著者
木暮 貴政 久保田 富夫 村山 陵子 新村 洋未
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.4, pp.171-176, 2011-11-25 (Released:2017-07-28)
参考文献数
29

To evaluate the influence on sleep by mobility and comfort on a mattress, we estimated subjective sleep feelings and measured sleep quality by polysomnography. Ten healthy subjects (4 males, 6 females), aged 62-67, were recorded, sleeping in a laboratory for two nights at a week interval under two crossover designed conditions (EMC: a mattress easy to move and comfortable by first impressions, DMU: a mattress difficult to move and uncomfortable by first impressions). The percentage of wakefulness in the first half of sleep time was significantly increased at DMU. Subjective sleep feelings were better at EMC and subjective evaluations at the time of arising showed EMC was easier to move and more comfortable. These results suggest that mobility and comfort on a mattress is important for better sleep.
著者
新村 洋未 若林 チヒロ 國澤 尚子 萱場 一則 三浦 宜彦 尾島 俊之 柳川 洋
出版者
Japanese Society of Public Health
雑誌
日本公衆衛生雑誌 (ISSN:05461766)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, no.3, pp.170-176, 2008

<b>目的</b> 喫煙対策は健康維持増進を図る上で重要な項目での一つである。この研究の目的は健康日本21発表後10年間で目標達成を目指し地方計画を策定している全国の市町村の喫煙対策の目標設定状況と事業の実施状況を明らかにし,今後の市町村の喫煙対策事業実施の基礎資料を提供することである。<br/><b>方法</b> 2003年の全国調査において地方計画策定済みまたは策定予定と回答した1,446市町村のうち,2005年 6 月20日までに合併終了または合併予定の市町村を除いた953箇所に対し,郵送による質問紙調査を実施した。<br/><b>結果</b> 回答が得られた793市町村(回答率83.2%)のうち,地方計画を策定済みの638市町村を分析対象とした。<br/> 実施事業の内容では,市町村施設の分煙化がもっとも実施率が高く(74.8%),ついで禁煙支援プログラム(35.0%),市町村施設の全面禁煙(32.4%)であった。路上喫煙禁止またはタバコのポイ捨て禁止条例の制定(7.5%),禁煙・分煙を行っている飲食店名の公表,市町村施設の禁煙タイムは 5%以下であった。<br/> また未成年者の喫煙対策は,学校における教育が70%の市町村で実施されているものの,たばこ販売時の年齢確認,自動販売機の削減・撤廃は 5%以下,たばこ広告の制限は実施されている市町村はなかった。<br/> 人口規模の小さい市町村ほど目標設定や禁煙支援プログラムなどの事業や学校内全面禁煙の実施が低かった。<br/><b>結論</b> 「健康日本21」発表以後,市町村における喫煙対策事業は,庁舎内全面禁煙の増加や禁煙支援プログラム等,取り組みが進んでいるが,まだ事業拡大の余地はある。また未成年の喫煙対策は十分でないことが明らかとなった。これらの多くの喫煙対策事業は,人口規模の小さい市町村ほど実施率が低いことから,重点的に支援する体制の必要が示唆された。
著者
國澤 尚子 新村 洋未 小川 鑛一
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム (ISSN:13487116)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, pp.195-205, 2004 (Released:2005-04-15)
参考文献数
6

The objectives of the current research were to clarify differences in beginners' and nurses' techniques for manipulation of a syringe and to propose methods of education for mastering quick and accurate techniques. In this paper, differences in techniques for manipulation of a syringe by nursing students and nurses are discussed from two perspectives. One is the effects of combining the syringe and injection needle in terms of the pressure in the syringe. The other is differences in methods of grasping the syringe. Based on these results, problems relating to adjustment of the force used by a nurse to manipulate a syringe and contact of the fingertip with the plunger become apparent.For measurement of the pressure in the syringe, a processed syringe is connected to a strain gauge type of force conversion device and strain is converted to pressure. For pressing of the plunger, hypodermic injection and extrusion of a drug solution into a vial were performed. For drawing of the plunger, collection of blood and suctioning from a plastic ampule were performed.With regard to pressure in the syringe, the maximum gauge pressure was large for a finer injection needle when the syringe was the same size in all techniques for nursing students as well as nurses. In simulated hypodermic injection, nursing students had a larger maximum gauge pressure with a larger syringe with the same injection needle. However, nurses considered the effects on the body and adjusted force so that the maximum gauge pressure did not increase. Because extrusion from a syringe and suctioning from an ampule are techniques that do not insert a needle in the body, nurses added substantial force and manipulated the syringe in a short period of time. In addition, limits for the addition of force were also considered.Based on classification of patterns of waveforms with regard to drawing of the plunger in suctioning from an ampule, nursing students often had multiple valley-shaped waveforms. Patterns produce waveforms like this because the syringe is passed from hand to hand. Differences in the appearance of waveforms due to the size of the syringe were noted for nurses, indicating separate use of methods of manipulating a syringe plunger as needed.With regard to the grasping of a syringe, nursing students grasp it so as not place their fingertip in contact with the plunger. This is because they are taught in class not to make contact with the plunger based on the perspective of preventing infection. However, a majority of nurses make contact with the plunger when drawing the plunger. That is, making contact with the plunger for drawing of the plunger is a technique in which the plunger is easy to manipulate. Nurses may have adopted an efficient method in clinical settings. Even if the stance that contact with the plunger should be avoided to prevent infection is learned, making contact with the plunger as experience is acquired leads one to conclude that education in techniques for manipulation of injections is vague. Having nurses change the techniques they have acquired is difficult, so sterile gloves should be worn as a general rule when manipulating a syringe.In the future, force added to the suction head of a syringe plunger will be measured and the relationship with internal pressure will be verified.