著者
下井倉 ともみ 土橋 一仁 松本 伸示
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.4, pp.238-247, 2014 (Released:2015-01-19)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
6

Several studies have revealed that most students not majoring in science at the Faculty of Elementary Education are not confident to teach science at elementary school. We conducted a questionnaire survey to 1815 such students at 15 universities in Japan. The purpose of this survey was to investigate what they expect from university and what would be the most effective education in order to improve their confidence. The survey revealed that (1) the students only have confidence in teaching biology, but (2) not other scientific subjects covered at elementary school, and (3) they are especially reluctant to teach physics and chemistry. These results indicate that a comprehensive curriculum at university covering all science subjects taught at elementary school is needed to improve their confidence.
著者
木村 優里
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.4, pp.398-415, 2017 (Released:2018-01-30)
参考文献数
26
被引用文献数
1

In science education research so far, a kind of dichotomy between science experts and the lay public has often been popularly presupposed, and little attention has been paid to those in between, who continue to engage in scientific practices after finishing their schooling as non-professional scientists. They can be called ‘amateur scientists’, and are the target of this study. The purpose of this study is to explore possible or probable factors (internal motivation and socio-cultural contexts) by which amateur scientists can continue to commit themselves to their scientific practices, and generate a hypothetical model of these factors and their interrelationships. In order to tackle this issue, investigations were made to identify the motivations of amateur scientists and the socio-cultural factors around them through a semi-structured interview (using the Modified-Grounded Theory Approach). A hypothetical model was then generated, explaining the reasons why these amateur scientists could continue to devote themselves to their favorite scientific practices.
著者
岡本 紗知
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.1, pp.14-29, 2020 (Released:2020-04-11)
参考文献数
24

The purpose of this research is to determine how stereotypical views of the sciences and humanities are formed among university students. Thirty undergraduate or graduated students were semi-structurally interviewed, and the collected data were analyzed by the modified grounded-theory approach (M-GTA). The analysis revealed that, prior to the formation of stereotypical views, students first recognized their aptitudes for one of two categories: sciences or humanities. Once they established their aptitudes, they started to recognize those who were in the opposite category. When they encountered “ideal figures” in such categories, they unconsciously extracted some features and regarded them as common features shared among those in such categories. These common characteristics were further interpreted based on their own views and beliefs, which essentially led to forming stereotypical views. This study suggests that the stereotypical views of the sciences and humanities are not universal; they are gradually formed in parallel with students’ constant struggle to navigate themselves during countless decisions for academic and career planning.
著者
松本 伸示 北浦 隆生
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.3, pp.220-228, 1999-06-30 (Released:2017-06-30)
参考文献数
12

It is said that biological education in today's high school has many problems. The purpose of this paper is to explain the existence of those problems, and to search for possible clues for solving them. For the purpose of achieving this goal, an analysis was made of the historical transition of biological education since the Second World War. The materials that were analyzed include sets of the course of study and textbooks used in each period. The characteristics of a particular course of study in each period were extracted through this analysis. The following characteristics of biological education in Japan became clear from the analysis : 1. The basic structure of high school biological education contents has not changed since the curriculum movement of science education ; 2. The basic concepts which have been used in biological education have been retained ; 3. There was some old-fashioned content as a result of the introduction of too little new content of biology in recent years ; and 4. A serious problem exists in the biological education content structure due to the elimination of content as a result of revisions made in the courses of study.
著者
加納 圭 後藤 崇志 塩瀬 隆之
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.2, pp.77-85, 2020 (Released:2020-07-09)
参考文献数
24

Of recent, cross-curricular education has achieved greater importance. The present research aimed to obtain the psychometric properties of the nationwide achievement assessments on science, reading and mathematic literacy by analyzing the response data provided by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan. The data includes all of the sixth grade (1,066,295) students in Japan in the 2018 academic year. We randomly picked up 500,000 students from the data set. The results of a factor analysis showed that the science assessment test might be assessing a combination of reading skills, mathematics skills and scientific skills, although the reading and mathematics test assessed each skill specifically. To obtain a more detailed picture, we compared the correct answer rates among 4 groups of students; the higher-scientific-higher-reading skills group, the higher-scientific-lower-reading skills group, the lower-scientific-higher-reading skills group and the lower-scientific-lower-reading skills group. The results suggested that all questions in the science assessment tests required reading skills. Moreover, in some questions, reading skills could complement scientific skills to answer them. These results suggest that we should be careful when dealing with the science assessment test; instead of just using the answer rate as the index of scientific skills, it would be better to use a weighted factor score in order to find out more about students’ achievements by assessing three skills independently.
著者
岡本 紗知
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.3, pp.198-207, 2020 (Released:2020-10-10)
参考文献数
17

The division of science and humanities sometimes generates conflicts in our community. To identify a possible gap between the two areas, I conducted research to elucidate how university students define science and humanities. Forty-two undergraduate/graduate students were administered a semi-structured interview, and the collected data were analyzed by qualitative data analysis software. The analysis discovered 7 distinct categories that divided science and humanities: “target of interest”, “skill”, “nature of knowledge production”, “direction of knowledge production”, “process of thinking”, “starting point of thinking”, and “end point of thinking.” “Process of thinking” was the most popular category; however, considerable diversity existed among students’ views. These categorizations also suggested their non-negligible association with ontologies, epistemologies, and methodologies adopted in academic disciplines. Further analysis revealed that science was associated with positivism, monism, empiricism, and rationalism, whereas the humanities were linked to interpretivism and pluralism.
著者
木村 優里
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.4, pp.398-415, 2017

<p>In science education research so far, a kind of dichotomy between science experts and the lay public has often been popularly presupposed, and little attention has been paid to those in between, who continue to engage in scientific practices after finishing their schooling as non-professional scientists. They can be called 'amateur scientists', and are the target of this study. The purpose of this study is to explore possible or probable factors (internal motivation and socio-cultural contexts) by which amateur scientists can continue to commit themselves to their scientific practices, and generate a hypothetical model of these factors and their interrelationships. In order to tackle this issue, investigations were made to identify the motivations of amateur scientists and the socio-cultural factors around them through a semi-structured interview (using the Modified-Grounded Theory Approach). A hypothetical model was then generated, explaining the reasons why these amateur scientists could continue to devote themselves to their favorite scientific practices.</p>
著者
岡本 紗知
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.1, pp.3-11, 2018 (Released:2018-07-11)
参考文献数
45

Despite its advanced level of scientific research, Japan suffers from a low level of adult scientific literacy compared to many other developed countries. The current situation certainly necessitates a nationwide, robust solution. However, to implement any countermeasures, it is essential to first answer one of the fundamental questions: Does current school education guarantee the acquisition and maintenance of scientific literacy? To provide an answer, the present study examined high school textbooks from both Japan and Canada. Canada was chosen as a counterpart, since Canadian adults reportedly possess outstanding levels of scientific literacy. In this comparative analysis, questions from all of the biology textbooks were examined to reveal the directed level of cognitive processes, key factors considered to play essential roles for becoming scientifically literate. Categorization based on Bloom’s Taxonomy clearly demonstrated that Japanese high school textbooks were not equipped with questions that foster higher cognitive processes, contrary to the Canadian textbooks. Overall, the government-approved textbooks currently used throughout Japan appear to be insufficient for guaranteeing the acquisition and maintenance of scientific literacy.
著者
小林 傳司
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.4, pp.310-318, 2007-12-27 (Released:2017-06-30)
参考文献数
10
被引用文献数
2

A Japanese boom of science communication beginning in 2005 shares some characteristics with advanced countries. This paper explores the background of a sudden boom of science communication in Japan into the struggle, common to advanced countries, for redefining the roll of technoscience in society. Firstly, it is shown that there are two kinds of motivations which triggered the boom of science communication. The first one is an erosion of public trust in experts of technoscience in the 90s. The second one is the changing role of technoscience from a symbol of national prestige to a tool of economic growth. Then, the characteristics and challenges for Japanese science communication activities are discussed.
著者
土井 徹 林 武広
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.3, pp.212-224, 2015 (Released:2016-02-24)
参考文献数
23
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this study is to reveal how alien species are dealt with in textbooks about living environment studies, science, and biology from elementary to high school. From an analysis of students’ responses in lessons about alien species, possibilities and points to be noted for executing science lessons about biodiversity in elementary school were also examined. As a result, the following three points were identified.(1) The textbooks checked in this study have a total of 126 kinds of alien species, of which 10 are alien invasive species, and 23 are careful invasive species.(2) The textbooks have some description of how to cope with the problem of invasive species for most of alien invasive species; they also and have descriptons suggesting that their multiplication and release are encouraged, wheras there is little description about careful invasive species. (3)There are lessons that we had suggested to the students for proper understanding of alien species, indicating that lessons that encourage understanding of alien species in elementary school are possible. We have to examine opportunities and contents for doing so.
著者
奥本 素子 橋谷田 俊 高橋 明大 阿部 乳坊
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.2, pp.131-139, 2018 (Released:2018-07-12)
参考文献数
13
被引用文献数
2

In recent years, the practice of science communication has disseminated scientific knowledge and fostered citizens’ trust and interest in science through dialogue on science-related emotions and values. In this study, we initiated science communication during a Japanese tea ceremony in a traditional café space, throughout which we engaged in dialogue with citizens who did not expect to experience science communication at the event. We analysed the dialogues of eight groups. There was some tendency for both citizens and scientists to initiate conversations in the café space, and this bilateral dialogue was promoted by the understanding of the characteristic of this science café. These results indicate that the design of spaces and the explanation about communication may effectively stimulate dialogue with citizens.
著者
磯部 征尊 山崎 貞登
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.2, pp.86-93, 2015 (Released:2015-06-30)
参考文献数
24

This is a study concerning the current state of the educational subjects of “Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics” from the view of Design and Technology by conducting a field survey. The results are summarized as follows:(1) Design and Technology in the National Curriculum 2014 is stressed to enhance coordination with the educational subjects of “Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)” after a hearing investigation by Professor Stables, who works in the Design and Technology Department of Goldsmiths College in London University.(2) The National STEM Centre places great emphasis on developing subject matters through cooperation between STEM-related subjects and Design and Technology, and expanding the range of specialists as teachers by familiarizing them with such subjects to advance their continuing professional development.(3) The strategic groups of STEM, such as the Royal Academy of Engineering, worked to make Design and Technology part of the National Curriculum 2014 after a hearing investigation by Mr. Green, who is the chief executive of the Design and Technology Association (DATA).
著者
三宅 なほみ 大島 純 益川 弘如
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.2, pp.43-53, 2014 (Released:2014-09-11)
参考文献数
41
被引用文献数
1

This manuscript aims to introduce a discipline called the learning sciences to readers of this journal. Naomi Miyake spent years in the graduate program at UC San Diego in 1980s, was involved in the emergence of cognitive science and has expanded her basic research toward classroom practices. Jun Oshima spent years in 1990s as a graduate student at the University of Toronto to work on how computers can support students’ knowledge building in the classroom and has continued lesson studies in Japan. The two researchers had three meetings to talk about their research field. Their conversation was structured as a story line by Hiroyuki Masukawa. First, it starts with Miyake’s talk about how the cognitive science emerged and came to be related to the learning sciences. Second, Oshima describes his experience to be in the vortex of the emergence of the learning sciences and research projects in the 90s. Third, the talk continues to discuss more deeply a disciplinary issue of how we treat human learning in the learning sciences. Finally, we wrap up our talk by summarizing the future of this discipline and how we will approach collaboration with practitioners and other stakeholders in education.
著者
本多 素子 飯田 隆一 大谷 忠 谷田貝 麻美子
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.3, pp.373-382, 2017 (Released:2017-10-18)
参考文献数
11

Recently, affordable desktop digital fabrication tools such as 3D printers and laser cutters, and design data sharing via the Internet have been maximizing the potential for personal production. The purpose of this study is to elucidate an overview of Fab Labs in Japan and the extent of their support for beginners in digital fabrication. We conducted field research at 8 Fab Labs in Japan, the first research of multiple Fab Labs conducted by an external research team. The research included site visits, interviews with the managers of Fab Labs, and observations of instructor-led lessons and “open labs”. Field research results showed the current state of difficulties for beginners, support activities for them, and knowledge sharing practice in Fab Labs in Japan. Regarding the first difficulty, “preparing design data”, instructor-led lessons and guidance on reuse of shared data appeared to be useful to them. Regarding the second difficulty, “developing a plan of work”, reference to work produced by others and sharing knowledge generally, provides hints for beginners. Communication amongst participants at the “open lab” was also recognized as a support for beginners.
著者
岸本 忠之
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.2, pp.121-129, 1999-06-10 (Released:2017-06-30)
参考文献数
16

The purpose of this paper is to establish the learning phases for the choice of operation regarding word problems involving multiplication of decimal fractions. A research test and standards were developed to identify the learning phases. Three hundred and forty-four primary-school students ranging from fourth to sixth grade were tested. As results, four learning phases were identified the choice of operation in word problems involving multiplication of decimal fractions. In phase, I students can solve the word problems only with multiplication of integers, but can't solve the word problems with multiplication of decimal fractions. In phase II, students can not choose the operation in the word problems with multiplication of decimal fractions but calculate that operation. In phase III, students can choose and calculate the operation in the word problems with multiplication of decimal fractions. In phasd IV, students can choose and calculate the operation in the word problems through multiplication of decimal fractions based on the meaning of multiplication of decimal fractions.
著者
石井 俊行 寺窪 佑騎
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.1, pp.25-36, 2018 (Released:2018-07-11)
参考文献数
13

The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that inhibit students’ solving the problems of concentration in junior high school science. We identified eight types of factors; “comprehension of the structure of saline water”, “comprehension of the structure of solution”, “grasp of the formula of concentration of saline water”, “grasp of the formula of concentration”, “ability of converting percentages to decimal numbers”, “computing power of the percentage”, “ability of solving equations”, “ability of the deformation of the formula”. It also became evident that students have six learning stages in order to solve the problems of concentration. Therefore, students become able to solve those problems by achieving the six learning stages.
著者
木村 優里 小川 正賢
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.4, pp.324-334, 2018 (Released:2019-02-02)
参考文献数
7

The current study is one of the hypothesis verification studies of previous work (Kimura, 2017), in which a hypothetical model, explaining why amateur scientists could continue their scientific practices, was generated through a qualitative research method, the Modified Grounded Theory Approach (M-GTA). The present study examined common elements enabling Japanese amateur entomological scientists to continue their scientific practices in the hypothetical model, by using a quantitative research method. A total of 70 amateur entomological scientists voluntarily participated in a questionnaire survey, consisting of 3 attribute questions and 19 main questions, which identified a total of 21 essential elements (‘categories,’ ‘concepts,’ and ‘processes’) of the model. The data obtained was analyzed quantitatively. The findings revealed that the 21 elements could be divided into three groups: Thirteen elements were shared among the Japanese amateur entomological scientists, whereas 5 elements were not, while the remaining 3 elements were in-between.
著者
小松 孝太郎
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.3, pp.272-286, 2011-09-10 (Released:2017-06-30)
参考文献数
38

Recently, owing to their desire to cultivate pupils' ability to learn and think for themselves, educational researchers and practitioners emphasize inquiry-based learning. Toward inquiry-based learning relying on proof and proving, this paper deliberates a normative meaning of mathematical inquiry from a Lakatosian fallibilist perspective, and discusses educational values of mathematical inquiry. Firstly, this paper examines three aspects of mathematical inquiry and their sub-aspects, through analyzing Lakatos' chief book Proofs and Refutations (Lakatos, 1976) in detail. By synthesis of these aspects, this paper then conceptualizes the meaning of mathematical inquiry as "conjecturing statements through investigation of properties or relations of mathematical objects, proving them, and then refining the statements and proofs through refuting them, with the aim to reducing their uncertainty". Subsequently, this paper discusses educational values of the mathematical inquiry from three standpoints; change of pupils' views of mathematics, and their learning on methods for productive mathematical activities; change of pupils' views of proof and proving; learning of proof and proving from primary school level.
著者
石田 淳一 子安 増生
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.1, pp.14-21, 1988-03-10 (Released:2017-06-30)

642 children of grade 1 and 2 were given eight types of word arithmetic problems to test their understanding of semantic structure of addition and subtraction from two points of view: (1) choosing operations required to solve word arithmetic problems, and (2) making up word arithmetic problems to fit given calculations. The types of addition problems were join, combine, compare (compared quality unknown), and those of subtraction problems were separate, combine, compare (difference unknown), compare (compared quality unknown), join missing addend. The main findings are as follows. (a) Semantic structure has a profound effect upon the relative difficulty of word arithmetic problems. (b) Considering the childrens' performance from the two points mentioned above, especially, compare (compared quality unknown) [addition], combine [subtraction], and join missing addend problems are more difficult than others. (c) It is more difficult for children to make up word arithmetic problems to fit given calculations than to solve ordinary word arithmetic problems.