著者
長尾 秀行 山田 洋 小河原 慶太 有賀 誠司 小金澤 鋼一
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム (ISSN:13487116)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, pp.161-172, 2016 (Released:2017-08-01)
参考文献数
23

本研究の目的は, 力発揮能力改善を目的としたトレーニングであるクイックリフト (以下QL) 動作時の力発揮特性とそのメカニズムを検討することである. 代表的なQLであるパワークリーンを対象に挙上重量が大きい者と小さい者各6名の動作分析の結果, 最大挙上重量が大きい者は, 下肢関節最大トルクとセグメント間のエネルギの流出入量が大きく, 特有の反動動作が見られた. さらに, 最大挙上重量が大きい者と小さい者各10名の筋電図分析と動作分析の結果, 挙上重量が大きい者と小さい者間の下肢関節伸展筋の筋活動度は同等で, 屈筋と伸筋の筋活動から推定した関節剛性と関節トルク立ち上がり速度は挙上重量が大きい者の方が反動動作の前後において大きな値を示した. このことから, QL時の大きな力発揮には下肢関節の剛性を巧みに制御し, エネルギ伝達の効率化を図る必要があることが示された.
著者
那須 大毅 松尾 知之
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム (ISSN:13487116)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, pp.69-78, 2014 (Released:2017-02-15)
参考文献数
17

本研究では, ダーツ投げ動作の鉛直面におけるリリース変数 (リリース時のダーツ位置, 投射速度, 投射角) に着目し, 1) 各リリース変数のばらつきの大きさ, 2) リリース変数間の相互補完構造の度合いに関して, 熟練者 (8名) と初心者 (8名) の違いについて検討した. 各被験者は60投のダーツ投げ動作を実施し, ダーツおよび人差し指の動作を7台の赤外線カメラ (480Hz) で撮影, 座標データを取得した. 分析の結果, パフォーマンス結果のばらつきが小さかった熟練者は初心者と比べて, 1) 全てのリリース変数のばらつきが小さく, 2) リリース変数間の相補構造の度合いも大きかった. ただし一部の熟練者は, 影響が最も強い投射角のばらつきを非常に小さくすることで, パフォーマンス結果のばらつきを小さくしていた.
著者
平山 大作 藤井 範久 阿江 通良 小池 関也
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム (ISSN:13487116)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, pp.91-102, 2008 (Released:2017-02-15)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
6 1

本研究は, 大学野球投手を対象とし, 投球数の増加にともなうキネティクスの変化について検討することを目的とした. 実験試技は, 2台のフォースプラットフォームを埋設した簡易マウンドからストレートを投球するものであった. 被験者には, 10秒間隔で15球投げることを1イニングとし, イニング間に6分の休息をはさみながら9イニング, 計135球の投球を行わせた. 投球数とそれぞれのパラメータから単回帰分析を行い, 回帰係数の有意性について検定を行った (p<0.05). その結果, 投球数の増加にともない, ①踏込脚の股関節伸展の正仕事, 負仕事, 絶対仕事が減少する傾向がみられた. ②投球腕の肩関節内旋の正仕事が減少する傾向がみられた. ③投球腕への関節力による力学的エネルギーの流れの減少がみられた. ④投球腕の肩関節水平内転の正仕事および絶対仕事が増加する傾向がみられた. 以上のことから, 踏込脚の股関節伸展の仕事の減少は, 下肢のトレーニングの重要性を示唆するものであり, 投球腕の肩関節水平内転の仕事の増加は, “上肢動作に頼った投球動作” を示すものであると考えられる.
著者
湯 海鵬 阿江 通良
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, pp.73-84, 1994
被引用文献数
2 1

This study was designed to analyze the jumping forehand smash of elite players based on three-dimensional kinematic data, and to gain insight into the basic badminton smash technique. Jumping smashes of four male elite players were filmed with two high-speed cameras operating at 250Hz with exposure times of 1/1500 and 1/1250 s. Nine jumping smashes were selected for the analysis, and were digitized from the take-off of the jump to the end of the swing in the air. Thirty three-dimensional coordinates for the segment endpoints and racket were computed by a Direct Linear Transformation Method. Small reference poles were fixed to the forearms of the swing arms of the subjects to detect the movements of the radio-ulnar joint and wrist joint. The following six joint angle changes were obtained throughout the smash motion. (a) abduction/adduction angle at the shoulder joint; (b) internal rotation/external rotation angle at the shoulder joint; (c) flexion/extension angle at the elbow joint; (d) pronation/supination angle at the radio-ulnar joint; (e) radial flexion/ulnar flexion angle at the wrist joint; (f) palmar flexion/dorsiflexion angle at the wrist joint. The results showed that internal rotation of the shoulder joint, extension of the elbow joint, and pronation of the radio-ulnar joint seemed to contribute to produce great velocities of the racket head, because the three rotations occurred over the greatest range in the shortest time in the six rotations immediately before contact with the shuttle. Preliminary to the three motions were motions in the opposite direction: external rotation of the shoulder, flexion of the elbow, and supination of the forearm were detected. These motions in the opposite direction would be useful to extend the range of the motion in each joint angle. The results also appeared to be related to intrinsic muscle properties, that greater power can be exerted by the stretching-shortening cycle of the muscles. The time of the last joint rotation starting immediately before contact was in the order of decreasing inertia. Times required for the rotation until contact became shorter in order of occurrence. The faster the rotation was, the later it occurred, and the shorter was the rotation time. This kind of chain and continuous movement of different joints, and different freedom with the same joint, may accelerate the racket head efficiently. The averages of elbow angle and racket angle (the angle between the forearm and racket shaft) were 160.0°and 147.0°at contact, respectively the values may be the suitable choices between the contact height and contact speed in practical play.
著者
眞鍋 芳明 桜井 健一 岩壁 達男 尾縣 貢
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム (ISSN:13487116)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, pp.69-80, 2008 (Released:2017-02-15)
参考文献数
27

本研究の目的は, スクワットトレーニングにおける運動速度を含むトレーニングプロトコルの違いが筋断面積, 筋力および運動パフォーマンスに与える影響を検証することである. 被検者を高重量・低回数負荷で行うStrength群, 5秒間かけて下降および挙上を行うSlow群, そして軽重量を用いて全運動範囲において最大速度で行うSpeed群の3群に分け, 6~8週間のトレーニング前後に身体組成, 筋力および運動パフォーマンステストを実施した. その結果, Slow群においては筋肥大が確認されたものの, 運動パフォーマンスは向上せず, Strength群およびSpeed群においては, 身体組成においては変化が認められなかったが, 跳躍および30m疾走パフォーマンスの向上が認められた.
著者
荻原 直道 工内 毅郎 中務 真人
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム (ISSN:13487116)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, pp.35-44, 2006 (Released:2017-02-15)
参考文献数
30

ヒトの精密把握能力の形態的基盤の進化を明らかにするためには, ヒトと最も近縁なチンパンジー手部構造の形態と機能の関係を理解することが不可欠である. このためCT および屍体解剖により取得した形態学的情報を元に, チンパンジーの手部筋骨格系の数理モデルを構築した. 本モデルを用いてチンパンジーの形態に規定される精密把握能力を生体力学的に推定し, ヒトの手と比較した結果, 特に第1背側骨間筋の付着位置の違いが, ヒトに特徴的な優れた把握能力に大きく寄与していることが示唆された.
著者
中島 求 茂木 勇悟
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム (ISSN:13487116)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, pp.81-90, 2008 (Released:2017-02-15)
参考文献数
13

本研究では, 水泳における筋骨格解析を可能とするため, 著者らが開発ずみで水泳の動力学解析が可能な水泳人体シミュレーションモデルSWUMと筋骨格モデルを統合した, 水泳用全身筋骨格シミュレータを開発した. そのため, まず身体形状, 関節運動, および流体力のSWUMからの出力情報を筋骨格モデルに入力するデータ変換手法を構築した. 次に, 構築したデータ変換手法を, SWUMが実装されたソフトウェアに実装することにより, 統合シミュレータ化を行った. そして開発したシミュレータを用いて, クロール, 平泳ぎ, 背泳ぎ, バタフライの4泳法の解析を行った. さらに従来研究の筋電図測定結果と比較することにより, 本シミュレータの妥当性を検証した. その結果, 本シミュレータによる解析結果は筋電図測定結果と筋力発揮タイミングについて良く一致し, 筋力発揮タイミング推定に関しての本シミュレータの妥当性が確認された.
著者
阿江 通良 湯 海鵬 横井 孝志
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム (ISSN:13487116)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, pp.23-33, 1992-05-20 (Released:2016-12-05)
被引用文献数
131 198

Inertia properties of the body segments such as segment mass, location of the center of mass, and moment of inertia can be measured and predicted in a number of ingenious approaches. They can be classified into a) direct measurements on cadavers, b) indirect measurements on living subjects, and c) mathematical modelling. However, there is little information upon which complete inertial estimates for Japanese people, especially male and female athletes, can be based. The purposes of this study were to determine the mass, center of mass location, and moments of inertia of the body segments for Japanese male and female athletes using a mathematical modelling approach, and to develop a set of regression equations to estimate inertia properties of body segments using simple anthropometric measurements as predictors. Subjects were 215 male and 80 female athletes belonging to various college sport clubs. Each subject, wearing swimming suit and cap, was stereo-photographed in a standing position. Ten body segments including the upper and lower torso were modelled to be a system of elliptical zones 2cm thick based on Jensen and Yokoi et al. Significant prediction equations based on body height, body weight, and segment lengths were then sought, and some prediction strategies were examined. The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1) Table 2 provides a summary of mass ratios, center of mass location ratios and radius of gyration ratios for males and females. There were many significant differences in body segment parameters between the two sexes. This suggests the need to develop different prediction equations for males and females. 2) Close relationships were noted between segment masses and segment lengths and body weight as predictors for all body segments. Table 5 provides coefficients of multiple regression equations to predict segment masses. 3) No close relationship was noted between independent variables and estimates of the center of mass location. This indicates that the variance in the center of mass location in proportion to the segment length was very small, and that location of centers of mass could be estimated by the mean ratio provided in Table 2. 4) Close relationships were noted between segment moments of inertia and segment lengths (except hand and foot), and body weight as predictors. Tables 6 and 7 provide coefficients of multiple regression equations to predict segment moments of inertia from segment lengths and body weight.
著者
藤井 範久 森脇 俊道
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム (ISSN:13487116)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, pp.167-178, 1992-05-20 (Released:2016-12-05)
被引用文献数
2

In order to improve human performance in competitive sports, human motions have been analyzed from various viewpoints. One of the well-known methods is to compare the patterns of joint torques with those of top athletes during the motions. However, such comparisons are not necessarily sufficient to evaluate human motion, since individual differences in muscular forces and anatomical characteristics are not taken into consideration. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the optimal vertical jump (squat jump) motion and the mechanical characteristics of muscular forces. The vertical jump motions of four male subjects were analyzed; their anatomical characteristics are similar, but the muscular force characteristics are different. Each subject performed a squat jump, in response tothe command "jump ashigh as possible," from an initial squat position with 90°hip and knee angles. The reaction force from the platform, the motions of the limb and the body, and the electromyographic (EMG) data were recorded. In order to estimate the optimal control for vertical jump motion under various conditions, a simulation system is applied which is based on the musculoskeletal model with the mean characteristics of muscular forces and the anatomical parameters of the four subjects chosen. In order to investigate the relationship between the optimal vertical jump motion and the mechanical characteristics of muscular force, a series of simulations was carried out by varying the parameters of the musculoskeletal model, such as the force-velocity relationship and the maximum contraction force. The following conclusions are derived from the results of the experiments and the simulations. (1) Change in the force-velocity relationship of human muscles results in a change in the optimal vertical motion and the sequence of the firing pattern of muscles, so that the contraction velocity of muscles does not become extremely large. (2) Changes in maximum contraction forces of some muscles result in changes in the optimal vertical motion and the sequence of the firing pattern of muscles, so that each muscle contracts under the optimal condition for the vertical jump. (3) The firing pattern of muscles is governed by the relationship between the anatomical characteristics and the muscular forces, and the timing of firing is determined by the relationship between the firing patterns and the maximum muscular forces. (4) The maximum contraction forces and the force-velocity relationship have to be improved in order to improve vertical jump performance.
著者
木下 まどか 藤井 範久
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム (ISSN:13487116)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, pp.143-154, 2014 (Released:2017-02-15)
参考文献数
12
被引用文献数
1

本研究の目的は, テコンドーの前回し蹴りを三次元動作分析することで, テコンドー特有の 「速い」 かつ 「早い」 蹴り動作について知見を得ることであった. そこで, 蹴り脚のキックスピードに対する下胴および蹴り脚各関節の運動におけるキネマティクス的貢献を算出した. その結果, インパクト時の膝関節伸展動作による貢献はキックスピードの約60%を占めていた. 上位群は下胴左回旋, 股関節屈曲角速度を適切なタイミングで大きくすることにより, 膝関節伸展に作用する膝関節力を生成していた. したがって, 膝関節伸展動作による貢献を増加させ, 「速い」 かつ 「早い」 蹴り動作を行うために, 下胴および股関節の動きが重要であると推察された.
著者
山崎 信寿
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム (ISSN:13487116)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.85-95, 1990-09-10 (Released:2016-12-05)

Bipedal dinosaurs are huge and curious animals that have short forelimbs, powerful hindlimbs, and a long and heavy tail. The restoration of their posture and locomotion is difficult because of the lack of resemblant living animals. In this study, we paid attention to the harmony between animal motion and body shape, and conversely estimated the posture and locomotion of the bipedal dinosaurs from the characteristics of the body proportions using a computer simulation method. The mathematical model was constructed by the three-dimensional rigid link system with the following fourteen segments: head, neck, thorax, pelvis, upper arms, forearms, thighs, shanks, bottom tail, and top tail. An axis of the central body segments rotates about the vertical axis with a constant pitch angle defined by the initial posture. Each limb moves in the sagittal plane of the thorax or pelvis segment. Body weight is supported by the lumbar joint. Both torque spring and damper element are attached in each joint to prevent large relative rotation. Nonlinear elasticity is given in the knee and elbow joints to avoid hyper-extension of the joint. Using these assumptions, we can deduce seventeen simultaneous second-order differential equations. The numerical calculation of the oscillation mode was performed by using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. By means of this method, we analyzed Allosaurus, which was a typical bipedal dinosaur in the Jurassic period. The length of each segment was estimated from measured data of fossil skeletons. Other physical parameters, such as weight, moment of inertia and center of mass of each segment, were calculated geometrically from the restored shape. The torque spring and damper elements of each joint were referred from living animals. The numerical calculations were performed by assuming several body proportions and postures. The following results were obtained: Stability and walking speed with erect posture are inferior to the horizontal posture. The long and heavy tail is useful to obtain harmonic motion and greater speed. But the weight of the short forelimbs has almost no effects on the locomotion. The narrow distance between the hip joints increases the walking speed and decreases the swing of the body. The walking speed calculated by the stride of fossil pit and the oscillation frequency of the hindlimbs is 5.6km/h, which is within the speed range of mammals. Consequently, we can reconstruct the walking of Allosaurus, which held its trunk and tail horizontal and moved stably at almost mammalian speed.
著者
山崎 信寿
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム (ISSN:13487116)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.85-95, 1990
被引用文献数
6

Bipedal dinosaurs are huge and curious animals that have short forelimbs, powerful hindlimbs, and a long and heavy tail. The restoration of their posture and locomotion is difficult because of the lack of resemblant living animals. In this study, we paid attention to the harmony between animal motion and body shape, and conversely estimated the posture and locomotion of the bipedal dinosaurs from the characteristics of the body proportions using a computer simulation method. The mathematical model was constructed by the three-dimensional rigid link system with the following fourteen segments: head, neck, thorax, pelvis, upper arms, forearms, thighs, shanks, bottom tail, and top tail. An axis of the central body segments rotates about the vertical axis with a constant pitch angle defined by the initial posture. Each limb moves in the sagittal plane of the thorax or pelvis segment. Body weight is supported by the lumbar joint. Both torque spring and damper element are attached in each joint to prevent large relative rotation. Nonlinear elasticity is given in the knee and elbow joints to avoid hyper-extension of the joint. Using these assumptions, we can deduce seventeen simultaneous second-order differential equations. The numerical calculation of the oscillation mode was performed by using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. By means of this method, we analyzed Allosaurus, which was a typical bipedal dinosaur in the Jurassic period. The length of each segment was estimated from measured data of fossil skeletons. Other physical parameters, such as weight, moment of inertia and center of mass of each segment, were calculated geometrically from the restored shape. The torque spring and damper elements of each joint were referred from living animals. The numerical calculations were performed by assuming several body proportions and postures. The following results were obtained: Stability and walking speed with erect posture are inferior to the horizontal posture. The long and heavy tail is useful to obtain harmonic motion and greater speed. But the weight of the short forelimbs has almost no effects on the locomotion. The narrow distance between the hip joints increases the walking speed and decreases the swing of the body. The walking speed calculated by the stride of fossil pit and the oscillation frequency of the hindlimbs is 5.6km/h, which is within the speed range of mammals. Consequently, we can reconstruct the walking of Allosaurus, which held its trunk and tail horizontal and moved stably at almost mammalian speed.
著者
中島 義博 前田 貴司 今石 喜成 岩佐 聖彦 原野 裕司 荻野 美佐 志波 直人 山中 健輔 松尾 重明 田川 善彦
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム (ISSN:13487116)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, pp.235-242, 2000-06-15 (Released:2016-12-05)
参考文献数
10

Purpose Exercise of patients was carried out to maintain and improve their body functions. The load on the hip joint during exercise was analyzed using the integrated EMG and force measurement of agonist and antagonist muscles. Method Experiment 1: The relationship between the integrated EMG and the muscle force of hip abduction was examined to identify their linearity up to 100% MVC using a Cybex 6000. Twelve lower extremities of six healthy males were used. Experiment 2: The load on the hip joint was estimated through this experiment, using twenty lower extremities of ten healthy males. Exercises such as straight leg raising (SLR), hip abduction, and knee extension were performed. The integrated EMG at 100% MVC and the muscle force of agonist and antagonist were measured. Then the integrated EMGs of agonist and antagonist were measured to determine the muscle force in proportion to the force at 100% MVC. Mathematical models were used to analyze the load on the hip joint in each exercise. Results Experiment 1: The integrated EMG and the muscle force of the hip abduction showed a strong linearity up to 100% MVC. Experiment 2: In SLR, the resultant force on the hip joint was 908 N and 1.4 times body weight at 10 degrees hip flexion. It was 765 N and 1.2 times body weight at 20 degrees, and 657 N and equal to body weight at 30 degrees. In hip abduction in the lateral position, it was 1.8 times body weight at 10 degrees hip abduction, and it decreased with increasing hip abduction. In knee extension with sitting, it was 127 N and 0.2 times body weight at a 60-degree knee flexion angle, and it increased gradually with knee extension. Conclusion The analyzed values showed good agreement with those from sensorized prostheses. The proposed method in this study was considered appropriate for evaluating the load on the hip joint during exercise. In SLR, the load was 1.4 times body weight, which was unexpected. Our approach will be applicable to other exercises in a rehabilitation protocol.
著者
小幡 哲史 木下 博
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム (ISSN:13487116)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, pp.37-47, 2014 (Released:2017-02-15)
参考文献数
9

3軸小型力覚センサーを指板に埋め込んだ実験用バイオリンを用いて, 熟練奏者と初心者を対象にビブラート音なしでの単音演奏とビブラート音演奏での指板力を計測した. また, 一部の熟練奏者ではそれに関わる左手の筋活動も同時に計測した. 熟練奏者の単音演奏では, 弦を押さえる瞬間に, 指板力の鋭い立ち上がりが見られ, 遅いテンポではその後力が減少した状態で保たれるが, 速いテンポではパルス波形のみが見られた. ピークの力は1, 2 [Hz] では4.5 [N] を超える程であったが, それより速いテンポでは力が減少した. 一方で, 手内および前腕の筋活動はテンポが速くなるにつれて増大した. 初心者は熟練者に比べ, テンポや指の違いに関わらず, 力発揮が弱かった. ビブラート音演奏では, 熟練者は弦を固定するために一定の垂直方向への力を加えた上で, 弦長を変化させるための長軸方向への力を加えていた. 本研究は, 実際の演奏における指板力の測定を実現し, 得られた指板力情報とテンポや指, ビブラート音や経験の差について, また関連する筋活動について議論した.
著者
眞鍋 芳明 桜井 健一 岩壁 達男 尾縣 貢
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, pp.69-80, 2008

<p>本研究の目的は, スクワットトレーニングにおける運動速度を含むトレーニングプロトコルの違いが筋断面積, 筋力および運動パフォーマンスに与える影響を検証することである. 被検者を高重量・低回数負荷で行うStrength群, 5秒間かけて下降および挙上を行うSlow群, そして軽重量を用いて全運動範囲において最大速度で行うSpeed群の3群に分け, 6~8週間のトレーニング前後に身体組成, 筋力および運動パフォーマンステストを実施した. その結果, Slow群においては筋肥大が確認されたものの, 運動パフォーマンスは向上せず, Strength群およびSpeed群においては, 身体組成においては変化が認められなかったが, 跳躍および30m疾走パフォーマンスの向上が認められた.</p>