著者
安藤 寿康
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.107-112, 2017 (Released:2017-10-31)

Twin method is a traditional way to investigate genetic and environmental (shared and nonshared) influences on human behavior. The number of publicity using twin method is continuously growing recently which robustly shows substantial genetic contribution to almost any aspects of psychological individual differences. Molecular biological techniques and multivariate statistical method called structural equation modeling (SEM) provide several generalizable findings such as very small effect of each single gene, significant genetic mediation in phenotypic correlation, heritability increase in IQ from infancy to young adulthood, and socially important gene x environment interaction. Discordant identical twin method has a powerful possibility to investigate epigenetics.
著者
金 信琴 勝浦 哲夫 岩永 光一 下村 義弘 井上 学
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, no.1, pp.9-16, 2005-02-25 (Released:2017-07-28)
参考文献数
32

This study measured and analyzed the amount of saliva and the taste threshold in response to lighting conditions (illuminance and color temperature) in different ethnic groups. Ten Japanese and ten Chinese healthy non-smoking male college students participated in the study. According to the results of repeated-measure ANOVA, the effect of illumination on the amount of saliva was significant in the Japanese students, and the Chinese students showed same tendencies regarding their saliva response, but not significant. On the other hand, the effect of illuminance on the taste threshold was considered significant in both these groups. Regarding the effect of color temperature, this study found significant changes in taste threshold only for Chinese. It is interesting to note that significant differences in the taste threshold regarding a salty taste were seen between the subject groups. The results of the present study indicated that the lighting condition could be considered an important parameter of taste sensation.
著者
李 吉英 島上 和則 宮崎 良文 佐藤 方彦
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.3, pp.119-125, 2003-08-25 (Released:2017-07-28)
参考文献数
17

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the difference in skin color between 50 Japanese women and 50 Korean women aged in their twenties. We measured the color of bare skin and foundation-applied skin by the Munsell System. Moreover we checked their preference for skin color with "skin color sample board" . The results were analyzed by using a three-factor (nationality, site, make-up) analysis of variance (3-way ANOVA). The results of this study are as follows. l)There was a significant difference between the Japanese and Korean women. The Japanese women had more reddish and brighter skin color than the Korean women. Moreover, the Japanese women showed a low Munsell value. 2) There were no differences in make-up tendencies to between the Japanese and Korean women. Both the Japanese and Korean women had yellowish make-up on their bare skin. In particular, they had darker make-up on their sides of their cheeks. It is a common method of make-up of Japanese and Korean women in their 20's.
著者
岸田 文 崔 多美 綿貫 茂喜
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.3, pp.115-119, 2016 (Released:2017-10-31)

In this study, we investigated the effect of a serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on praise seeking need and rejection avoidance need in young Japanese males (n=111). The results showed that there was no difference in praise seeking need and rejection avoidance need between serotonin transporter gene polymorphism types; however, the correlation between praise seeking need and rejection avoidance need was different depending on the presence of particular serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms. We suggest that serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms should be regarded as one possible factor that affects the relationship between praise seeking need and rejection avoidance need.
著者
中尾 哲也 辻田 純三 山下 陽一郎 増田 研一 金井 成行 平川 和文
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.3, pp.135-145, 2015-08-25 (Released:2017-07-28)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between lower trunk muscular contraction and variety of joint movement on 10 healthy males (20.9 ± 1.6 ages). As a result, with abdominal cave-in compared to abdominal bracing, we found active range of motion and isometric muscular strength in shoulder flexion, shoulder external rotation, hip flexion, hip extension, trunk rotation and trunk extension were increased. Also, the activation of transversus abdominis / obliquus internus on external rotation of shoulder, and the activation of gluteus maximus on trunk extension were increased significantly. The lumbar lordorsis angle and the abdomen length were decreased significantly with abdominal cave-in compared to abdominal bracing.
著者
山崎 和彦 鳥山 菜穂 永倉 由貴 前田 亜紀子
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.3, pp.121-128, 2017 (Released:2017-10-31)

The airflow velocity in clothing (AVC) was measured by using the bi-directional airflow sensor in order to observe the chimney effect and the pumping effect. Eight female participants were asked to wear a separate type raincoat and they kept themselves in a stationary state or performed the rhythmic work. The climatic chamber was controlled at 23℃ or 18℃ (RH50% ). The AVC caused by chimney effect was higher at 18℃ than at 23℃ significantly. The highest value (0.43m/sec) was observed at the chest area. The pumping effect triggered by the rhythmic work caused the air in clothing flowed from the trunk towards the cuff or the hem of a raincoat and overwhelmed the chimney effect.
著者
藤 智亮 勝田 啓亮 坂田 智海 立石 憲治
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.4, pp.181-186, 2013-11-25 (Released:2017-07-28)

In this study, neonates calming responses to three cases of noise, as well as 'no sound' case were assessed with behavioral indices. The three cases of noise are as follows; white noise, pink noise and brown noise. The subjects were 11 neonates (less than four days old). The subjects were exposed to each noise at 70 dB (A-weighted sound pressure level). It was clarified by experimental results that each noise calmed crying neonates down significantly in compare with the 'no sound' case. Particularly brown noise was most effective to calm down crying neonates, since there were marginally significant differences in coded behavioral score between brown noise and the other noises.
著者
庄山 茂子 川口 順子 栃原 裕
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.2, pp.111-117, 2007-05-25 (Released:2017-07-28)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
2

To clarify the differences in the perception of color between two groups with different iris colors, we measured color discrimination ability by the 100 hue test under an illuminance of 500 or 30 lx in Caucassian females with blue-green irises and Mongoloid females with brown irises, and obtained the following results. The total deviation score at 30 lx did not significantly differ between the Caucasian and Mongoloid groups, but that at 500 lx was lower in the Mongoloid group, suggesting that color discrimination was easier at 500 lx in the Mongoloid group. In the Caucasian group, hue discrimination was more difficult in the region from green (G) to purplish blue (PB) compared with the Mongoloid group under an illuminance of 500 lx, and the spectral luminous efficiency decreased in the blue (B) region in the light condition. In both groups, color discrimination in the red (R) region was law at 30 lx, showing significant differences between 30 lx and 500 lx. In the Mongolian group, the discrimination ability in the blue (B) region was significantly lower at 30 lx than at 500 lx. Since color perception differed between the two groups with different iris colors, universal designs giving attention to differences in iris color are necessary.
著者
Miyo Nakade Hitomi Takeuchi Nozomi Taniwaki Teruki Noji Tetsuo Harada
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
Journal of PHYSIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY (ISSN:18806791)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.5, pp.239-245, 2009-09-30 (Released:2009-10-10)
参考文献数
32
被引用文献数
16 32

Tryptophan (Trp) intake at breakfast promotes morning-typed circadian typology and higher sleep quality in Japanese children aged 0–6 yrs (Harada et al., 2007). This effect may be accelerated by morning exposure to sunlight, which has not yet been tested. This study aimed to investigate such an effect in Japanese children. In May, 2006, an integrated questionnaire was administered to 0–6-year-old children attending one of 12 kindergartens. 906 parents answered the questionnaire for their children and themselves (response rate: 67.4%). The integrated questionnaire included the revised version for children of the Morningness-Eveningness (M-E) Questionnaire and questions on sleep, nutritional balance, mental health, and sunlight exposure. Analysis was made on data from 744 children aged 2–6 (385 girls, 359 boys) whose average M-E score was 20.6±3.46. Children who had breakfast at regular times tended to be more morning-typed and were less frequently angry (p=0.001) and depressed (p=0.007). Children who had nutritionally well-balanced breakfasts tended to be more morning-typed (p<0.001), and woke up and fell asleep at earlier times (p<0.001). Children with higher protein intake tended to have higher M-E scores (p<0.001) and earlier bedtime and wake-up time (p=0.003). Children exposed to sunlight for 30–60 min on their way to kindergarten showed more distinctive shifting-effects to morning-type with protein intake than those exposed to sunlight for less than 20 min (p=0.006). A well-balanced breakfast might be a strong zeitgeber for circadian oscillators of children, and the morning-type driving effect of protein intake could be accelerated by morning exposure to sunlight.
著者
池田 悠稀 西村 悠貴 キム ヨンキュ 樋口 重和
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.2, pp.69-74, 2016 (Released:2017-10-31)

The purpose of this study was to reveal the relation between the characteristics of emotional contagion and the mirror system activity. Thirty-one university students participated in this experiment. Emotional vocalizations and video of hand reaching and grasping a cup were presented to the participants. Facial electromyography (EMG) as emotional contagion index was recorded while presenting emotional vocalizations. Mu rhythm desynchronization in electroencephalogram (EEG) as mirror system activity index was recorded while presenting the video. The result shows significant correlation between the activity of facial EMG and desynchronization of mu rhythm, suggesting a person who is likely to be affected with emotional vocalizations also shows high mirror activity.
著者
藤井 勝紀 田中 望
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.3, pp.113-121, 2014-08-25 (Released:2017-07-28)

In this study, to determine delayed menarche in individual female athletes, the age at maximum peak velocity of BMI and the interval with age at menarche were analyzed. An attempt was made to verify the frequency with which physical stress gives rise to delayed menarche. The subjects were 95 female athletes and 232 girls in their final year of high school. Information including age, age at menarche, and athletic practice was obtained from a questionnaire given to the athletes and control group. Data were also obtained on the girls' longitudinal growth in height and weight from the first year of elementary school (6 years old) to the final year of high school. BMI was calculated from this data, and the wavelet interpolation method was applied for changes in height and BMI with age from 6 to 17 years old. It was found that among female athletes judged to have had delayed menarche the physical stress type of delayed menarche was much more common than fat-related delayed menarche. Therefore, it is speculated that physical stress acts a large role in delayed menarche in athletes.
著者
木暮 貴政 久保田 富夫 村山 陵子 新村 洋未
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.4, pp.171-176, 2011-11-25 (Released:2017-07-28)
参考文献数
29

To evaluate the influence on sleep by mobility and comfort on a mattress, we estimated subjective sleep feelings and measured sleep quality by polysomnography. Ten healthy subjects (4 males, 6 females), aged 62-67, were recorded, sleeping in a laboratory for two nights at a week interval under two crossover designed conditions (EMC: a mattress easy to move and comfortable by first impressions, DMU: a mattress difficult to move and uncomfortable by first impressions). The percentage of wakefulness in the first half of sleep time was significantly increased at DMU. Subjective sleep feelings were better at EMC and subjective evaluations at the time of arising showed EMC was easier to move and more comfortable. These results suggest that mobility and comfort on a mattress is important for better sleep.
著者
木村 亮介
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.87-91, 2019 (Released:2019-07-10)

Modern humans dispersed into East Asia approximately 40K years ago and genetically adapted to unprecedented environmental conditions. Signatures of local genetic adaptations, which are engraved in our genome, can be detected using population genomics approaches. Human genome variation data have enabled a comprehensive search for genetic variants showing such signatures as well as for those associated with phenotypic variation. Although our knowledge about local genetic adaptations has increased due to recent research efforts, little is known about what selective pressures acted on the selected variants.
著者
太田 博樹
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.91-96, 2017 (Released:2017-10-31)

Twin research has been of fundamental importance to the field of human genetics. There are two phases to twin studies: 1) a biological interest for twins, and 2) usefulness of schemes using twin characteristics. In this review, I outline the two phases of twin studies, related to both genome and epigenome studies, and discuss the potential expansion of twin studies in physiological anthropology in the near future.
著者
伊藤 理絵 本多 薫
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.4, pp.83-89, 2010
参考文献数
11

The purpose of this study is to examine how background music (BGM) influences the retrieval processes of pictures in memory. In this study, 9 subjects (4 males, 5 females) looked at three different pictures. Each picture was shown with a different piece of music playing in the background. None of the subjects knew that they would be asked about the music later. As a result, although the music was not consciously heard, the music itself has a factor that becomes associated with memory. Therefore, retrieval processes in memory are promoted by music. This indicates that humans use information that may not even be consciously identified to unify their confusing environment.
著者
藤井 進也
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.3, pp.159-165, 2014-08-25 (Released:2017-07-28)

Emerging research field of music and neuroscience has attracted much interest recently on musician's brain and behavior. Nevertheless, motor control mechanisms underlying skilled musical performance are still largely unknown. In this paper, I review recent studies on surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the wrist flexor and extensor muscles in the winner of a contest to find the world's fastest drummer (WFD). By showing the wrist muscle activity of the WFD, I explain possible neuromuscular mechanisms underlying the exceptional musical performance.
著者
Sang-Kab Park Jae-Hyun Park Yoo-Chan Kwon Ho-Sung Kim Mi-Suk Yoon Hyun-Tae Park
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
Journal of PHYSIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY and Applied Human Science (ISSN:13453475)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.3, pp.129-135, 2003 (Released:2003-06-01)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
41 75

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of combined aerobic and resistance training on abdominal fat. Our participants in the study consisted of thirty obese women. They were separated into three groups: a control group (n=10), an aerobic training group (n=10) and a combined training group (n=10). The aerobic training group was composed of 60–70% HRmax (intensity), 60 minutes a day (duration) for 6 days a week (frequency). The combined training group was separated into resistance training (3 days a week, Mon, Wed, Fri) and the aerobic training (3 days a week, Tue, Thu, Sat). The levels for abdominal fat volume were measured by determining the subcutaneous fat volume (SFV), visceral fat volume (VFV), and VFV/SFV by CT (computed tomography). The VO2max was significantly (p<0.05) increased in both groups. The subcutaneous fat and visceral fat levels were decreased in the combined training group more than in the aerobics training group. Also, the lean body mass (LBM) was significantly increased only in the combined training group. In addition, the total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-C were significantly (p<.05) decreased and the HDL-C was significantly (p<.05) increased in both groups. In conclusion, our results observed that combined training decreased abdominal subcutaneous fat and visceral fat more than aerobic training only.
著者
曽根 良昭
出版者
日本生理人類学会
雑誌
日本生理人類学会誌 (ISSN:13423215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, no.1, pp.48-49, 2005-06-10
参考文献数
2
被引用文献数
1