著者
安藤 寿康
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.107-112, 2017 (Released:2017-10-31)

Twin method is a traditional way to investigate genetic and environmental (shared and nonshared) influences on human behavior. The number of publicity using twin method is continuously growing recently which robustly shows substantial genetic contribution to almost any aspects of psychological individual differences. Molecular biological techniques and multivariate statistical method called structural equation modeling (SEM) provide several generalizable findings such as very small effect of each single gene, significant genetic mediation in phenotypic correlation, heritability increase in IQ from infancy to young adulthood, and socially important gene x environment interaction. Discordant identical twin method has a powerful possibility to investigate epigenetics.
著者
金 信琴 勝浦 哲夫 岩永 光一 下村 義弘 井上 学
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, no.1, pp.9-16, 2005-02-25 (Released:2017-07-28)
参考文献数
32

This study measured and analyzed the amount of saliva and the taste threshold in response to lighting conditions (illuminance and color temperature) in different ethnic groups. Ten Japanese and ten Chinese healthy non-smoking male college students participated in the study. According to the results of repeated-measure ANOVA, the effect of illumination on the amount of saliva was significant in the Japanese students, and the Chinese students showed same tendencies regarding their saliva response, but not significant. On the other hand, the effect of illuminance on the taste threshold was considered significant in both these groups. Regarding the effect of color temperature, this study found significant changes in taste threshold only for Chinese. It is interesting to note that significant differences in the taste threshold regarding a salty taste were seen between the subject groups. The results of the present study indicated that the lighting condition could be considered an important parameter of taste sensation.
著者
李 吉英 島上 和則 宮崎 良文 佐藤 方彦
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.3, pp.119-125, 2003-08-25 (Released:2017-07-28)
参考文献数
17

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the difference in skin color between 50 Japanese women and 50 Korean women aged in their twenties. We measured the color of bare skin and foundation-applied skin by the Munsell System. Moreover we checked their preference for skin color with "skin color sample board" . The results were analyzed by using a three-factor (nationality, site, make-up) analysis of variance (3-way ANOVA). The results of this study are as follows. l)There was a significant difference between the Japanese and Korean women. The Japanese women had more reddish and brighter skin color than the Korean women. Moreover, the Japanese women showed a low Munsell value. 2) There were no differences in make-up tendencies to between the Japanese and Korean women. Both the Japanese and Korean women had yellowish make-up on their bare skin. In particular, they had darker make-up on their sides of their cheeks. It is a common method of make-up of Japanese and Korean women in their 20's.
著者
岸田 文 崔 多美 綿貫 茂喜
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.3, pp.115-119, 2016 (Released:2017-10-31)

In this study, we investigated the effect of a serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on praise seeking need and rejection avoidance need in young Japanese males (n=111). The results showed that there was no difference in praise seeking need and rejection avoidance need between serotonin transporter gene polymorphism types; however, the correlation between praise seeking need and rejection avoidance need was different depending on the presence of particular serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms. We suggest that serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms should be regarded as one possible factor that affects the relationship between praise seeking need and rejection avoidance need.
著者
中尾 哲也 辻田 純三 山下 陽一郎 増田 研一 金井 成行 平川 和文
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.3, pp.135-145, 2015-08-25 (Released:2017-07-28)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between lower trunk muscular contraction and variety of joint movement on 10 healthy males (20.9 ± 1.6 ages). As a result, with abdominal cave-in compared to abdominal bracing, we found active range of motion and isometric muscular strength in shoulder flexion, shoulder external rotation, hip flexion, hip extension, trunk rotation and trunk extension were increased. Also, the activation of transversus abdominis / obliquus internus on external rotation of shoulder, and the activation of gluteus maximus on trunk extension were increased significantly. The lumbar lordorsis angle and the abdomen length were decreased significantly with abdominal cave-in compared to abdominal bracing.
著者
山崎 和彦 鳥山 菜穂 永倉 由貴 前田 亜紀子
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.3, pp.121-128, 2017 (Released:2017-10-31)

The airflow velocity in clothing (AVC) was measured by using the bi-directional airflow sensor in order to observe the chimney effect and the pumping effect. Eight female participants were asked to wear a separate type raincoat and they kept themselves in a stationary state or performed the rhythmic work. The climatic chamber was controlled at 23℃ or 18℃ (RH50% ). The AVC caused by chimney effect was higher at 18℃ than at 23℃ significantly. The highest value (0.43m/sec) was observed at the chest area. The pumping effect triggered by the rhythmic work caused the air in clothing flowed from the trunk towards the cuff or the hem of a raincoat and overwhelmed the chimney effect.
著者
藤 智亮 勝田 啓亮 坂田 智海 立石 憲治
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.4, pp.181-186, 2013-11-25 (Released:2017-07-28)

In this study, neonates calming responses to three cases of noise, as well as 'no sound' case were assessed with behavioral indices. The three cases of noise are as follows; white noise, pink noise and brown noise. The subjects were 11 neonates (less than four days old). The subjects were exposed to each noise at 70 dB (A-weighted sound pressure level). It was clarified by experimental results that each noise calmed crying neonates down significantly in compare with the 'no sound' case. Particularly brown noise was most effective to calm down crying neonates, since there were marginally significant differences in coded behavioral score between brown noise and the other noises.
著者
庄山 茂子 川口 順子 栃原 裕
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.2, pp.111-117, 2007-05-25 (Released:2017-07-28)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
2

To clarify the differences in the perception of color between two groups with different iris colors, we measured color discrimination ability by the 100 hue test under an illuminance of 500 or 30 lx in Caucassian females with blue-green irises and Mongoloid females with brown irises, and obtained the following results. The total deviation score at 30 lx did not significantly differ between the Caucasian and Mongoloid groups, but that at 500 lx was lower in the Mongoloid group, suggesting that color discrimination was easier at 500 lx in the Mongoloid group. In the Caucasian group, hue discrimination was more difficult in the region from green (G) to purplish blue (PB) compared with the Mongoloid group under an illuminance of 500 lx, and the spectral luminous efficiency decreased in the blue (B) region in the light condition. In both groups, color discrimination in the red (R) region was law at 30 lx, showing significant differences between 30 lx and 500 lx. In the Mongolian group, the discrimination ability in the blue (B) region was significantly lower at 30 lx than at 500 lx. Since color perception differed between the two groups with different iris colors, universal designs giving attention to differences in iris color are necessary.
著者
池田 悠稀 西村 悠貴 キム ヨンキュ 樋口 重和
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.2, pp.69-74, 2016 (Released:2017-10-31)

The purpose of this study was to reveal the relation between the characteristics of emotional contagion and the mirror system activity. Thirty-one university students participated in this experiment. Emotional vocalizations and video of hand reaching and grasping a cup were presented to the participants. Facial electromyography (EMG) as emotional contagion index was recorded while presenting emotional vocalizations. Mu rhythm desynchronization in electroencephalogram (EEG) as mirror system activity index was recorded while presenting the video. The result shows significant correlation between the activity of facial EMG and desynchronization of mu rhythm, suggesting a person who is likely to be affected with emotional vocalizations also shows high mirror activity.
著者
藤井 勝紀 田中 望
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.3, pp.113-121, 2014-08-25 (Released:2017-07-28)

In this study, to determine delayed menarche in individual female athletes, the age at maximum peak velocity of BMI and the interval with age at menarche were analyzed. An attempt was made to verify the frequency with which physical stress gives rise to delayed menarche. The subjects were 95 female athletes and 232 girls in their final year of high school. Information including age, age at menarche, and athletic practice was obtained from a questionnaire given to the athletes and control group. Data were also obtained on the girls' longitudinal growth in height and weight from the first year of elementary school (6 years old) to the final year of high school. BMI was calculated from this data, and the wavelet interpolation method was applied for changes in height and BMI with age from 6 to 17 years old. It was found that among female athletes judged to have had delayed menarche the physical stress type of delayed menarche was much more common than fat-related delayed menarche. Therefore, it is speculated that physical stress acts a large role in delayed menarche in athletes.
著者
木暮 貴政 久保田 富夫 村山 陵子 新村 洋未
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.4, pp.171-176, 2011-11-25 (Released:2017-07-28)
参考文献数
29

To evaluate the influence on sleep by mobility and comfort on a mattress, we estimated subjective sleep feelings and measured sleep quality by polysomnography. Ten healthy subjects (4 males, 6 females), aged 62-67, were recorded, sleeping in a laboratory for two nights at a week interval under two crossover designed conditions (EMC: a mattress easy to move and comfortable by first impressions, DMU: a mattress difficult to move and uncomfortable by first impressions). The percentage of wakefulness in the first half of sleep time was significantly increased at DMU. Subjective sleep feelings were better at EMC and subjective evaluations at the time of arising showed EMC was easier to move and more comfortable. These results suggest that mobility and comfort on a mattress is important for better sleep.
著者
曽根 良昭
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, no.1, pp.48-49, 2005-06-10
参考文献数
2
被引用文献数
1
著者
小関 誠 レカ ラジュ・ジュネジャ 白川 修一郎
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, no.4, pp.143-150, 2004-11-25 (Released:2017-07-28)
参考文献数
35
被引用文献数
2

人生の3分の1を占める「眠り」は人間にとって最も重要な生命現象の一つである。現代においては5人に1人が一ヶ月以内に不眠を経験し、外来新患では一ヶ月以上続く長期不眠愁訴を持つ者が10人に1人以上存在する。また、睡眠障害が引き起こす交通事故等の国民の経済損失は年間1兆4,000億円と算定され、医療費の支出も全国で年間5,000億円以上、睡眠薬にかかる医療コストだけでも最低1,825億円の支出があると推定されている。種々の天然成分が睡眠におよぼす効果はこれまで幾つか報告されている。ヒマラヤスギやマツなどに含まれる香気成分の一つであるセドロールには交感神経の興奮を抑制し副交感神経活動を優位にさせる効果があり、更に睡眠においては総睡眠時間の延長、入眠潜時の短縮、睡眠効率の上昇が認められている。数十種類の香気成分を含む西洋ハーブの一種であるバレリアナには鎮静効果があることが知られており、ヒト臨床試験において睡眠潜時の減少、睡眠の質の改善、徐波睡眠の延長などが確認されている。
著者
板橋 義三
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.1, pp.45-53, 2015-02-25 (Released:2017-07-28)

This paper is an attempt to deal with the origins and formation of the Japanese language, in the light of mostly linguistic aspects of the neighboring languages, such as Old Korean, Old Chinese, Proto-Austronesian, and some archeological aspects. This notion is also based on a linguistic theory that the Japanese is formed through time with language contacts with the neighboring languages mentioned above. This also discusses the particular aspects of language contact of each language and language family in order to suggest that Japanese has been formed by language contacts with those languages.
著者
室山 幸太郎 衣畑 加代子 山下 久仁子 室崎 伸二 山本 佳弘 渡辺 裕彦 曾根 良昭
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, no.3, pp.93-99, 2005-08-25 (Released:2017-07-28)
参考文献数
23

Our previous experimental results have shown that a mixture of thiamin, arginine, caffeine and citric acid (TACC) has an enhancement effect on fat metabolism in mice and human. In this study we examined the effect of tea ingestion, which was supplemented with TACC, on energy expenditure during a rest and an exercise period from the viewpoint of fat metabolism (utilization) in healthy subjects. A single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was carried out to compare the energy expenditure after ingestion of TACC-supplemented tea (thiamin, arginine, caffeine, and citric acid; 1.1, 1240, 52, and 540mg, respectively) or control tea on two consecutive days, in 10 healthy male and female subjects (aged 21-27y) in experiment 1. After the tea ingestion, subjects sat on a chair for 30 min followed by treadmill walking (5km/hr) for 30 min. Respiratory quotient (RQ) and oxygen consumption (VO2) were measured during rest and exercise periods. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was performed in 14 healthy female subjects (aged 21-22y) in experiment 2, of which study design was the same as that of experiment 1 except for an additional measurement of RQ and VO2 before ingestion of the tea for 30 min in the sitting position. As results, total energy expenditure and fat oxidation were similar between the two cases (ingestion of control tea and TACC-tea) during the rest period after tea ingestion both in experiment 1 and experiment 2. On the contrary, treadmill walking resulted in about three-fold increase in total energy expenditure; however, fat oxidation during the exercise was significantly greater in the case of TACC-tea than in the control tea case in the both experiments. This effect of TACC-supplementation, enhanced fat oxidation and energy expenditure, seemed to be positively proportional to subjects' Body Mass Index.
著者
柏原 考爾 室田 真男 清水 康敬
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.4, pp.173-180, 1999-11-25 (Released:2017-07-28)
参考文献数
15
被引用文献数
2

The relationship between the strength (or duration) of physical exercise and a measure of mathematical ability (the calculating score) was examined. verified that the calculating score in the case of exercise (80W, 10minutes) was higher than that in the case of no exercise. It was found that the calculating score went up when the strength of physical exercise was modest (physical exercise of 5, 10 and 15 minutes), but the score went down when the strength was excessive. Next the relationship between the duration of physical exercise and the calculating score was investigated. It was shown that the strength of five minutes of exercise, where the calculating score became highest, was stronger than that of ten or fifteen minutes of exercise. The relationship between the heart rate and the calculating score was also shown.
著者
藤井 進也
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.3, pp.159-165, 2014-08-25 (Released:2017-07-28)

Emerging research field of music and neuroscience has attracted much interest recently on musician's brain and behavior. Nevertheless, motor control mechanisms underlying skilled musical performance are still largely unknown. In this paper, I review recent studies on surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the wrist flexor and extensor muscles in the winner of a contest to find the world's fastest drummer (WFD). By showing the wrist muscle activity of the WFD, I explain possible neuromuscular mechanisms underlying the exceptional musical performance.