著者
金 信琴 勝浦 哲夫 岩永 光一 下村 義弘 井上 学
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, no.1, pp.9-16, 2005-02-25 (Released:2017-07-28)
参考文献数
32

This study measured and analyzed the amount of saliva and the taste threshold in response to lighting conditions (illuminance and color temperature) in different ethnic groups. Ten Japanese and ten Chinese healthy non-smoking male college students participated in the study. According to the results of repeated-measure ANOVA, the effect of illumination on the amount of saliva was significant in the Japanese students, and the Chinese students showed same tendencies regarding their saliva response, but not significant. On the other hand, the effect of illuminance on the taste threshold was considered significant in both these groups. Regarding the effect of color temperature, this study found significant changes in taste threshold only for Chinese. It is interesting to note that significant differences in the taste threshold regarding a salty taste were seen between the subject groups. The results of the present study indicated that the lighting condition could be considered an important parameter of taste sensation.
著者
安藤 寿康
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.107-112, 2017 (Released:2017-10-31)

Twin method is a traditional way to investigate genetic and environmental (shared and nonshared) influences on human behavior. The number of publicity using twin method is continuously growing recently which robustly shows substantial genetic contribution to almost any aspects of psychological individual differences. Molecular biological techniques and multivariate statistical method called structural equation modeling (SEM) provide several generalizable findings such as very small effect of each single gene, significant genetic mediation in phenotypic correlation, heritability increase in IQ from infancy to young adulthood, and socially important gene x environment interaction. Discordant identical twin method has a powerful possibility to investigate epigenetics.
著者
岸田 文 崔 多美 綿貫 茂喜
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.3, pp.115-119, 2016 (Released:2017-10-31)

In this study, we investigated the effect of a serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on praise seeking need and rejection avoidance need in young Japanese males (n=111). The results showed that there was no difference in praise seeking need and rejection avoidance need between serotonin transporter gene polymorphism types; however, the correlation between praise seeking need and rejection avoidance need was different depending on the presence of particular serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms. We suggest that serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms should be regarded as one possible factor that affects the relationship between praise seeking need and rejection avoidance need.
著者
Katsuyasu Kouda Masayuki Iki
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
Journal of PHYSIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY (ISSN:18806791)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.4, pp.127-132, 2010-07-31 (Released:2010-08-01)
参考文献数
62
被引用文献数
12 21

Hormesis is defined as a dose-response phenomenon characterized by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition, and has been recognized as representing an overcompensation for mild environmental stress. The beneficial effects of mild stress on aging and longevity have been studied for many years. In experimental animals, mild dietary stress (dietary restriction, DR) without malnutrition delays most age-related physiological changes, and extends maximum and average lifespan. Animal studies have also demonstrated that DR can prevent or lessen the severity of cancer, stroke, coronary heart disease, autoimmune disease, allergy, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. The effects of DR are considered to result from hormetic mechanisms. These effects were reported by means of various DR regimens, such as caloric restriction, total-nutrient restriction, alternate-day fasting, and short-term fasting. Mild dietary stress, including restriction of amount or frequency of intake, is the essence of DR. For more than 99% of their history, humans lived as hunter-gatherers and adapted to restrictions in their food supply. On the other hand, an oversufficiency of food for many today has resulted in the current global epidemic of obesity and obesity-related diseases. DR may be used, therefore, as a novel approach for therapeutic intervention in several diseases, when detailed information about effects of mild dietary stress on human health is obtained from clinical trials.
著者
中尾 哲也 辻田 純三 山下 陽一郎 増田 研一 金井 成行 平川 和文
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.3, pp.135-145, 2015-08-25 (Released:2017-07-28)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between lower trunk muscular contraction and variety of joint movement on 10 healthy males (20.9 ± 1.6 ages). As a result, with abdominal cave-in compared to abdominal bracing, we found active range of motion and isometric muscular strength in shoulder flexion, shoulder external rotation, hip flexion, hip extension, trunk rotation and trunk extension were increased. Also, the activation of transversus abdominis / obliquus internus on external rotation of shoulder, and the activation of gluteus maximus on trunk extension were increased significantly. The lumbar lordorsis angle and the abdomen length were decreased significantly with abdominal cave-in compared to abdominal bracing.
著者
山崎 和彦 鳥山 菜穂 永倉 由貴 前田 亜紀子
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.3, pp.121-128, 2017 (Released:2017-10-31)

The airflow velocity in clothing (AVC) was measured by using the bi-directional airflow sensor in order to observe the chimney effect and the pumping effect. Eight female participants were asked to wear a separate type raincoat and they kept themselves in a stationary state or performed the rhythmic work. The climatic chamber was controlled at 23℃ or 18℃ (RH50% ). The AVC caused by chimney effect was higher at 18℃ than at 23℃ significantly. The highest value (0.43m/sec) was observed at the chest area. The pumping effect triggered by the rhythmic work caused the air in clothing flowed from the trunk towards the cuff or the hem of a raincoat and overwhelmed the chimney effect.
著者
藤 智亮 勝田 啓亮 坂田 智海 立石 憲治
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.4, pp.181-186, 2013-11-25 (Released:2017-07-28)

In this study, neonates calming responses to three cases of noise, as well as 'no sound' case were assessed with behavioral indices. The three cases of noise are as follows; white noise, pink noise and brown noise. The subjects were 11 neonates (less than four days old). The subjects were exposed to each noise at 70 dB (A-weighted sound pressure level). It was clarified by experimental results that each noise calmed crying neonates down significantly in compare with the 'no sound' case. Particularly brown noise was most effective to calm down crying neonates, since there were marginally significant differences in coded behavioral score between brown noise and the other noises.
著者
Miyo Nakade Hitomi Takeuchi Nozomi Taniwaki Teruki Noji Tetsuo Harada
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
Journal of PHYSIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY (ISSN:18806791)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.5, pp.239-245, 2009-09-30 (Released:2009-10-10)
参考文献数
32
被引用文献数
16 28

Tryptophan (Trp) intake at breakfast promotes morning-typed circadian typology and higher sleep quality in Japanese children aged 0–6 yrs (Harada et al., 2007). This effect may be accelerated by morning exposure to sunlight, which has not yet been tested. This study aimed to investigate such an effect in Japanese children. In May, 2006, an integrated questionnaire was administered to 0–6-year-old children attending one of 12 kindergartens. 906 parents answered the questionnaire for their children and themselves (response rate: 67.4%). The integrated questionnaire included the revised version for children of the Morningness-Eveningness (M-E) Questionnaire and questions on sleep, nutritional balance, mental health, and sunlight exposure. Analysis was made on data from 744 children aged 2–6 (385 girls, 359 boys) whose average M-E score was 20.6±3.46. Children who had breakfast at regular times tended to be more morning-typed and were less frequently angry (p=0.001) and depressed (p=0.007). Children who had nutritionally well-balanced breakfasts tended to be more morning-typed (p<0.001), and woke up and fell asleep at earlier times (p<0.001). Children with higher protein intake tended to have higher M-E scores (p<0.001) and earlier bedtime and wake-up time (p=0.003). Children exposed to sunlight for 30–60 min on their way to kindergarten showed more distinctive shifting-effects to morning-type with protein intake than those exposed to sunlight for less than 20 min (p=0.006). A well-balanced breakfast might be a strong zeitgeber for circadian oscillators of children, and the morning-type driving effect of protein intake could be accelerated by morning exposure to sunlight.
著者
藤井 勝紀 田中 望
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.3, pp.113-121, 2014-08-25 (Released:2017-07-28)

In this study, to determine delayed menarche in individual female athletes, the age at maximum peak velocity of BMI and the interval with age at menarche were analyzed. An attempt was made to verify the frequency with which physical stress gives rise to delayed menarche. The subjects were 95 female athletes and 232 girls in their final year of high school. Information including age, age at menarche, and athletic practice was obtained from a questionnaire given to the athletes and control group. Data were also obtained on the girls' longitudinal growth in height and weight from the first year of elementary school (6 years old) to the final year of high school. BMI was calculated from this data, and the wavelet interpolation method was applied for changes in height and BMI with age from 6 to 17 years old. It was found that among female athletes judged to have had delayed menarche the physical stress type of delayed menarche was much more common than fat-related delayed menarche. Therefore, it is speculated that physical stress acts a large role in delayed menarche in athletes.
著者
池田 悠稀 西村 悠貴 キム ヨンキュ 樋口 重和
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.2, pp.69-74, 2016 (Released:2017-10-31)

The purpose of this study was to reveal the relation between the characteristics of emotional contagion and the mirror system activity. Thirty-one university students participated in this experiment. Emotional vocalizations and video of hand reaching and grasping a cup were presented to the participants. Facial electromyography (EMG) as emotional contagion index was recorded while presenting emotional vocalizations. Mu rhythm desynchronization in electroencephalogram (EEG) as mirror system activity index was recorded while presenting the video. The result shows significant correlation between the activity of facial EMG and desynchronization of mu rhythm, suggesting a person who is likely to be affected with emotional vocalizations also shows high mirror activity.
著者
木暮 貴政 久保田 富夫 村山 陵子 新村 洋未
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.4, pp.171-176, 2011-11-25 (Released:2017-07-28)
参考文献数
29

To evaluate the influence on sleep by mobility and comfort on a mattress, we estimated subjective sleep feelings and measured sleep quality by polysomnography. Ten healthy subjects (4 males, 6 females), aged 62-67, were recorded, sleeping in a laboratory for two nights at a week interval under two crossover designed conditions (EMC: a mattress easy to move and comfortable by first impressions, DMU: a mattress difficult to move and uncomfortable by first impressions). The percentage of wakefulness in the first half of sleep time was significantly increased at DMU. Subjective sleep feelings were better at EMC and subjective evaluations at the time of arising showed EMC was easier to move and more comfortable. These results suggest that mobility and comfort on a mattress is important for better sleep.
著者
Sang-Kab Park Jae-Hyun Park Yoo-Chan Kwon Ho-Sung Kim Mi-Suk Yoon Hyun-Tae Park
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
Journal of PHYSIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY and Applied Human Science (ISSN:13453475)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.3, pp.129-135, 2003 (Released:2003-06-01)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
41 63

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of combined aerobic and resistance training on abdominal fat. Our participants in the study consisted of thirty obese women. They were separated into three groups: a control group (n=10), an aerobic training group (n=10) and a combined training group (n=10). The aerobic training group was composed of 60–70% HRmax (intensity), 60 minutes a day (duration) for 6 days a week (frequency). The combined training group was separated into resistance training (3 days a week, Mon, Wed, Fri) and the aerobic training (3 days a week, Tue, Thu, Sat). The levels for abdominal fat volume were measured by determining the subcutaneous fat volume (SFV), visceral fat volume (VFV), and VFV/SFV by CT (computed tomography). The VO2max was significantly (p<0.05) increased in both groups. The subcutaneous fat and visceral fat levels were decreased in the combined training group more than in the aerobics training group. Also, the lean body mass (LBM) was significantly increased only in the combined training group. In addition, the total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-C were significantly (p<.05) decreased and the HDL-C was significantly (p<.05) increased in both groups. In conclusion, our results observed that combined training decreased abdominal subcutaneous fat and visceral fat more than aerobic training only.
著者
曽根 良昭
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, no.1, pp.48-49, 2005-06-10
参考文献数
2
被引用文献数
1
著者
室山 幸太郎 衣畑 加代子 山下 久仁子 室崎 伸二 山本 佳弘 渡辺 裕彦 曾根 良昭
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, no.3, pp.93-99, 2005-08-25 (Released:2017-07-28)
参考文献数
23

Our previous experimental results have shown that a mixture of thiamin, arginine, caffeine and citric acid (TACC) has an enhancement effect on fat metabolism in mice and human. In this study we examined the effect of tea ingestion, which was supplemented with TACC, on energy expenditure during a rest and an exercise period from the viewpoint of fat metabolism (utilization) in healthy subjects. A single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was carried out to compare the energy expenditure after ingestion of TACC-supplemented tea (thiamin, arginine, caffeine, and citric acid; 1.1, 1240, 52, and 540mg, respectively) or control tea on two consecutive days, in 10 healthy male and female subjects (aged 21-27y) in experiment 1. After the tea ingestion, subjects sat on a chair for 30 min followed by treadmill walking (5km/hr) for 30 min. Respiratory quotient (RQ) and oxygen consumption (VO2) were measured during rest and exercise periods. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was performed in 14 healthy female subjects (aged 21-22y) in experiment 2, of which study design was the same as that of experiment 1 except for an additional measurement of RQ and VO2 before ingestion of the tea for 30 min in the sitting position. As results, total energy expenditure and fat oxidation were similar between the two cases (ingestion of control tea and TACC-tea) during the rest period after tea ingestion both in experiment 1 and experiment 2. On the contrary, treadmill walking resulted in about three-fold increase in total energy expenditure; however, fat oxidation during the exercise was significantly greater in the case of TACC-tea than in the control tea case in the both experiments. This effect of TACC-supplementation, enhanced fat oxidation and energy expenditure, seemed to be positively proportional to subjects' Body Mass Index.
著者
藤井 進也
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.3, pp.159-165, 2014-08-25 (Released:2017-07-28)

Emerging research field of music and neuroscience has attracted much interest recently on musician's brain and behavior. Nevertheless, motor control mechanisms underlying skilled musical performance are still largely unknown. In this paper, I review recent studies on surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the wrist flexor and extensor muscles in the winner of a contest to find the world's fastest drummer (WFD). By showing the wrist muscle activity of the WFD, I explain possible neuromuscular mechanisms underlying the exceptional musical performance.
著者
板橋 義三
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.1, pp.45-53, 2015-02-25
著者
Yoshitake Ryohji
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
Applied Human Science (ISSN:13413473)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.6, pp.287-292, 1995
被引用文献数
13

Small computers are much in demand for mobile computing. However, keyboard size is an obstacle to further size reduction. Reducing the space occupied by keys would affect the usability of the keyboard. On the other hand, if the keys were closer together, the fingers would reach them faster. This could improve typing performance. An experiment was therefore conducted to investigate the relationship between users' performance and the center-to-center key space of reduced-size keyboards. Eighteen touch-typists were asked to do a word typing task on five different keyboards. A standard keyboard with a key space of 19.05 mm and smaller keyboards with key spaces of 16.7, 16.0, 15.6, and 15.0 mm were used in this study. No performance degradation was found on keyboards with a key space of 16.7 mm for faster typists (those capable of about 40 wpm), including those with large fingers (97.5 percentile of Japanese adult males). For faster typists with narrow fingers, there was no performance degradation on keyboards with a key space of 15.0 mm.