著者
仲田 康一
出版者
日本教育経営学会
雑誌
日本教育経営学会紀要 (ISSN:02872870)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, pp.96-110, 2010-05-30 (Released:2017-07-06)

Though recent educational reforms have led to decentralised school management and parental participation in school administration, the basis of these reforms is thought to be vulnerable. In particular, some researchers express concerns about the relative inferiority of parents. Sociologists in the United Kingdom indicated the marginalization of parent governors by governors from other categories such as co-opted governors from industry or local governors (Vincent 1996; Deem et al. 1995). Thus, this paper aims to clarify the following two issues in Japanese context; (i) to affirm the existence of inactiveness of parents in School Management Committee's discussion and (ii) the reason of parental inactiveness. To approach these issues, I use a case study method in a specific school, which has a School Management Committee (shorten as SMC). I use the following three data sources; the minutes of SMC, interview transcripts, and field notes of the transaction in SMC. There were three main findings from my analysis, (i) There are so-called "silent members" in the formal discussion within SMC, who rarely, if ever contribute to the transaction, and they are unevenly concentrated in parent category. (ii) These "silent members" felt the restrictive condition which has resulted from following two points; 1) Local power relations affect the atmosphere of SMC discussion. 2) Parent members felt the difficulty to represent the large diversity of parents' views to education. (iii) However, across the years, the difference of activity between categories has been maintained and reproduced by the following two points; 3) Local residents become good advisers for the head teacher so that the agenda of SMC come to be preset between the head teacher and local residents, excluding parent members. 4) Local residents also become enthusiastic school supporters. In contrast, parent members are relatively busy because of everyday child rearing, their own job and regular PTA tasks so that the attitude of parents is seen somewhat "unsupportive". As a result, preferential value-adding to locals silenced parent members. As a proposition, I assert that the position of parents among the actors in governing schools reflect the micro social relationship within the school community.
著者
神林 寿幸
出版者
日本教育経営学会
雑誌
日本教育経営学会紀要 (ISSN:02872870)
巻号頁・発行日
no.57, pp.79-93, 2015-06-15

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether engagement in non-teaching work causes heavy workloads of elementary school and junior high school teachers in Japan. Today, teachers' heavy workloads are focused on in Japan. Japanese teachers have longer hours for non-teaching work (for example, paperwork). This is policy issue in Japan. Moreover, some research of Educational Administration points out engagement in non-teaching work (paperwork, dealing with complaints from parents etc.) causes teachers' overloads in Japan. On the other hand, some studies point out involvement in instructions for extracurricular activities (for example, club activities, student counselling) causes Japanese teachers' heavy workloads. Based on the above, we can have a question: what kind of work causes overloads of Japanese teachers? In order to solve the question, several regression models are constructed whose dependent variables are teachers' senses of workloads and whose independent variables are the amount of working hours per a week of 20 each work (teaching, instruction for club activities, paperwork etc.). And then comparison among the values of 20 regression coefficients is conducted, which show how much teachers' senses of workloads rise when the teachers engage in 20 each work for an hour. Through this analysis, we can realize what work makes Japanese teachers feel heavy burdens. The results are as indicated below. 1) Workloads of junior high schools teachers are heavy who have more hours to deal with parents' complaints and paperwork. 2) Moreover, workloads of junior high school teachers are heavy who have more hours to involve in instructions for extracurricular activities. And workloads of elementary school teachers are heavy who have more hours to involve in school events and students counselling. 3) Workloads of female teachers are heavier than those of male teachers. Moreover, workloads of teachers are heavier who a familymember requiring long term care. According to above, in order to lighten Japanese teachers' workloads, we need pay more attention to the amount of teaching in schools and teachers' work-life balance.
著者
古田 雄一
出版者
日本教育経営学会
雑誌
日本教育経営学会紀要 (ISSN:02872870)
巻号頁・発行日
no.57, pp.110-124, 2015-06-15

Many disadvantaged youth in the United States are suffering not only from an academic achievement gap, but also from a profound civic empowerment gap- a widespread marginalization of those youth from civic engagement. Those who are in the low socioeconomic status are much less likely to be civically or politically engaged. The purpose of this study is to explore the significance and possibility of school-based citizenship education to empower youth in poverty and to overcome the civic empowerment gap. Specifically, a case of an urban school which has implemented Public Achievement is investigated. Public Achievement is a grass-roots, project-based citizenship education program, in which teams of young people discuss and solve problems in schools, neighborhoods, or broader communities. Poor neighborhoods tend to shape a hidden curriculum that instills powerlessness in youth and keeps them away from civic engagement. Schools, on the one hand, may reproduce and reinforce the disempowering hidden curriculum in the surrounding community; by not providing adequate civic learning opportunities, schools would send a message to students that they are not expected as productive citizens. On the other hand, the case in this study also suggests the strong possibility of school-based citizenship education; by providing an authentic civic learning opportunity like Public Achievement, schools may be able to empower students, teachers and community members by showing "the world they have never seen", and thus transform the hidden curriculum. Since most poor neighborhoods have many obstacles and very few resources to combat civic empowerment gap, it is significant that schools in such neighborhoods actively promote school-based citizenship education.
著者
河野 和清
出版者
日本教育経営学会
雑誌
日本教育経営学会紀要 (ISSN:02872870)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, pp.91-106, 1988

During the 1950's and the early 1960's, the so-called "theory movement" in American educational administration was initiated and actively developed under the influence of logical positivism. The theory movement provided us with the positivistic paradigm which attempted to study administrative phenomena in the mode of scientific inquiry. This paradigm, until very recently, has dominated inquiry and discourse in educational administration. But, as early as the 1970's, serious questions have been raised about the usefulness of hypothetico-deductive theory and research developed or conducted during the movement. Though there was already critique of the theory movement from its early years, according to J. Culbertson, T. B. Green-field was the first scholar to criticize systematically the presuppositions underlying the core ideals of this movement from phenomenological point of view. The purpose of this paper is to examine the characteristics and the significance of phenomenological approach proposed by Greenfield. The contents are as follows: 1. Introduction 2. Characteristics of the theory movement 3. Epistemological question 4. The view of organization and the research methodology of phenomenological approach 5. The significance of phenomenological approach The debate between the theory movement's pioneers and those who questioned the pioneers is much needed and to be welcomed, for it opens new avenues for pursuing the study of educational administration. The phenomenological approach gives a good deal of impetus to the methodological self-examination and self-awakening in educational administration studies.
著者
坂野 慎二
出版者
日本教育経営学会
雑誌
日本教育経営学会紀要 (ISSN:02872870)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, pp.51-62, 2015-06-15 (Released:2017-07-06)

After the government change to FDP (Free Democratic Party) in 2012, the process of the educational policy making in Japan is changing. The educational committee of FDP shows the guidelines at first. Then the educational committee of the minister president discusses the contents of the FDP committee. After that the central educational committee in the educational ministry can make detail concepts. That means the central educational committee will have less power than in the past. After World War II, the concept of check and balances by the layman control and the professional leadership was imported in the educational administration from the U.S. to Japan. The educational committee law was built in 1948, but because of the much power of the educational board, the law was quitted and the new law was built in 1956. The change of local educational administration law in 2014 will bring a new relationship between the governors/ mayors and the boards of education in each prefecture/ city. The educational policy evaluation is developing not only in the state level but in the local level. In 2001 the Japanese Parliament regulated the mid-term policy evaluations. The educational ministry makes a report of self-evaluation and a new policy plan every year. In addition to such policy evaluation activities the cabinet must decide a five years educational policy plan. In the local level most of the prefectures and cities are evaluated by themselves every year. The educational policies must be evaluated since 2008. The problems of the policy evaluations are developing of the indicators, which must clarify the results and the effects of the educational policies. In many countries the Evidence-based policy making is a popular tendency. In the educational policies the results of the standardized tests are used for the evidences of the educational policies.
著者
牧田 章
出版者
日本教育経営学会
雑誌
日本教育経営学会紀要 (ISSN:02872870)
巻号頁・発行日
no.37, pp.59-67, 1995-06-01

A new relationship between school and community is now on a desirable stage. The rapid urbanization in the last decade loses its speed in 90's. However drastic change has been observed in the population structure and the style of living in many local communities. Schools are expected to build far more improved curricula in regard to the community involvemet. The pilot schools, we may call them leading schools in this respect, show some similar features in improving school curricura utilizing the various resources in the community. They are making necessary internal effort with effective support from the school board and relevant institutions in the community. The current problems we are facing now are as follows: (1) Working strategies should be developed for the support to each school, (2) School leaders should be encouraged cope with the community resources in making the school curricula adequate to the student needs, (3) Linkage among schools in the community should be promoted to find effective devices in order to improve school of each, (4) School board and education center should play a leading role in further development of school improvement.
著者
藤井 穂高
出版者
日本教育経営学会
雑誌
日本教育経営学会紀要 (ISSN:02872870)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, pp.14-23, 2015-06-15 (Released:2017-07-06)

In this paper, we try to explain the importance of school autonomy as the conditions of education for learner autonomy. We examine two research questions as the scaffolds. 1) How can we explain the relationship between teacher autonomy and school autonomy? 2) Can we explain teacher autonomy as the conditions for education of learner autonomy? 1) By examination of the theories on school management in Japan, we can say that the establishment of school autonomy is based on teacher autonomy. So teacher autonomy should be empowered and autonomy and collaboration of teachers are the key factor for school autonomy. But also in Japanese research context, theories of school autonomy don't discuss enough the contents of education for learner autonomy. 2) According to the education theories on the learning of children and teachers, we can point out "similarity" of learning between children and teachers. Also we can say that teachers' learning is the condition of learner autonomy as the archetype. In this sense, teacher autonomy is necessary conditions for learner autonomy. But at the same time, for the education of learner autonomy, teacher's role is also fostering learner autonomy by heteronomy. Finally we discuss the necessity of the integrated theory of learner autonomy and school autonomy which seems to be examined separately today.
著者
小野田 正利
出版者
日本教育経営学会
雑誌
日本教育経営学会紀要 (ISSN:02872870)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, pp.156-160, 2007-05-30 (Released:2017-07-06)

At the end of 2006, the Fundamental Law of Education, which provides what the education in Japan for the period of post-war years should be, was amended. Now, the policy which relates to the reform of school education is placed as the most important issue of the policies in national and municipal governments. The Japanese citizen, national and municipal governments, and mass media etc. often criticize Japanese school education and its teachers, and insist that they change or be reformed. On the other hand, the school teachers who "are forged" or "bear" to reform, are in a severe condition on the point of human, material, and financial resources, so they cannot willingly get engaged in the reform. But, the people demanding that the school education and its teachers change or be reformed don't know or understand such conditions in school sites. In this year's study, the last year of a series of three year studies entitled as "School Sites Wavering in the Educational Reform", we discussed what prescriptions the educational administration researchers could present to the schools. The reporters are as follows. ・ From the side "swaying" the schools-Engaged in the planning stage of educational policies-(Ikuo KOMATSU : National Institute for Educational Research) ・ From the side "wavering (swayed)"(Masatoshi ONODA : Osaka University) ・ From the side "concerned" with the schools (2)(Toshitaka OKATOU: Hiroshima University) ・ From the side "concerned" with the schools (1) -Concerned with the school-sites as a consultant-(Shigeru AMAGASA: Chiba University)
著者
畑中 大路
出版者
日本教育経営学会
雑誌
日本教育経営学会紀要 (ISSN:02872870)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, pp.76-91, 2012-05-30 (Released:2017-07-06)

School management research has recently emphasized the need to recognize the varied phases of the "dynamics of school management". This study investigates those dynamics through exploring the possibilities of Modified Grounded Theory Approach (M-GTA). M-GTA is one of the qualitative research methods derived from Grounded Theory Approach and has been widely used in the study of Nursing, Social Welfare, and so forth. To examine the possibilities of using M-GTA in school management research, this study focuses on how teachers in middle-level positions realize their ideas and negotiate with others through "middle-up-down management"; moreover, demonstrate the process of realizing teacher's ideas in terms of school improvement actions. In this paper, middle-ranking teachers' ideas are defined as initiatives for school improvement. In other words, the effectiveness of the "middle-up-down management" shows that the teachers in middle-level positions attempt to realize their ideas by utilizing their own position, as well as interaction among more senior and junior colleagues. Furthermore, this result reveals the interactional process in schools which consists of three phases "visualizing the status quo", "involvement", and "barriers against the ideas". The process constitutes the "dynamics of school management". Finally, the success of realizing ideas for improvement of schools often depends on the condition in schools and teachers' aspirations to lead the schools in pursuit of improvement. This study both contributes to our understanding of dynamics of school management, and demonstrates the usefulness of M-GTA in analysis of school management.