用文献数
13 15

Neonicotinoids are the only major new class of insecticides introduced in the past three decades. They act as selective agonists at the insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and are therefore highly toxic towards important insect pests but relatively safe to mammals. However, the excellent selective toxicity may not be evident with their metabolites or analogous compounds. The aim of this paper is to consider the effects of neonicotinoids and derivatives in mammalian cells and mice involving up-regulation of nicotinic receptor levels and activation of the intracellular signal integration cascade elicited by chronic or sustained exposure and analgesic and toxic effects in mice.
著者
Hiroyuki Katsuta Michikazu Nomura Takeo Wakita Hidenori Daido Yumi Kobayashi Atsuko Kawahara Shinichi Banba
出版者
Pesticide Science Society of Japan
雑誌
Journal of Pesticide Science (ISSN:1348589X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.2, pp.120-128, 2019-05-20 (Released:2019-05-20)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
5 9

Broflanilide (1), discovered by Mitsui Chemicals Agro, Inc., has a unique chemical structure characterized as a meta-diamide and exhibits high activity against various pests, including Lepidopteran, Coleopteran, and Thysanopteran pests. Because broflanilide has a novel mode of action, the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) categorized it as a member of a new group: Group 30. The meta-diamide structure was generated via drastic structural modification of a lead compound, flubendiamide (2), and the subsequent structural optimization of meta-diamides on each of its three benzene rings led to the discovery of broflanilide. In the present study, the details of the generation of meta-diamides from the lead compound and the structural optimization of meta-diamides are described.
著者
Koji Ito Kazuhiro Takagi Ryota Kataoka Hiromasa Kiyota
出版者
Pesticide Science Society of Japan
雑誌
Journal of Pesticide Science (ISSN:1348589X)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.D20-23, (Released:2020-06-24)
参考文献数
36

Nocardioides sp. PD653 genes hcbA1, hcbA2, and hcbA3 encode enzymes that catalyze the oxidative dehalogenation of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), which is one of the most recalcitrant persistent organic pollutants (POPs). In this study, HcbA1, HcbA2, and HcbA3 were heterologously expressed and characterized. Among the flavin species tested, HcbA3 showed the highest affinity for FMN with a Kd value of 0.75±0.17 µM. Kinetic assays revealed that HcbA3 followed a ping-pong bi–bi mechanism for the reduction of flavins. The Km for NADH and FMN was 51.66±11.58 µM and 4.43±0.69 µM, respectively. For both NADH and FMN, the Vmax and kcat were 2.21±0.86 µM and 66.74±5.91 sec−1, respectively. We also successfully reconstituted the oxidative dehalogenase reaction in vitro, which consisted of HcbA1, HcbA3, FMN, and NADH, suggesting that HcbA3 may be the partner reductase component for HcbA1 in Nocardioides sp. PD653.
著者
Arisa Banno Yoshinori Yabuki
出版者
Pesticide Science Society of Japan
雑誌
Journal of Pesticide Science (ISSN:1348589X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.1, pp.29-38, 2020-02-20 (Released:2020-02-20)
参考文献数
32
被引用文献数
1

This study proposes a practical and precise method for the simultaneous analysis of seven neonicotinoid pesticides in agricultural products using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry from two different approaches. First, the applicability of a cleanup cartridge, comprised of a polymer sorbent consisting of a styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer with N-containing polar groups and methacrylate, in food samples was demonstrated for the first time. Second, applying an internal standard (IS) calibration method at a lower cost was considered by changing the timing of the IS addition and selecting the minimum number of ISs by referring on the matrix effect. The proposed method resulted in excellent recoveries in all tested matrices (brown rice, grapes, and peanuts) at a spiked concentration of 0.01 mg/kg. Subsequently, a residue analysis of hagobou (young burdock) was conducted. Imidacloprid was detected at 0.02 mg/kg, and the recoveries calculated in parallel with the analysis were satisfactory.
著者
Kazuya Ujihara
出版者
Pesticide Science Society of Japan
雑誌
Journal of Pesticide Science (ISSN:1348589X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.4, pp.215-224, 2019-11-20 (Released:2019-11-20)
参考文献数
93
被引用文献数
1

The structural modification of natural pyrethrins has led to a number of synthetic pyrethroid insecticides, and each compound has its own characteristics. At present, pyrethroid insecticides are applied not only for household use, the original use for pyrethrins, but also for a wide range of uses such as crop protection, pharmaceuticals, and veterinary applications. Quoting primary sources, this review describes the historical view of structural modifications of pyrethroids, with a focus on structural similarities, and their use.
著者
Eiki Watanabe Nobuyasu Seike Sayuri Namiki
出版者
Pesticide Science Society of Japan
雑誌
Journal of Pesticide Science (ISSN:1348589X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.3, pp.186-191, 2019-08-20 (Released:2019-08-20)
参考文献数
24

A micro liquid–liquid extraction has been applied to sample preparation in the current authorized method for clopyralid in compost. The method rendered matrix effects practically negligible during determination with ultraperformance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with an improved limit of quantification of 0.7 µg/kg dry weight. Moreover, it had good accuracy and reproducibility. Therefore, the method is proposed as a highly effective routine analytical technique for investigating the actual status of clopyralid residue in compost.