著者
下井倉 ともみ 土橋 一仁 松本 伸示
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.4, pp.238-247, 2014 (Released:2015-01-19)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
6

Several studies have revealed that most students not majoring in science at the Faculty of Elementary Education are not confident to teach science at elementary school. We conducted a questionnaire survey to 1815 such students at 15 universities in Japan. The purpose of this survey was to investigate what they expect from university and what would be the most effective education in order to improve their confidence. The survey revealed that (1) the students only have confidence in teaching biology, but (2) not other scientific subjects covered at elementary school, and (3) they are especially reluctant to teach physics and chemistry. These results indicate that a comprehensive curriculum at university covering all science subjects taught at elementary school is needed to improve their confidence.
著者
木村 優里
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.4, pp.398-415, 2017 (Released:2018-01-30)
参考文献数
26
被引用文献数
1

In science education research so far, a kind of dichotomy between science experts and the lay public has often been popularly presupposed, and little attention has been paid to those in between, who continue to engage in scientific practices after finishing their schooling as non-professional scientists. They can be called ‘amateur scientists’, and are the target of this study. The purpose of this study is to explore possible or probable factors (internal motivation and socio-cultural contexts) by which amateur scientists can continue to commit themselves to their scientific practices, and generate a hypothetical model of these factors and their interrelationships. In order to tackle this issue, investigations were made to identify the motivations of amateur scientists and the socio-cultural factors around them through a semi-structured interview (using the Modified-Grounded Theory Approach). A hypothetical model was then generated, explaining the reasons why these amateur scientists could continue to devote themselves to their favorite scientific practices.
著者
岡本 紗知
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.1, pp.14-29, 2020 (Released:2020-04-11)
参考文献数
24

The purpose of this research is to determine how stereotypical views of the sciences and humanities are formed among university students. Thirty undergraduate or graduated students were semi-structurally interviewed, and the collected data were analyzed by the modified grounded-theory approach (M-GTA). The analysis revealed that, prior to the formation of stereotypical views, students first recognized their aptitudes for one of two categories: sciences or humanities. Once they established their aptitudes, they started to recognize those who were in the opposite category. When they encountered “ideal figures” in such categories, they unconsciously extracted some features and regarded them as common features shared among those in such categories. These common characteristics were further interpreted based on their own views and beliefs, which essentially led to forming stereotypical views. This study suggests that the stereotypical views of the sciences and humanities are not universal; they are gradually formed in parallel with students’ constant struggle to navigate themselves during countless decisions for academic and career planning.
著者
松本 伸示 北浦 隆生
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.3, pp.220-228, 1999-06-30 (Released:2017-06-30)
参考文献数
12

It is said that biological education in today's high school has many problems. The purpose of this paper is to explain the existence of those problems, and to search for possible clues for solving them. For the purpose of achieving this goal, an analysis was made of the historical transition of biological education since the Second World War. The materials that were analyzed include sets of the course of study and textbooks used in each period. The characteristics of a particular course of study in each period were extracted through this analysis. The following characteristics of biological education in Japan became clear from the analysis : 1. The basic structure of high school biological education contents has not changed since the curriculum movement of science education ; 2. The basic concepts which have been used in biological education have been retained ; 3. There was some old-fashioned content as a result of the introduction of too little new content of biology in recent years ; and 4. A serious problem exists in the biological education content structure due to the elimination of content as a result of revisions made in the courses of study.
著者
加納 圭 後藤 崇志 塩瀬 隆之
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.2, pp.77-85, 2020 (Released:2020-07-09)
参考文献数
24

Of recent, cross-curricular education has achieved greater importance. The present research aimed to obtain the psychometric properties of the nationwide achievement assessments on science, reading and mathematic literacy by analyzing the response data provided by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan. The data includes all of the sixth grade (1,066,295) students in Japan in the 2018 academic year. We randomly picked up 500,000 students from the data set. The results of a factor analysis showed that the science assessment test might be assessing a combination of reading skills, mathematics skills and scientific skills, although the reading and mathematics test assessed each skill specifically. To obtain a more detailed picture, we compared the correct answer rates among 4 groups of students; the higher-scientific-higher-reading skills group, the higher-scientific-lower-reading skills group, the lower-scientific-higher-reading skills group and the lower-scientific-lower-reading skills group. The results suggested that all questions in the science assessment tests required reading skills. Moreover, in some questions, reading skills could complement scientific skills to answer them. These results suggest that we should be careful when dealing with the science assessment test; instead of just using the answer rate as the index of scientific skills, it would be better to use a weighted factor score in order to find out more about students’ achievements by assessing three skills independently.
著者
木村 優里
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.4, pp.398-415, 2017

<p>In science education research so far, a kind of dichotomy between science experts and the lay public has often been popularly presupposed, and little attention has been paid to those in between, who continue to engage in scientific practices after finishing their schooling as non-professional scientists. They can be called 'amateur scientists', and are the target of this study. The purpose of this study is to explore possible or probable factors (internal motivation and socio-cultural contexts) by which amateur scientists can continue to commit themselves to their scientific practices, and generate a hypothetical model of these factors and their interrelationships. In order to tackle this issue, investigations were made to identify the motivations of amateur scientists and the socio-cultural factors around them through a semi-structured interview (using the Modified-Grounded Theory Approach). A hypothetical model was then generated, explaining the reasons why these amateur scientists could continue to devote themselves to their favorite scientific practices.</p>
著者
小瀬 航 鈴木 栄幸
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
日本科学教育学会研究会研究報告 (ISSN:18824684)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.4, pp.91-94, 2016 (Released:2018-04-07)
参考文献数
5

本研究では、大学生を対象とした説明的文章の読解方略の現状を調査するとともに、先行研究をもとにその現状を改善するための読解手法を提案する。まず、大学生を対象に読解学習の実態調査を行い、説明的文章読解において文章全体の構造を把握する作業(=構造注目方略)が不十分であるという知見を得た。この結果を踏まえ、文章全体の構造に注目させるための手法として「タイトル生成法」を提案した。大学生対象に実践したところ、記憶レベルでの理解度には有意傾向の差が見られたものの、状況モデルレベルでの理解度では差が見られなかった。今後、実践の具体的方法を見直し、改善を施した上で再度実践を行う予定である。
著者
岡本 紗知
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.1, pp.3-11, 2018 (Released:2018-07-11)
参考文献数
45

Despite its advanced level of scientific research, Japan suffers from a low level of adult scientific literacy compared to many other developed countries. The current situation certainly necessitates a nationwide, robust solution. However, to implement any countermeasures, it is essential to first answer one of the fundamental questions: Does current school education guarantee the acquisition and maintenance of scientific literacy? To provide an answer, the present study examined high school textbooks from both Japan and Canada. Canada was chosen as a counterpart, since Canadian adults reportedly possess outstanding levels of scientific literacy. In this comparative analysis, questions from all of the biology textbooks were examined to reveal the directed level of cognitive processes, key factors considered to play essential roles for becoming scientifically literate. Categorization based on Bloom’s Taxonomy clearly demonstrated that Japanese high school textbooks were not equipped with questions that foster higher cognitive processes, contrary to the Canadian textbooks. Overall, the government-approved textbooks currently used throughout Japan appear to be insufficient for guaranteeing the acquisition and maintenance of scientific literacy.
著者
高橋 哲也 波佐間 仁美 小椋 郁夫 村田 公ー
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
日本科学教育学会年会論文集 42 (ISSN:21863628)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.305-306, 2018 (Released:2019-06-14)
参考文献数
5

本研究は「雲」の単元の導入で使用できるための、子どもに「雲」に興味や関心を持たせるための演示教材を製作するために行なった。そのため子どもに非常に人気が高い漫画 ONE PIECE に登場する天候棒(クリマタクト)の形状を模して、これにより「雲」と呼べるものを発生させることができる方法を検討した。粉砕したドライアイスと塊状のドライアイスとを約 60℃の湯と混合できるようにし、漫画 ONE PIECE のシーンを模して白煙を発生させるクリマタクト型の道具を作成することができた。
著者
土井 徹 林 武広
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.3, pp.212-224, 2015 (Released:2016-02-24)
参考文献数
23
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this study is to reveal how alien species are dealt with in textbooks about living environment studies, science, and biology from elementary to high school. From an analysis of students’ responses in lessons about alien species, possibilities and points to be noted for executing science lessons about biodiversity in elementary school were also examined. As a result, the following three points were identified.(1) The textbooks checked in this study have a total of 126 kinds of alien species, of which 10 are alien invasive species, and 23 are careful invasive species.(2) The textbooks have some description of how to cope with the problem of invasive species for most of alien invasive species; they also and have descriptons suggesting that their multiplication and release are encouraged, wheras there is little description about careful invasive species. (3)There are lessons that we had suggested to the students for proper understanding of alien species, indicating that lessons that encourage understanding of alien species in elementary school are possible. We have to examine opportunities and contents for doing so.
著者
山本 輝太郎 石川 幹人 菊池 聡
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
日本科学教育学会年会論文集 42 (ISSN:21863628)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.341-342, 2018 (Released:2019-06-14)
参考文献数
4

本研究では,疑似科学に関するオンライン上での議論を手がかりとして,それらの中で「誤った論法=誤謬」がどのように見られるかについて分析した。分析の結果,オンライン上のコメントでは 意味の曖昧さや多義性につけ込み,受け手(閲覧者)に対して先入観を与えるタイプの誤謬が 多く見られた。本報告では,分析結果とともに誤謬を見抜く取り組みの必要性について論じる。
著者
山本 輝太郎 石川 幹人
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
日本科学教育学会研究会研究報告 (ISSN:18824684)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.5, pp.31-36, 2016 (Released:2018-04-07)
参考文献数
7

現在インターネット上で展開している「疑似科学とされるものの科学性評定サイト」における活動内容を紹介し,科学リテラシー向上に向けた科学教育の重要性を主張する.本稿では特に,蔓延する疑似科学にまつわる諸問題に対応するための,教育成果の「社会的な活用」という側面に焦点を当てた.これまでに収集した知見から,疑似科学に関連する問題の多くは,社会的な人間関係と深く関わっていることが推定できる.そのため,単なる科学的知識の蓄積だけでない実践的な問題解決能力も,これからの教育成果には求められるだろう.こうした社会状況において,科学教育の実践としての「疑似科学」はよい教材として機能することが期待でき,本稿を通してその意義を検討したいと思う.
著者
清水 美憲
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
日本科学教育学会年会論文集 33 (ISSN:21863628)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.75-76, 2009-08-25 (Released:2018-05-16)
参考文献数
8

シンガポールにおける数学カリキュラムの枠組みを概観し,我が国の教育課程と対比してその特徴を考察した。シンガポールの数学カリキュラムの枠組みは,数学的問題解決を中核として情意面まで含む広い立場から数学カリキュラムを把握する点に特色があり,我が国の教育課程編成における数学方法的の観点からみた学年・学校種間の接続のあり方を再考する必要性を示唆する。
著者
黒木 伸明
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
日本科学教育学会研究会研究報告 (ISSN:18824684)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, no.4, pp.31-32, 1991-01-19 (Released:2017-11-17)

小学校教員養成課程の第2学年の学生を対象にした調査の結果、殆ど全ての学生が「数学が嫌いである」「公式を暗記して当てはめればよい」「数学は閉じた学問である」等、算数・数学を指導するには適切とは言いがたい数学観を持っている。また、このような数学観を持つようになったのは、中学校時代からであること、その原因とて、中学校・高等学校での数学活動が与えられた問題を解くこと、すなわち、狭義の問題解決を中心にしてきたことが考えられることが明らかになった。そこで、教科専門科目「算数」の授業を、「数学における創造活動を体験させることにより、より望ましい数学観を持たせることができる」という仮説のもとに実践した。その結果、僅かではあるが、「数学に対する圧迫感・不安感」が軽減するという結果が得られた。
著者
磯部 征尊 山崎 貞登
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.2, pp.86-93, 2015 (Released:2015-06-30)
参考文献数
24

This is a study concerning the current state of the educational subjects of “Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics” from the view of Design and Technology by conducting a field survey. The results are summarized as follows:(1) Design and Technology in the National Curriculum 2014 is stressed to enhance coordination with the educational subjects of “Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)” after a hearing investigation by Professor Stables, who works in the Design and Technology Department of Goldsmiths College in London University.(2) The National STEM Centre places great emphasis on developing subject matters through cooperation between STEM-related subjects and Design and Technology, and expanding the range of specialists as teachers by familiarizing them with such subjects to advance their continuing professional development.(3) The strategic groups of STEM, such as the Royal Academy of Engineering, worked to make Design and Technology part of the National Curriculum 2014 after a hearing investigation by Mr. Green, who is the chief executive of the Design and Technology Association (DATA).
著者
三宅 なほみ 大島 純 益川 弘如
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.2, pp.43-53, 2014 (Released:2014-09-11)
参考文献数
41
被引用文献数
1

This manuscript aims to introduce a discipline called the learning sciences to readers of this journal. Naomi Miyake spent years in the graduate program at UC San Diego in 1980s, was involved in the emergence of cognitive science and has expanded her basic research toward classroom practices. Jun Oshima spent years in 1990s as a graduate student at the University of Toronto to work on how computers can support students’ knowledge building in the classroom and has continued lesson studies in Japan. The two researchers had three meetings to talk about their research field. Their conversation was structured as a story line by Hiroyuki Masukawa. First, it starts with Miyake’s talk about how the cognitive science emerged and came to be related to the learning sciences. Second, Oshima describes his experience to be in the vortex of the emergence of the learning sciences and research projects in the 90s. Third, the talk continues to discuss more deeply a disciplinary issue of how we treat human learning in the learning sciences. Finally, we wrap up our talk by summarizing the future of this discipline and how we will approach collaboration with practitioners and other stakeholders in education.
著者
木村 優里
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
日本科学教育学会研究会研究報告 (ISSN:18824684)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.3, pp.47-52, 2015 (Released:2018-04-07)
参考文献数
11

本研究の目的は,成人の科学教育を「充実志向」の視点から検討するために,アマチュアの科学実践において好奇心がどのように存在しているかを明かにすることである.そこで,ハイアマチュアを対象に半構造化インタビューを実施し,M-GTAを用いて分析した.分析結果より,ハイアマチュアの科学実践は,好奇心だけでなく,独自のこだわりや社会的要因と密接に関係している活動であることが示された.そして,その活動過程で,好奇心が醸成されたり,愛着意識の活性化によってリソースが捻出され,さらに活動が継続するという互いに支え合う関係が構築されている.
著者
木村 優里 小川 正賢
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
日本科学教育学会研究会研究報告 (ISSN:18824684)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.3, pp.171-176, 2018-12-08 (Released:2018-12-05)
参考文献数
20

本研究の目的は,「科学実践に関わる市民」を捉える新しい理論枠組みの検討である.先行研究を参考に検討し,「科学者」と「市民」の間に「科学アマチュア群」を定位し,その中を,知識・技能のレベル,活動に対する積極性,関与している期間の3軸を指標として区分することで,多様な「科学実践に関わる市民」を捉える枠組みを提案した.
著者
本多 素子 飯田 隆一 大谷 忠 谷田貝 麻美子
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.3, pp.373-382, 2017 (Released:2017-10-18)
参考文献数
11

Recently, affordable desktop digital fabrication tools such as 3D printers and laser cutters, and design data sharing via the Internet have been maximizing the potential for personal production. The purpose of this study is to elucidate an overview of Fab Labs in Japan and the extent of their support for beginners in digital fabrication. We conducted field research at 8 Fab Labs in Japan, the first research of multiple Fab Labs conducted by an external research team. The research included site visits, interviews with the managers of Fab Labs, and observations of instructor-led lessons and “open labs”. Field research results showed the current state of difficulties for beginners, support activities for them, and knowledge sharing practice in Fab Labs in Japan. Regarding the first difficulty, “preparing design data”, instructor-led lessons and guidance on reuse of shared data appeared to be useful to them. Regarding the second difficulty, “developing a plan of work”, reference to work produced by others and sharing knowledge generally, provides hints for beginners. Communication amongst participants at the “open lab” was also recognized as a support for beginners.
著者
岸本 忠之
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.2, pp.121-129, 1999-06-10 (Released:2017-06-30)
参考文献数
16

The purpose of this paper is to establish the learning phases for the choice of operation regarding word problems involving multiplication of decimal fractions. A research test and standards were developed to identify the learning phases. Three hundred and forty-four primary-school students ranging from fourth to sixth grade were tested. As results, four learning phases were identified the choice of operation in word problems involving multiplication of decimal fractions. In phase, I students can solve the word problems only with multiplication of integers, but can't solve the word problems with multiplication of decimal fractions. In phase II, students can not choose the operation in the word problems with multiplication of decimal fractions but calculate that operation. In phase III, students can choose and calculate the operation in the word problems with multiplication of decimal fractions. In phasd IV, students can choose and calculate the operation in the word problems through multiplication of decimal fractions based on the meaning of multiplication of decimal fractions.