著者
神林 寿幸
出版者
日本教育経営学会
雑誌
日本教育経営学会紀要 (ISSN:02872870)
巻号頁・発行日
no.57, pp.79-93, 2015-06-15

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether engagement in non-teaching work causes heavy workloads of elementary school and junior high school teachers in Japan. Today, teachers' heavy workloads are focused on in Japan. Japanese teachers have longer hours for non-teaching work (for example, paperwork). This is policy issue in Japan. Moreover, some research of Educational Administration points out engagement in non-teaching work (paperwork, dealing with complaints from parents etc.) causes teachers' overloads in Japan. On the other hand, some studies point out involvement in instructions for extracurricular activities (for example, club activities, student counselling) causes Japanese teachers' heavy workloads. Based on the above, we can have a question: what kind of work causes overloads of Japanese teachers? In order to solve the question, several regression models are constructed whose dependent variables are teachers' senses of workloads and whose independent variables are the amount of working hours per a week of 20 each work (teaching, instruction for club activities, paperwork etc.). And then comparison among the values of 20 regression coefficients is conducted, which show how much teachers' senses of workloads rise when the teachers engage in 20 each work for an hour. Through this analysis, we can realize what work makes Japanese teachers feel heavy burdens. The results are as indicated below. 1) Workloads of junior high schools teachers are heavy who have more hours to deal with parents' complaints and paperwork. 2) Moreover, workloads of junior high school teachers are heavy who have more hours to involve in instructions for extracurricular activities. And workloads of elementary school teachers are heavy who have more hours to involve in school events and students counselling. 3) Workloads of female teachers are heavier than those of male teachers. Moreover, workloads of teachers are heavier who a familymember requiring long term care. According to above, in order to lighten Japanese teachers' workloads, we need pay more attention to the amount of teaching in schools and teachers' work-life balance.
著者
古田 雄一
出版者
日本教育経営学会
雑誌
日本教育経営学会紀要 (ISSN:02872870)
巻号頁・発行日
no.57, pp.110-124, 2015-06-15

Many disadvantaged youth in the United States are suffering not only from an academic achievement gap, but also from a profound civic empowerment gap- a widespread marginalization of those youth from civic engagement. Those who are in the low socioeconomic status are much less likely to be civically or politically engaged. The purpose of this study is to explore the significance and possibility of school-based citizenship education to empower youth in poverty and to overcome the civic empowerment gap. Specifically, a case of an urban school which has implemented Public Achievement is investigated. Public Achievement is a grass-roots, project-based citizenship education program, in which teams of young people discuss and solve problems in schools, neighborhoods, or broader communities. Poor neighborhoods tend to shape a hidden curriculum that instills powerlessness in youth and keeps them away from civic engagement. Schools, on the one hand, may reproduce and reinforce the disempowering hidden curriculum in the surrounding community; by not providing adequate civic learning opportunities, schools would send a message to students that they are not expected as productive citizens. On the other hand, the case in this study also suggests the strong possibility of school-based citizenship education; by providing an authentic civic learning opportunity like Public Achievement, schools may be able to empower students, teachers and community members by showing "the world they have never seen", and thus transform the hidden curriculum. Since most poor neighborhoods have many obstacles and very few resources to combat civic empowerment gap, it is significant that schools in such neighborhoods actively promote school-based citizenship education.
著者
河野 和清
出版者
日本教育経営学会
雑誌
日本教育経営学会紀要 (ISSN:02872870)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, pp.91-106, 1988

During the 1950's and the early 1960's, the so-called "theory movement" in American educational administration was initiated and actively developed under the influence of logical positivism. The theory movement provided us with the positivistic paradigm which attempted to study administrative phenomena in the mode of scientific inquiry. This paradigm, until very recently, has dominated inquiry and discourse in educational administration. But, as early as the 1970's, serious questions have been raised about the usefulness of hypothetico-deductive theory and research developed or conducted during the movement. Though there was already critique of the theory movement from its early years, according to J. Culbertson, T. B. Green-field was the first scholar to criticize systematically the presuppositions underlying the core ideals of this movement from phenomenological point of view. The purpose of this paper is to examine the characteristics and the significance of phenomenological approach proposed by Greenfield. The contents are as follows: 1. Introduction 2. Characteristics of the theory movement 3. Epistemological question 4. The view of organization and the research methodology of phenomenological approach 5. The significance of phenomenological approach The debate between the theory movement's pioneers and those who questioned the pioneers is much needed and to be welcomed, for it opens new avenues for pursuing the study of educational administration. The phenomenological approach gives a good deal of impetus to the methodological self-examination and self-awakening in educational administration studies.
著者
坂野 慎二
出版者
日本教育経営学会
雑誌
日本教育経営学会紀要 (ISSN:02872870)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, pp.51-62, 2015-06-15 (Released:2017-07-06)

After the government change to FDP (Free Democratic Party) in 2012, the process of the educational policy making in Japan is changing. The educational committee of FDP shows the guidelines at first. Then the educational committee of the minister president discusses the contents of the FDP committee. After that the central educational committee in the educational ministry can make detail concepts. That means the central educational committee will have less power than in the past. After World War II, the concept of check and balances by the layman control and the professional leadership was imported in the educational administration from the U.S. to Japan. The educational committee law was built in 1948, but because of the much power of the educational board, the law was quitted and the new law was built in 1956. The change of local educational administration law in 2014 will bring a new relationship between the governors/ mayors and the boards of education in each prefecture/ city. The educational policy evaluation is developing not only in the state level but in the local level. In 2001 the Japanese Parliament regulated the mid-term policy evaluations. The educational ministry makes a report of self-evaluation and a new policy plan every year. In addition to such policy evaluation activities the cabinet must decide a five years educational policy plan. In the local level most of the prefectures and cities are evaluated by themselves every year. The educational policies must be evaluated since 2008. The problems of the policy evaluations are developing of the indicators, which must clarify the results and the effects of the educational policies. In many countries the Evidence-based policy making is a popular tendency. In the educational policies the results of the standardized tests are used for the evidences of the educational policies.
著者
牧田 章
出版者
日本教育経営学会
雑誌
日本教育経営学会紀要 (ISSN:02872870)
巻号頁・発行日
no.37, pp.59-67, 1995-06-01

A new relationship between school and community is now on a desirable stage. The rapid urbanization in the last decade loses its speed in 90's. However drastic change has been observed in the population structure and the style of living in many local communities. Schools are expected to build far more improved curricula in regard to the community involvemet. The pilot schools, we may call them leading schools in this respect, show some similar features in improving school curricura utilizing the various resources in the community. They are making necessary internal effort with effective support from the school board and relevant institutions in the community. The current problems we are facing now are as follows: (1) Working strategies should be developed for the support to each school, (2) School leaders should be encouraged cope with the community resources in making the school curricula adequate to the student needs, (3) Linkage among schools in the community should be promoted to find effective devices in order to improve school of each, (4) School board and education center should play a leading role in further development of school improvement.
著者
藤原 文雄
出版者
日本教育経営学会
雑誌
日本教育経営学会紀要 (ISSN:02872870)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.56, pp.24-34, 2014-05-30 (Released:2017-07-06)

The purpose of this study is to consider new perspectives on education management corresponding to a school's diversification of staff. The following three issues are discussed here: 1) Reasons for increased scholarly interest in such diversification based on the point of view of school workforces and research results from the 1960s through 1970s, 2) Reasons for renewed scholarly interest based on the point of view of school workforces and research results after the 1990s, and 3) School staff diversification in foreign countries and England's Workforce Reform. 1) In the first section, we clarified that the rise in the number of full-time support staff and support staff-teaching staff ratios led to increased interest in diversification based on the point of view of school workforces. Additionally, the most important research results of the period from the 1960s through 1970s were that support staff could improve the quality of education by cooperating with teaching staff. 2) In the next section, we clarified that the diversification of the school workforce advanced after the 1990s. Diversity management emerged as a solution to the problems caused by this increase in diversity. 3) In the final section, we discuss the advancement of school workforce diversification in foreign countries after the 1990s and England's Workforce Reform, which worked toward both staff diversification and improvement of their efficiency.
著者
篠原 岳司
出版者
日本教育経営学会
雑誌
日本教育経営学会紀要 (ISSN:02872870)
巻号頁・発行日
no.49, pp.52-66, 2007-05-30

This article aims to clarify a significance and possibility of a theory of school improvement focusing on a reciprocal "practice" by teachers. The examines the theoretical study on "distributed leadership(DL hereafter)" by J. Spillane, it is worked out that teacher leadership is critical in a "practice" to improve both organization and management at the entire school level and educational activity at the classroom level. DL study resolves the problem of how "human" actors should be related with "institutions" or situations. This theory connects actors and situations in a frame, and focuses on the interaction between actors and situations in practice. Distributed cognition and activity theory are the conceptual underpinnings of DL study. The core idea of DL study is the definition of "practice" constituted by the interaction of leaders, followers and their situations. Focusing on its interaction, DL study aims to develop a frame to study the mechanism of how school is improved by leadership practice. DL study derives the significance of teacher leadership to improve school. Teachers are not always followers but potential leaders who are usually near kids in the classroom. Teacher leadership gives three points of significance, which are 1) building internal school improvement against political reform policy, 2) linking to improve academic performance in school, and 3) giving the view that educational government can also improve its capacity including teacher leadership. Besides, the new possibility DL study shows us is the definition of "practice" can involve not only teachers but any other stakeholders like parents. Studying empirically, DL study may expand the existing frame of the study on school improvement and school leadership.