著者
木村 優里
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.4, pp.398-415, 2017 (Released:2018-01-30)
参考文献数
26
被引用文献数
1

In science education research so far, a kind of dichotomy between science experts and the lay public has often been popularly presupposed, and little attention has been paid to those in between, who continue to engage in scientific practices after finishing their schooling as non-professional scientists. They can be called ‘amateur scientists’, and are the target of this study. The purpose of this study is to explore possible or probable factors (internal motivation and socio-cultural contexts) by which amateur scientists can continue to commit themselves to their scientific practices, and generate a hypothetical model of these factors and their interrelationships. In order to tackle this issue, investigations were made to identify the motivations of amateur scientists and the socio-cultural factors around them through a semi-structured interview (using the Modified-Grounded Theory Approach). A hypothetical model was then generated, explaining the reasons why these amateur scientists could continue to devote themselves to their favorite scientific practices.
著者
岡本 紗知
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.1, pp.14-29, 2020 (Released:2020-04-11)
参考文献数
24

The purpose of this research is to determine how stereotypical views of the sciences and humanities are formed among university students. Thirty undergraduate or graduated students were semi-structurally interviewed, and the collected data were analyzed by the modified grounded-theory approach (M-GTA). The analysis revealed that, prior to the formation of stereotypical views, students first recognized their aptitudes for one of two categories: sciences or humanities. Once they established their aptitudes, they started to recognize those who were in the opposite category. When they encountered “ideal figures” in such categories, they unconsciously extracted some features and regarded them as common features shared among those in such categories. These common characteristics were further interpreted based on their own views and beliefs, which essentially led to forming stereotypical views. This study suggests that the stereotypical views of the sciences and humanities are not universal; they are gradually formed in parallel with students’ constant struggle to navigate themselves during countless decisions for academic and career planning.
著者
松本 伸示 北浦 隆生
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.3, pp.220-228, 1999-06-30 (Released:2017-06-30)
参考文献数
12

It is said that biological education in today's high school has many problems. The purpose of this paper is to explain the existence of those problems, and to search for possible clues for solving them. For the purpose of achieving this goal, an analysis was made of the historical transition of biological education since the Second World War. The materials that were analyzed include sets of the course of study and textbooks used in each period. The characteristics of a particular course of study in each period were extracted through this analysis. The following characteristics of biological education in Japan became clear from the analysis : 1. The basic structure of high school biological education contents has not changed since the curriculum movement of science education ; 2. The basic concepts which have been used in biological education have been retained ; 3. There was some old-fashioned content as a result of the introduction of too little new content of biology in recent years ; and 4. A serious problem exists in the biological education content structure due to the elimination of content as a result of revisions made in the courses of study.
著者
木村 優里
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.4, pp.398-415, 2017

<p>In science education research so far, a kind of dichotomy between science experts and the lay public has often been popularly presupposed, and little attention has been paid to those in between, who continue to engage in scientific practices after finishing their schooling as non-professional scientists. They can be called 'amateur scientists', and are the target of this study. The purpose of this study is to explore possible or probable factors (internal motivation and socio-cultural contexts) by which amateur scientists can continue to commit themselves to their scientific practices, and generate a hypothetical model of these factors and their interrelationships. In order to tackle this issue, investigations were made to identify the motivations of amateur scientists and the socio-cultural factors around them through a semi-structured interview (using the Modified-Grounded Theory Approach). A hypothetical model was then generated, explaining the reasons why these amateur scientists could continue to devote themselves to their favorite scientific practices.</p>
著者
岡本 紗知
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.1, pp.3-11, 2018 (Released:2018-07-11)
参考文献数
45

Despite its advanced level of scientific research, Japan suffers from a low level of adult scientific literacy compared to many other developed countries. The current situation certainly necessitates a nationwide, robust solution. However, to implement any countermeasures, it is essential to first answer one of the fundamental questions: Does current school education guarantee the acquisition and maintenance of scientific literacy? To provide an answer, the present study examined high school textbooks from both Japan and Canada. Canada was chosen as a counterpart, since Canadian adults reportedly possess outstanding levels of scientific literacy. In this comparative analysis, questions from all of the biology textbooks were examined to reveal the directed level of cognitive processes, key factors considered to play essential roles for becoming scientifically literate. Categorization based on Bloom’s Taxonomy clearly demonstrated that Japanese high school textbooks were not equipped with questions that foster higher cognitive processes, contrary to the Canadian textbooks. Overall, the government-approved textbooks currently used throughout Japan appear to be insufficient for guaranteeing the acquisition and maintenance of scientific literacy.
著者
土井 徹 林 武広
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.3, pp.212-224, 2015 (Released:2016-02-24)
参考文献数
23
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this study is to reveal how alien species are dealt with in textbooks about living environment studies, science, and biology from elementary to high school. From an analysis of students’ responses in lessons about alien species, possibilities and points to be noted for executing science lessons about biodiversity in elementary school were also examined. As a result, the following three points were identified.(1) The textbooks checked in this study have a total of 126 kinds of alien species, of which 10 are alien invasive species, and 23 are careful invasive species.(2) The textbooks have some description of how to cope with the problem of invasive species for most of alien invasive species; they also and have descriptons suggesting that their multiplication and release are encouraged, wheras there is little description about careful invasive species. (3)There are lessons that we had suggested to the students for proper understanding of alien species, indicating that lessons that encourage understanding of alien species in elementary school are possible. We have to examine opportunities and contents for doing so.
著者
三宅 なほみ 大島 純 益川 弘如
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.2, pp.43-53, 2014 (Released:2014-09-11)
参考文献数
41
被引用文献数
1

This manuscript aims to introduce a discipline called the learning sciences to readers of this journal. Naomi Miyake spent years in the graduate program at UC San Diego in 1980s, was involved in the emergence of cognitive science and has expanded her basic research toward classroom practices. Jun Oshima spent years in 1990s as a graduate student at the University of Toronto to work on how computers can support students’ knowledge building in the classroom and has continued lesson studies in Japan. The two researchers had three meetings to talk about their research field. Their conversation was structured as a story line by Hiroyuki Masukawa. First, it starts with Miyake’s talk about how the cognitive science emerged and came to be related to the learning sciences. Second, Oshima describes his experience to be in the vortex of the emergence of the learning sciences and research projects in the 90s. Third, the talk continues to discuss more deeply a disciplinary issue of how we treat human learning in the learning sciences. Finally, we wrap up our talk by summarizing the future of this discipline and how we will approach collaboration with practitioners and other stakeholders in education.
著者
本多 素子 飯田 隆一 大谷 忠 谷田貝 麻美子
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.3, pp.373-382, 2017 (Released:2017-10-18)
参考文献数
11

Recently, affordable desktop digital fabrication tools such as 3D printers and laser cutters, and design data sharing via the Internet have been maximizing the potential for personal production. The purpose of this study is to elucidate an overview of Fab Labs in Japan and the extent of their support for beginners in digital fabrication. We conducted field research at 8 Fab Labs in Japan, the first research of multiple Fab Labs conducted by an external research team. The research included site visits, interviews with the managers of Fab Labs, and observations of instructor-led lessons and “open labs”. Field research results showed the current state of difficulties for beginners, support activities for them, and knowledge sharing practice in Fab Labs in Japan. Regarding the first difficulty, “preparing design data”, instructor-led lessons and guidance on reuse of shared data appeared to be useful to them. Regarding the second difficulty, “developing a plan of work”, reference to work produced by others and sharing knowledge generally, provides hints for beginners. Communication amongst participants at the “open lab” was also recognized as a support for beginners.
著者
石井 俊行 寺窪 佑騎
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.1, pp.25-36, 2018 (Released:2018-07-11)
参考文献数
13

The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that inhibit students’ solving the problems of concentration in junior high school science. We identified eight types of factors; “comprehension of the structure of saline water”, “comprehension of the structure of solution”, “grasp of the formula of concentration of saline water”, “grasp of the formula of concentration”, “ability of converting percentages to decimal numbers”, “computing power of the percentage”, “ability of solving equations”, “ability of the deformation of the formula”. It also became evident that students have six learning stages in order to solve the problems of concentration. Therefore, students become able to solve those problems by achieving the six learning stages.
著者
雲財 寛 中村 大輝
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.4, pp.301-313, 2018 (Released:2019-02-02)
参考文献数
29

The purpose of this study was to develop a Need-for-Cognition-in-Science (NFCS) Scale and to clarify students’ NFCS. We confirmed reliability and validity by quantitative analysis. The results of the analysis revealed that primary school students’ NFCS is higher than that of lower secondary school students.
著者
礒田 誠 宮花 昂平
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.1, pp.27-33, 2014 (Released:2014-09-10)
参考文献数
5

We present and discuss the results of a survey on comprehension and of a simple experiment on the contents required in the teacher training education concerning the direct-current electric circuit in the science textbook for fourth graders in Japan. We demonstrate the effects introduced into the electric circuit by “the internal resistance of a dry cell battery” and “the non-linear resistivity of a miniature bulb” in the experiment, and discuss the educational contents and methods of elementary school teacher training.
著者
川崎 謙
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.1, pp.2-10, 2001-03-10 (Released:2017-06-30)
参考文献数
48
被引用文献数
1

This paper presents a cross-cultural study on concepts of "experiment" between Western Modern Science, i.e., W-M science, and Japanese culture. This study will make it possible to liberate science educators in Japan as well as those in other non-Western nations from a dogma which forces them to accept the universality of W-M scienee. The first step of the study is to establish a viewpoint to relativize the worldview of W-M scienee to that of Japanese culture in a synchronic perspective; in other words, W-M seience is recognized to be a possible alternative in science educatioru. The second is to coin undefined terms that include "experiment". They have no intensions and encompass both intellectual systems concerned. The third is to establish an axiomatic system to illustrate a relation between the undefined terms. The axiom is as follows : In the sphere of [EXPERIlVIBNTJ, [NATURE] is[0BSERVEI)]. In this axiom, each of the undefined terms is written in capital letters and stressed by a pair of brackets. Since undefined terms have no intensions, the respective cultural aspects of both "jikken" and "experiment" can be derived from the axiom. In this process, science educators can be aware of "jikken" incommensurable with "experiment". Within the axiomatic relation as a reference frame for science education research, an epistemological reflection of pupils' and students' culture can be accomplished in science education.
著者
長沼 祥太郎
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.2, pp.114-123, 2015 (Released:2015-06-30)
参考文献数
56
被引用文献数
5

About 20 years have passed since a “Decline in students’ positive attitude toward science” was first pointed out in the late 1980s. Various efforts, including the Support for Super Science High Schools (SSHs), Science Partnership Program (SPP), science events and symposia have been made over these two decades. However, as the results of international comparative surveys such as IEA’s TIMSS and OECD’s PISA show, there are still many students who are not interested in science. Much research has been carried out concerning the current conditions and causes of the “Decline in students’ attitude toward science” phenomenon. Papers present a variety of data and discourses, but few give a broader overview. Returning to the starting point of the phenomenon, this paper clarifies the features of the “decline in students’ positive attitude toward science” phenomenon, and whether it is a problem to be addressed and solved or not. In addition, its main causes are also reviewed. In conclusion, it is emphasized that this problem should be solved in terms of higher education and adults’ scientific literacy, and that more attention should be paid to non-formal learning by researchers in order to solve this problem.
著者
石田 淳一 子安 増生
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.1, pp.14-21, 1988-03-10 (Released:2017-06-30)

642 children of grade 1 and 2 were given eight types of word arithmetic problems to test their understanding of semantic structure of addition and subtraction from two points of view: (1) choosing operations required to solve word arithmetic problems, and (2) making up word arithmetic problems to fit given calculations. The types of addition problems were join, combine, compare (compared quality unknown), and those of subtraction problems were separate, combine, compare (difference unknown), compare (compared quality unknown), join missing addend. The main findings are as follows. (a) Semantic structure has a profound effect upon the relative difficulty of word arithmetic problems. (b) Considering the childrens' performance from the two points mentioned above, especially, compare (compared quality unknown) [addition], combine [subtraction], and join missing addend problems are more difficult than others. (c) It is more difficult for children to make up word arithmetic problems to fit given calculations than to solve ordinary word arithmetic problems.
著者
山田 貴之
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.3, pp.361-372, 2017 (Released:2017-10-18)
参考文献数
23
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this research is to clarify a causal model of factors constituting students’ proactive learning in science classes in lower secondary schools as well as to gain hints about the establishment of a new method for establishing proactive learning among them. A questionnaire survey comprising 65 items was administered to 503 lower secondary school students (165 first-year students, 160 second-year students, and 178 third-year students) in a public lower secondary school in Gifu Prefecture. Seven factors were extracted from the analysis: logical thinking necessary for problem solving, interactive learning for the refinement of thinking, relationships and classification of learning contents, summary of learning contents, recording and organizing learning contents, motivated research activities, and proactive learning attitude. A path diagram was then constructed on these seven variables, and a path analysis was conducted. As a result, it was shown that in lower secondary science classes, students’ acquisition of proper learning strategies contributes to stimulate their motivated research activities and proactive learning attitude as well as to improve logical thinking and interactive learning.
著者
原田 勇希 三浦 雅美 鈴木 誠
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.3, pp.164-176, 2018 (Released:2018-10-27)
参考文献数
33
被引用文献数
1

The aim of this research was to examine the influence of perception of utility value for entrance examination on “proactive, interactive and deep learning”. The results show that the teacher evaluated children with high perception of utility value for entrance examination as “proactive, interactive and deep” learners even if adjusted for the effect of interest value and utility value for practice. As indicated by the result of research 2, critical thinking mediated the effect of utility value perception for entrance examination on “proactive, interactive and deep learning” as evaluated by teachers. On the other hand, it was shown that high perception of utility value for entrance examination also promotes class participation behaviors due to a concern about being evaluated by teachers. Based on the above results, it was concluded that high perception of utility value for entrance examination can promote “proactive, interactive and deep learning” in science classes, and the large size of this variable should not be denied as a motivating factor for science learning.
著者
標葉 靖子 江間 有沙 福山 佑樹
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.2, pp.161-169, 2017 (Released:2017-07-15)
参考文献数
15

Tremendous developments in science and technology have brought prosperity and an affluent lifestyle to mankind, but scientific and technological progress has also generated social issues related to the environment, security, ethics, and socioeconomic activities. Under these circumstances, a Science, Technology, and Society (STS) education that emphasizes the teaching of scientific and technological developments in their cultural, economic, social, and political contexts is required in order to cultivate human resources capable of making decisions about how to address these issues. In this study, we developed “nocobon,” a game-based teaching material for thinking on STS issues from various perspectives. “Nocobon” is a detective card game that can be played by a group of three to six people. The results of its prototype test for high school students suggest that players could acquire new knowledge and learn to think from different perspectives on STS issues through unlocking the mysteries in a series of “nocobon” cards. The results also indicate that “nocobon” could be a simple and convenient teaching material from the viewpoint of the time management.
著者
木村 優里 小川 正賢
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.4, pp.324-334, 2018 (Released:2019-02-02)
参考文献数
7

The current study is one of the hypothesis verification studies of previous work (Kimura, 2017), in which a hypothetical model, explaining why amateur scientists could continue their scientific practices, was generated through a qualitative research method, the Modified Grounded Theory Approach (M-GTA). The present study examined common elements enabling Japanese amateur entomological scientists to continue their scientific practices in the hypothetical model, by using a quantitative research method. A total of 70 amateur entomological scientists voluntarily participated in a questionnaire survey, consisting of 3 attribute questions and 19 main questions, which identified a total of 21 essential elements (‘categories,’ ‘concepts,’ and ‘processes’) of the model. The data obtained was analyzed quantitatively. The findings revealed that the 21 elements could be divided into three groups: Thirteen elements were shared among the Japanese amateur entomological scientists, whereas 5 elements were not, while the remaining 3 elements were in-between.
著者
中村 大輝 山根 悠平 西内 舞 雲財 寛
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.2, pp.82-91, 2019 (Released:2019-07-05)
参考文献数
47

In this study, we estimated the overall effect of technology utilization in mathematics and science education. Integrating effect-size quantitatively, we collected data on the use of technology in mathematics and science classes in elementary, secondary, and higher education curricula in Japan. As a result of integrating the effect quantity of 11 papers extracted from previous research, it became clear that the average effect-size was g=0.40. This result revealed that the effect size was small to moderate on the use of technology in science education, and the effect size cannot be said to be great compared with other educational methods. Moreover, additional analysis revealed heterogeneity between the studies and that the effect quantity varies depending on the intended use.