著者
仲田 康一
出版者
一般社団法人日本教育学会
雑誌
教育学研究 (ISSN:03873161)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, no.4, pp.450-462, 2011-12

保護者に対し学校に協力する特定の行動を求め、同意の上署名をして提出する「確認書」実践を行う学校運営協議会に着目し、その取組を実現させた論理と帰結を実証的に検討した。その結果導出されたのは、学校選択制下で、学力という成果を求める学校運営協議会が、地域の社会関係を介して保護者に対する問責を生じさせ、保護者を統治する様であった。保護者は然るべき行動を取ることができない場合があるが、それは社会的要因の制約による部分があるにもかかわらず、それへの顧慮は剥ぎ取られたままであった。
著者
仲田 康一
出版者
日本教育経営学会
雑誌
日本教育経営学会紀要 (ISSN:02872870)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, pp.96-110, 2010-05-30 (Released:2017-07-06)

Though recent educational reforms have led to decentralised school management and parental participation in school administration, the basis of these reforms is thought to be vulnerable. In particular, some researchers express concerns about the relative inferiority of parents. Sociologists in the United Kingdom indicated the marginalization of parent governors by governors from other categories such as co-opted governors from industry or local governors (Vincent 1996; Deem et al. 1995). Thus, this paper aims to clarify the following two issues in Japanese context; (i) to affirm the existence of inactiveness of parents in School Management Committee's discussion and (ii) the reason of parental inactiveness. To approach these issues, I use a case study method in a specific school, which has a School Management Committee (shorten as SMC). I use the following three data sources; the minutes of SMC, interview transcripts, and field notes of the transaction in SMC. There were three main findings from my analysis, (i) There are so-called "silent members" in the formal discussion within SMC, who rarely, if ever contribute to the transaction, and they are unevenly concentrated in parent category. (ii) These "silent members" felt the restrictive condition which has resulted from following two points; 1) Local power relations affect the atmosphere of SMC discussion. 2) Parent members felt the difficulty to represent the large diversity of parents' views to education. (iii) However, across the years, the difference of activity between categories has been maintained and reproduced by the following two points; 3) Local residents become good advisers for the head teacher so that the agenda of SMC come to be preset between the head teacher and local residents, excluding parent members. 4) Local residents also become enthusiastic school supporters. In contrast, parent members are relatively busy because of everyday child rearing, their own job and regular PTA tasks so that the attitude of parents is seen somewhat "unsupportive". As a result, preferential value-adding to locals silenced parent members. As a proposition, I assert that the position of parents among the actors in governing schools reflect the micro social relationship within the school community.
著者
岩永 定 小坂 浩嗣 芝山 明義 柏木 智子 仲田 康一
出版者
熊本大学
雑誌
基盤研究(C)
巻号頁・発行日
2012-04-01

子育て困難な家庭への支援ネットワーク構築の可能性を探るために,児童相談所職員と養護教諭を対象とした質問紙調査を実施した。また,家庭教育支援事業を展開している和歌山県湯浅町教育委員会の担当者に対してインタビュー調査を行った。その結果,児童相談所職員も養護教諭も相互の連携の必要性は感じているものの,現実には連携は不十分であること,連携を阻害する要因が複数存在することを意識した回答内容であった。それらの阻害要因を除去することができれば,連携は進展する可能性も示された。
著者
仲田 康一
出版者
日本教育行政学会
雑誌
日本教育行政学会年報 (ISSN:09198393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, pp.9-26, 2018 (Released:2019-09-20)
参考文献数
29

The concept of ‘Standards’ has been featuring more and more in recent education policy in Japan. Many kinds of ‘standards’ are being set to control educational processes and reframe teachers’ professional expertise.‘Standards’ in Japan usually comprise lists, matrixes, and rubrics as official documents that are prescribed by governments and/or schools. They, for instance, tell teachers how to structure every lesson, dictate how to discipline students’ behaviour, or define the teachers’ standard competences required for each age group. As they tend to cover the relationships between teachers, students, and parents, it seems to be the case that they even regulate accordingly how students and families should be.This trend has to do with the growing effect of a PDCA cycle that has prevailed throughout the country. Under the New Public Management regime, the central government is supposed to be legitimated to set national objectives for education, to delegate their implementation to local governments, schools and teachers, and to hold them accountable for producing appropriate outcomes. The celebrated technology in this regime is the PDCA cycle. It requires each local government and school to create their ‘Plans’ reflecting on the higher-level government / institution, and to make their educational processes more effective. Because the ‘Plan’ is unquestionable in this regime, PDCA allows local governments and schools only to ask students and teachers to perform in a ‘Planned’ i.e. a predicted and predetermined way. We can understand the rapid rise of ‘standards’ as a representation of the desire for more predictability, shaped by the threat of PDCA.Meanwhile, standardisation has also had a considerable effect on the Anglo American education systems. This trend covers a range of education reforms such as the following -- i) more emphasis on the learning outcomes assessed by testing ; ii) endogenous privatisation that is forcing schools to act more like businesses with discrete dichotomy of failing or successful schools and/or teachers ; iii) exogenous privatisation from outsourcing teaching materials, selling/buying school improvement strategies, through to inviting private bodies to operate schools ; and iv) de-professionalisation that remakes the teaching expertise as a production process of appropriate data.As we can see, there are divergences and parallels between Japan and Anglo-American countries. I characterised the Japanese version of standardisation as ‘governing by templates’, compared with the Anglo-American version of standardisation as ‘governing by data’ with more emphasis on evidence and corporatisation. At the same time, mutual undermining of professionalism and democracy has been replicated, placing far more importance on external standards. I also added a caveat that ‘governing by templates’ and ‘governing by data’ are not mutually exclusive. With more emphasis being put upon ‘evidence-based policy making’ in Japan, I asserted that we need rather to focus on the complicated nature of the interactive effect of them.