- 一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
- 科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
- vol.12, no.1, pp.14-21, 1988-03-10 (Released:2017-06-30)
642 children of grade 1 and 2 were given eight types of word arithmetic problems to test their understanding of semantic structure of addition and subtraction from two points of view: (1) choosing operations required to solve word arithmetic problems, and (2) making up word arithmetic problems to fit given calculations. The types of addition problems were join, combine, compare (compared quality unknown), and those of subtraction problems were separate, combine, compare (difference unknown), compare (compared quality unknown), join missing addend. The main findings are as follows. (a) Semantic structure has a profound effect upon the relative difficulty of word arithmetic problems. (b) Considering the childrens' performance from the two points mentioned above, especially, compare (compared quality unknown) [addition], combine [subtraction], and join missing addend problems are more difficult than others. (c) It is more difficult for children to make up word arithmetic problems to fit given calculations than to solve ordinary word arithmetic problems.