著者
本多 素子 飯田 隆一 大谷 忠 谷田貝 麻美子
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.3, pp.373-382, 2017 (Released:2017-10-18)
参考文献数
11

Recently, affordable desktop digital fabrication tools such as 3D printers and laser cutters, and design data sharing via the Internet have been maximizing the potential for personal production. The purpose of this study is to elucidate an overview of Fab Labs in Japan and the extent of their support for beginners in digital fabrication. We conducted field research at 8 Fab Labs in Japan, the first research of multiple Fab Labs conducted by an external research team. The research included site visits, interviews with the managers of Fab Labs, and observations of instructor-led lessons and “open labs”. Field research results showed the current state of difficulties for beginners, support activities for them, and knowledge sharing practice in Fab Labs in Japan. Regarding the first difficulty, “preparing design data”, instructor-led lessons and guidance on reuse of shared data appeared to be useful to them. Regarding the second difficulty, “developing a plan of work”, reference to work produced by others and sharing knowledge generally, provides hints for beginners. Communication amongst participants at the “open lab” was also recognized as a support for beginners.
著者
木村 優里
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.4, pp.398-415, 2017 (Released:2018-01-30)
参考文献数
26

In science education research so far, a kind of dichotomy between science experts and the lay public has often been popularly presupposed, and little attention has been paid to those in between, who continue to engage in scientific practices after finishing their schooling as non-professional scientists. They can be called ‘amateur scientists’, and are the target of this study. The purpose of this study is to explore possible or probable factors (internal motivation and socio-cultural contexts) by which amateur scientists can continue to commit themselves to their scientific practices, and generate a hypothetical model of these factors and their interrelationships. In order to tackle this issue, investigations were made to identify the motivations of amateur scientists and the socio-cultural factors around them through a semi-structured interview (using the Modified-Grounded Theory Approach). A hypothetical model was then generated, explaining the reasons why these amateur scientists could continue to devote themselves to their favorite scientific practices.
著者
長沼 祥太郎
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.2, pp.114-123, 2015 (Released:2015-06-30)
参考文献数
56
被引用文献数
2

About 20 years have passed since a “Decline in students’ positive attitude toward science” was first pointed out in the late 1980s. Various efforts, including the Support for Super Science High Schools (SSHs), Science Partnership Program (SPP), science events and symposia have been made over these two decades. However, as the results of international comparative surveys such as IEA’s TIMSS and OECD’s PISA show, there are still many students who are not interested in science. Much research has been carried out concerning the current conditions and causes of the “Decline in students’ attitude toward science” phenomenon. Papers present a variety of data and discourses, but few give a broader overview. Returning to the starting point of the phenomenon, this paper clarifies the features of the “decline in students’ positive attitude toward science” phenomenon, and whether it is a problem to be addressed and solved or not. In addition, its main causes are also reviewed. In conclusion, it is emphasized that this problem should be solved in terms of higher education and adults’ scientific literacy, and that more attention should be paid to non-formal learning by researchers in order to solve this problem.
著者
川上 昭吾 加藤 綾子
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.5, pp.394-401, 2002-12-27 (Released:2017-06-30)
参考文献数
6

We investigated the characteristics of the children museum "Eureka!" in cooperation with schools as a viewpoint. Eureka! was founded in 1992 and it is a small non-governmental museum. It is a small museum but, there are about 800 visitors from 18 schools in a day. We found five reasons why Eureka! has so many visitors. The first reason is that its exhibitions are connected tightly with the British National Curriuculum, especially for KS 1 and KS 2. Actually, Eureka! appealed to school teachers and parents that their exhibitions be connected with the National Curriculum. This is the main reason why there are so many visitors every day. Secondly, exhibitions are all hands on type, that is. interactive museum. Students are able to learn science through experiences and exhibitions. These are attractive to students for reasons of having these good ideas. For example, not only students can merely touch the exhibitions or push the switches, but they can also learn science through discovery with much surprise and interest. Another characteristics of this museum is that the exhibitions are made colorfully. There are four amazing galleries namely; "Me and my body". "Invents. Create, Communicate", "Things", and "Living and Working Together". Thirdly, they accept visitors by three guide courses: 10:15-12:15. 12:30-14:30, and 13:30-15:30. Every cousc consists of one focus hour with enabler (teaching assistant) and one discovery hour by learning themselves. Fourth, Eureka! is always evaluated by visitors. The results are reflected in the exhibitions. Fifth, there are some detailed information on the corner of galleries for further study.
著者
松田 稔樹 高橋 和弘 坂元 昂
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.30-39, 1991-03-10 (Released:2017-06-30)

This study developped a curriculum and instructional materials to teach Lisp programming for high school students in math classes. The curriculum was developped to give more understundings about mathematical formulae processing using computers as tools for simulation. Most of the contents were concerned with math formulae processing. This curriculum is universally appricable for almost any mathematical subjects. Students were expected to re-organize their mathematical knowledge, to improve their understandings, to recognize an importance of mathematical formalization, and so on. An experimental teaching project for a year was administrated to investigate that the curriculum and the materials are appropriate or not. In the project, some instructive results to improve our curriculum were obtained. For example, the "how to define functions" and "the concept of recursion" must be taught in ealier steps of the curriculum. Because of its dual nater (teaching Lisp programming and mathematics), the instructional techniques are very important for the curriculum. In the next step, the "Teachers' Guide" for teachers will be developped, which will be helpful to diffuse the curriculum. Taking ddvantage of computer languages to process mathematical formulae can be a leading method of mdthematical instruction in the future.
著者
礒田 誠 宮花 昂平
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.1, pp.27-33, 2014 (Released:2014-09-10)
参考文献数
5

We present and discuss the results of a survey on comprehension and of a simple experiment on the contents required in the teacher training education concerning the direct-current electric circuit in the science textbook for fourth graders in Japan. We demonstrate the effects introduced into the electric circuit by “the internal resistance of a dry cell battery” and “the non-linear resistivity of a miniature bulb” in the experiment, and discuss the educational contents and methods of elementary school teacher training.
著者
矢野 潤 塩原 正雄 平木 弘一 竹田 正
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.4, pp.308-312, 2005-12-10 (Released:2017-06-30)
参考文献数
6
被引用文献数
2

Both a ringed copper plate electrode and a carbon rod electrode were arranged in a Petri dish filled with the electrolyte solutions : 0.2M H_2SO_4, 0.2M Fe^<3+>+0.2M Fe^<2+>+0.2M H_2SO_4 and 0.2M Fe(CN)_6^<3->+0.2M Fe(CN)_6^<4->+0.2M H_2SO_4 aqueous solutions (1M=1 mol dm^<-3>). The Petri dish was placed on a permanent magnet. The geometrical arrangement is shown in Fig. 1. The vortex motion of the electrolyte solutions originated from the Lorentz's force was clearly observed as soon as the constant-current electrolysis was started. The magnitude of the vortex motion was estimated by the rotation rate (R) defined as the equation (2). The larger the electrolytic current was, the higher the rate became. The rate was in the order of Fe(CN)_6^<3->/Fe(CN)_6^<4->>Fe^<3+>/Fe^<2+>>H_2SO_4 systems and the order was probably due to the valence of the ionic species. In addition, the equation of motion was analyzed for the Fe^<2+> ion using a simplified model. The experiment was demonstrated in front of college students as estimators.
著者
鈴木 栄幸 加藤 浩
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.3, pp.196-215, 2008-09-10 (Released:2017-06-30)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
1

This paper describes the concept of a Manga-based thinking method and discusses the results of the field tests of the method. A Manga-based thinking method is a method to encourage participants to scrutinize their presentation from the various viewpoints of related people. According to this method, learners are asked to represent the message of their presentation in the form of a Manga and then reflect on their messages by examining the Manga. It is expected that this method will support learners in grasping the social network of related people through envisioning all the related people's voices since Manga are comprised of spatially located actors who have their own words. The three field tests suggest that Manga-based thinking makes learners' thoughts more actor-oriented resulting in the method expanding learners' understanding about networks of related people and their presentations.
著者
小川 正賢
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.2, pp.191-204, 2011-06-10 (Released:2017-06-30)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
1

The Exploratorium, founded by Frank Oppenheimer, has been regarded as one of the origins of hands-on 'science' museums, while its unique exhibition rationale described in its title 'the museum of science, art and human perception,' shows that it is not necessarily a simple 'science museum.' Why has it been perceived as a museum, not of 'science, art and human perception,' but of 'science'? In order to explore the question, the present study examined how the Exploratorium's exhibition rationale was reflected in the exhibition, 'Exploratorium in Japan' held in 1989. Through an extended examination of the exhibit selection process using a collection of recorded documents from the Japanese side as well as an archive from Exploratorium's official management record (US side), no concrete and detailed discussion on the exhibition rationale and/or exhibit policy between the two sides was found to have happened during the negotiation process.
著者
標葉 靖子 江間 有沙 福山 佑樹
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.2, pp.161-169, 2017 (Released:2017-07-15)
参考文献数
15

Tremendous developments in science and technology have brought prosperity and an affluent lifestyle to mankind, but scientific and technological progress has also generated social issues related to the environment, security, ethics, and socioeconomic activities. Under these circumstances, a Science, Technology, and Society (STS) education that emphasizes the teaching of scientific and technological developments in their cultural, economic, social, and political contexts is required in order to cultivate human resources capable of making decisions about how to address these issues. In this study, we developed “nocobon,” a game-based teaching material for thinking on STS issues from various perspectives. “Nocobon” is a detective card game that can be played by a group of three to six people. The results of its prototype test for high school students suggest that players could acquire new knowledge and learn to think from different perspectives on STS issues through unlocking the mysteries in a series of “nocobon” cards. The results also indicate that “nocobon” could be a simple and convenient teaching material from the viewpoint of the time management.
著者
岩崎 秀樹 阿部 好貴 山口 武志
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.4, pp.366-377, 2008-12-10 (Released:2017-06-30)
参考文献数
28
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this research is to clarify the current issues of mathematical literacy and to propose its future perspective. In this paper, we firstly look at the historical and social development of the conception of literacy from the hunter-gatherer society through the agricultural society and the industrial society to the knowledge-based or information society. Secondly, we consider the asymmetrical relationship between the society and individuals, in terms of "mathematization". The point is that mathematics becomes implicit and invisible for the people, because it is embedded in technological tools such as calculators and computers in the society. This situation can be best summarized by the following words: "an increasing mathematization of our society is complemented by an increasing demathematization of its individual members" (Keitel, 1997:2). Because we are living in this mathematized society, we should develop mathematical literacy in order to encode and decode from the real world to the mathematical one. From this perspective, we discussed the fundamental principle of an alternative curriculum for mathematical literacy. In short, it means that mathematical thinking including modeling and critical thinking is emphasized increasingly as well as mathematical contents.
著者
北澤 武 望月 俊男
出版者
一般社団法人日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.2, pp.117-134, 2014

New teachers who are shocked by real-world classroom situations—such as rules of the local school, human relationships in a shielded environment, and the reality of teaching children—tend to leave the workforce within a few years, and it has become necessary to educate student teachers in the universities with a focus on adaptive professional socialization of teachers (Zeichner & Gore, 1990) to overcome this problem. We have provided a SNS (Social Networking Service) where pre-service teachers can have a dialogue based on their report of experiences during their practice teaching. However, in order to promote the professional socialization of teachers, we designed a new SNS where experienced teachers can participate in a lesson. We then compared by year the effects of studying the changed lesson. We revised the design of the pre-teaching from the year 2010, and altered the lesson design of the pre-teaching for the year 2012, so that an experienced teacher can join face-to-face lessons and a university teacher and an experienced teacher waited to submit their comments to SNS until almost all students had submitted. As we aimed to increase submission of diaries and comments about professional socialization, we changed the classroom design in the year 2013, introducing storytelling about the image of their practice teaching, and the way of intervention in SNS by an experienced teacher. The results show an increase of diaries and comments which were submitted to SNS about "social behavior as professionals," "commitment towards work," "value and standpoint as teachers," "expectation and actuality of schools" and "efficacy".
著者
松岡 葉月
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.1, pp.56-64, 2008-03-10 (Released:2017-06-30)
参考文献数
24

It is important that people maintain science communication at places such as museums throughout their lives, and the natural science museum carries an important role in this respect. However, a museum where science communication is developed is not only natural science system. Technology itself pervades in many aspects of human life, and that a general viewpoint beyond field of the studies has developed is a factor. This study clarifies the possibility of science communication in the History Museum in this through a fusion with history and natural science. The reason is that of physics and chemistry wethedology has been applied to the study of history. And therefore to think about human history from relations with natural environment from the viewpoint of environmental disruption has become important. From such techniques and an expansion of the object of historical study, I developed learning resources by fusing history and natural science in the History Museum, and show an example of the learning program and the actual situation of the user. A big problem in science communication is bidirectional communication between researchers and citizens. In this study, I pointed out that science literacy through citizens' active learning was necessary for bidirectional communication in the museum. Science literacy is a learning theory of constructivism and a scientific intellectual power. Furthermore, it involves fundamental skills for learning natural science and history. Science communicators understood these points and emphasized the necessity of learning support.
著者
吉田 甫 河野 康男
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.111-119, 2003
参考文献数
22

A new curriculum based on stundent's informal knowledge in ratio was established in the present study. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of the new curriculum on students' understanding of ratio. The ratio concept as a quantity rather than symbol operations was stressed in the new curriculum. In addition, the second term of proportion (b × p=a ; b : base quantity, p : proportion, a: quantity to be compared) was introduced first in the sequence of teaching three terms on ratio. Thirty-five students participated in eight lessons based on the new curriculum and 71 received normal lessons following the textbook. The students of the experimental group showed significantly superior performance over the textbook group (control group) in solving ratio problems. Although computational strategy was used in the textbook group in problem solving, an estimation strategy was mainly adopted in the experimental group. These results are discussed from the viewpoint of curriculum based on informal knowledge in children.
著者
大橋 淳史
出版者
Japan Society for Science Education
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.1, pp.11-18, 2015

An experiment using a plant of purple sprout and soil of 'mebae gel' were developed in order to obtain interdisciplinary teaching materials straddling biological and chemical studies. The improved cultivation method using the gel made it possible to observe the growth of the roots easily and obtain anthocyanin from the plant effectively. Moreover, the hardness of water can be analyzed quantitatively using a solution of anthocyanin. The experiments were undertaken in a junior high school and confirmed that these teaching materials are effective.
著者
石田 淳一 子安 増生
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.1, pp.14-21, 1988-03-10 (Released:2017-06-30)

642 children of grade 1 and 2 were given eight types of word arithmetic problems to test their understanding of semantic structure of addition and subtraction from two points of view: (1) choosing operations required to solve word arithmetic problems, and (2) making up word arithmetic problems to fit given calculations. The types of addition problems were join, combine, compare (compared quality unknown), and those of subtraction problems were separate, combine, compare (difference unknown), compare (compared quality unknown), join missing addend. The main findings are as follows. (a) Semantic structure has a profound effect upon the relative difficulty of word arithmetic problems. (b) Considering the childrens' performance from the two points mentioned above, especially, compare (compared quality unknown) [addition], combine [subtraction], and join missing addend problems are more difficult than others. (c) It is more difficult for children to make up word arithmetic problems to fit given calculations than to solve ordinary word arithmetic problems.
著者
武村 政春 山野井 貴浩
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.3, pp.292-307, 2012-09-10 (Released:2017-06-30)
参考文献数
46

Most high school and university students are interested in fictitious organisms that have featured in novels, movies, on television, and other media. In several countries, teaching trials using various fictitious organisms have been introduced in biology educational courses. For example, self-study of fictitious organisms during undergraduate courses, and an "origami bird" teaching material for evolution education have been reported up to date. "Caminalcules", fictitious organisms for teaching taxonomy and evolution, and BioLogica^<TM> simulation software for learning genetics have also been thought to be effective educational materials. After discussing the effects of these trials using fictitious organisms for Japanese biology education, we assess the potential of trials using fictitious organisms for future Japanese biology education.
著者
小松 孝太郎
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.3, pp.272-286, 2011-09-10 (Released:2017-06-30)
参考文献数
38

Recently, owing to their desire to cultivate pupils' ability to learn and think for themselves, educational researchers and practitioners emphasize inquiry-based learning. Toward inquiry-based learning relying on proof and proving, this paper deliberates a normative meaning of mathematical inquiry from a Lakatosian fallibilist perspective, and discusses educational values of mathematical inquiry. Firstly, this paper examines three aspects of mathematical inquiry and their sub-aspects, through analyzing Lakatos' chief book Proofs and Refutations (Lakatos, 1976) in detail. By synthesis of these aspects, this paper then conceptualizes the meaning of mathematical inquiry as "conjecturing statements through investigation of properties or relations of mathematical objects, proving them, and then refining the statements and proofs through refuting them, with the aim to reducing their uncertainty". Subsequently, this paper discusses educational values of the mathematical inquiry from three standpoints; change of pupils' views of mathematics, and their learning on methods for productive mathematical activities; change of pupils' views of proof and proving; learning of proof and proving from primary school level.