著者
岡本 紗知
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.1, pp.3-11, 2018 (Released:2018-07-11)
参考文献数
45

Despite its advanced level of scientific research, Japan suffers from a low level of adult scientific literacy compared to many other developed countries. The current situation certainly necessitates a nationwide, robust solution. However, to implement any countermeasures, it is essential to first answer one of the fundamental questions: Does current school education guarantee the acquisition and maintenance of scientific literacy? To provide an answer, the present study examined high school textbooks from both Japan and Canada. Canada was chosen as a counterpart, since Canadian adults reportedly possess outstanding levels of scientific literacy. In this comparative analysis, questions from all of the biology textbooks were examined to reveal the directed level of cognitive processes, key factors considered to play essential roles for becoming scientifically literate. Categorization based on Bloom’s Taxonomy clearly demonstrated that Japanese high school textbooks were not equipped with questions that foster higher cognitive processes, contrary to the Canadian textbooks. Overall, the government-approved textbooks currently used throughout Japan appear to be insufficient for guaranteeing the acquisition and maintenance of scientific literacy.
著者
木村 優里
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.4, pp.398-415, 2017 (Released:2018-01-30)
参考文献数
26
被引用文献数
1

In science education research so far, a kind of dichotomy between science experts and the lay public has often been popularly presupposed, and little attention has been paid to those in between, who continue to engage in scientific practices after finishing their schooling as non-professional scientists. They can be called ‘amateur scientists’, and are the target of this study. The purpose of this study is to explore possible or probable factors (internal motivation and socio-cultural contexts) by which amateur scientists can continue to commit themselves to their scientific practices, and generate a hypothetical model of these factors and their interrelationships. In order to tackle this issue, investigations were made to identify the motivations of amateur scientists and the socio-cultural factors around them through a semi-structured interview (using the Modified-Grounded Theory Approach). A hypothetical model was then generated, explaining the reasons why these amateur scientists could continue to devote themselves to their favorite scientific practices.
著者
本多 素子 飯田 隆一 大谷 忠 谷田貝 麻美子
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.3, pp.373-382, 2017 (Released:2017-10-18)
参考文献数
11

Recently, affordable desktop digital fabrication tools such as 3D printers and laser cutters, and design data sharing via the Internet have been maximizing the potential for personal production. The purpose of this study is to elucidate an overview of Fab Labs in Japan and the extent of their support for beginners in digital fabrication. We conducted field research at 8 Fab Labs in Japan, the first research of multiple Fab Labs conducted by an external research team. The research included site visits, interviews with the managers of Fab Labs, and observations of instructor-led lessons and “open labs”. Field research results showed the current state of difficulties for beginners, support activities for them, and knowledge sharing practice in Fab Labs in Japan. Regarding the first difficulty, “preparing design data”, instructor-led lessons and guidance on reuse of shared data appeared to be useful to them. Regarding the second difficulty, “developing a plan of work”, reference to work produced by others and sharing knowledge generally, provides hints for beginners. Communication amongst participants at the “open lab” was also recognized as a support for beginners.
著者
土井 徹 林 武広
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.3, pp.212-224, 2015 (Released:2016-02-24)
参考文献数
23

The purpose of this study is to reveal how alien species are dealt with in textbooks about living environment studies, science, and biology from elementary to high school. From an analysis of students’ responses in lessons about alien species, possibilities and points to be noted for executing science lessons about biodiversity in elementary school were also examined. As a result, the following three points were identified.(1) The textbooks checked in this study have a total of 126 kinds of alien species, of which 10 are alien invasive species, and 23 are careful invasive species.(2) The textbooks have some description of how to cope with the problem of invasive species for most of alien invasive species; they also and have descriptons suggesting that their multiplication and release are encouraged, wheras there is little description about careful invasive species. (3)There are lessons that we had suggested to the students for proper understanding of alien species, indicating that lessons that encourage understanding of alien species in elementary school are possible. We have to examine opportunities and contents for doing so.
著者
浪川 幸彦
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.1, pp.12-21, 2009-03-10 (Released:2017-06-30)
参考文献数
7

Mathematics is not only one of the oldest and most profound majors of natural science but also serves as a solid linguistic and methodological foundation of natural science. We use numbers and figures in daily life, but the world of mathematics is much wider and richer. To use mathematics in natural or social science is nothing but to see the (natural and human) world through the eyes of mathematics and to understand the world through the language of mathematics. In the 21st century of high science technology and global economy, mathematical knowledge will be increasingly important not only for scientists or economists, but also for all citizens. In this article we explain our understanding of mathematics concerning (1) the nature of mathematics, (2) important concepts of mathematics including statistics, (3) features of mathematics as a language, and (4) its relation with other sciences. This paper is an expository summary of the report by the "Mathematical Science" Committee of the "Science Literacy for All Japanese" Project.
著者
長沼 祥太郎
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.2, pp.114-123, 2015 (Released:2015-06-30)
参考文献数
56
被引用文献数
2

About 20 years have passed since a “Decline in students’ positive attitude toward science” was first pointed out in the late 1980s. Various efforts, including the Support for Super Science High Schools (SSHs), Science Partnership Program (SPP), science events and symposia have been made over these two decades. However, as the results of international comparative surveys such as IEA’s TIMSS and OECD’s PISA show, there are still many students who are not interested in science. Much research has been carried out concerning the current conditions and causes of the “Decline in students’ attitude toward science” phenomenon. Papers present a variety of data and discourses, but few give a broader overview. Returning to the starting point of the phenomenon, this paper clarifies the features of the “decline in students’ positive attitude toward science” phenomenon, and whether it is a problem to be addressed and solved or not. In addition, its main causes are also reviewed. In conclusion, it is emphasized that this problem should be solved in terms of higher education and adults’ scientific literacy, and that more attention should be paid to non-formal learning by researchers in order to solve this problem.
著者
川上 昭吾 加藤 綾子
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.5, pp.394-401, 2002-12-27 (Released:2017-06-30)
参考文献数
6

We investigated the characteristics of the children museum "Eureka!" in cooperation with schools as a viewpoint. Eureka! was founded in 1992 and it is a small non-governmental museum. It is a small museum but, there are about 800 visitors from 18 schools in a day. We found five reasons why Eureka! has so many visitors. The first reason is that its exhibitions are connected tightly with the British National Curriuculum, especially for KS 1 and KS 2. Actually, Eureka! appealed to school teachers and parents that their exhibitions be connected with the National Curriculum. This is the main reason why there are so many visitors every day. Secondly, exhibitions are all hands on type, that is. interactive museum. Students are able to learn science through experiences and exhibitions. These are attractive to students for reasons of having these good ideas. For example, not only students can merely touch the exhibitions or push the switches, but they can also learn science through discovery with much surprise and interest. Another characteristics of this museum is that the exhibitions are made colorfully. There are four amazing galleries namely; "Me and my body". "Invents. Create, Communicate", "Things", and "Living and Working Together". Thirdly, they accept visitors by three guide courses: 10:15-12:15. 12:30-14:30, and 13:30-15:30. Every cousc consists of one focus hour with enabler (teaching assistant) and one discovery hour by learning themselves. Fourth, Eureka! is always evaluated by visitors. The results are reflected in the exhibitions. Fifth, there are some detailed information on the corner of galleries for further study.
著者
松田 稔樹 高橋 和弘 坂元 昂
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.30-39, 1991-03-10 (Released:2017-06-30)

This study developped a curriculum and instructional materials to teach Lisp programming for high school students in math classes. The curriculum was developped to give more understundings about mathematical formulae processing using computers as tools for simulation. Most of the contents were concerned with math formulae processing. This curriculum is universally appricable for almost any mathematical subjects. Students were expected to re-organize their mathematical knowledge, to improve their understandings, to recognize an importance of mathematical formalization, and so on. An experimental teaching project for a year was administrated to investigate that the curriculum and the materials are appropriate or not. In the project, some instructive results to improve our curriculum were obtained. For example, the "how to define functions" and "the concept of recursion" must be taught in ealier steps of the curriculum. Because of its dual nater (teaching Lisp programming and mathematics), the instructional techniques are very important for the curriculum. In the next step, the "Teachers' Guide" for teachers will be developped, which will be helpful to diffuse the curriculum. Taking ddvantage of computer languages to process mathematical formulae can be a leading method of mdthematical instruction in the future.
著者
礒田 誠 宮花 昂平
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.1, pp.27-33, 2014 (Released:2014-09-10)
参考文献数
5

We present and discuss the results of a survey on comprehension and of a simple experiment on the contents required in the teacher training education concerning the direct-current electric circuit in the science textbook for fourth graders in Japan. We demonstrate the effects introduced into the electric circuit by “the internal resistance of a dry cell battery” and “the non-linear resistivity of a miniature bulb” in the experiment, and discuss the educational contents and methods of elementary school teacher training.
著者
雲財 寛 中村 大輝
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.4, pp.301-313, 2018 (Released:2019-02-02)
参考文献数
29

The purpose of this study was to develop a Need-for-Cognition-in-Science (NFCS) Scale and to clarify students’ NFCS. We confirmed reliability and validity by quantitative analysis. The results of the analysis revealed that primary school students’ NFCS is higher than that of lower secondary school students.
著者
小林 辰至 永益 泰彦
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.3, pp.185-193, 2006-09-10 (Released:2017-06-30)
参考文献数
8
被引用文献数
8

Since scientific research begins with the setting of hypotheses, students at teachers colleges must to design hypotheses learn during teacher training. However, no effective generalized instruction methods for hypothesis setting have been developed. In fact, no such instruction has ever been carried out. In this study, we investigated the actual involvement of elementary school teacher candidates in inquiry into natural science and related fields in their elementary, junior and senior high school days. At the same time, we developed a method to design a hypothesis based on the technique of the "four question strategy" in order to practice this method using these teacher candidates, and demonstrated the following findings: (1) With the advancement from elementary and junior high school to senior high school, the percentage of elementary school teacher candidates who liked the subject of natural science tended to decline. In particular, during their senior high school days, half of such students disliked this subject. (2) The frequencies of observations and experiments tended to decrease, as seen in their low rate of liking for natural science when they advanced to higher schools. At high school, the frequencies of observations and experiments were only 20.3% even when both "high" and "somewhat high" were combined. This figure was extremely low compared with those of elementary and junior high schools, which is problematic. (3) The percentage of students who had gone through a series of the experiences of science learning was under 10%. (4) Two 60-minute sessions were conducted using the instruction method and worksheet developed through the "four question strategy." As a consequence, more than 90% of the students responded by saying "well understood," and "somewhat understood." From this outcome, we concluded that the newly proposed instruction method and worksheet were highly effective for the students to acquire a means to design hypotheses.
著者
木村 優里 小川 正賢
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.4, pp.324-334, 2018 (Released:2019-02-02)
参考文献数
7

The current study is one of the hypothesis verification studies of previous work (Kimura, 2017), in which a hypothetical model, explaining why amateur scientists could continue their scientific practices, was generated through a qualitative research method, the Modified Grounded Theory Approach (M-GTA). The present study examined common elements enabling Japanese amateur entomological scientists to continue their scientific practices in the hypothetical model, by using a quantitative research method. A total of 70 amateur entomological scientists voluntarily participated in a questionnaire survey, consisting of 3 attribute questions and 19 main questions, which identified a total of 21 essential elements (‘categories,’ ‘concepts,’ and ‘processes’) of the model. The data obtained was analyzed quantitatively. The findings revealed that the 21 elements could be divided into three groups: Thirteen elements were shared among the Japanese amateur entomological scientists, whereas 5 elements were not, while the remaining 3 elements were in-between.
著者
原田 勇希 三浦 雅美 鈴木 誠
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.3, pp.164-176, 2018 (Released:2018-10-27)
参考文献数
33

The aim of this research was to examine the influence of perception of utility value for entrance examination on “proactive, interactive and deep learning”. The results show that the teacher evaluated children with high perception of utility value for entrance examination as “proactive, interactive and deep” learners even if adjusted for the effect of interest value and utility value for practice. As indicated by the result of research 2, critical thinking mediated the effect of utility value perception for entrance examination on “proactive, interactive and deep learning” as evaluated by teachers. On the other hand, it was shown that high perception of utility value for entrance examination also promotes class participation behaviors due to a concern about being evaluated by teachers. Based on the above results, it was concluded that high perception of utility value for entrance examination can promote “proactive, interactive and deep learning” in science classes, and the large size of this variable should not be denied as a motivating factor for science learning.
著者
蒔苗 直道
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.3, pp.264-271, 2011-09-10 (Released:2017-06-30)
参考文献数
21

This study aims to clarify the effects of the Virginia course of study on the "Tentative course of study in mathematics" immediately after World War II. To this aim, the following three considerations are made. First, to clarify the foundation and construction of the Virginia course of study. Second, to clarify the main emphasis and underlying theory. And third, to clarify the effects on the "Tentative course of study in mathematics". As a result, three points were clarified. The Virginia course of study had two aspects. One was a core-curriculum as progressive education, and the other was subject instruction against progressivism. For the edition of the Japanese tentative course of study in mathematics, subject instruction was introduced. The part of subject instruction was based on Meaning Theory by W. Brownell. Meaning Theory was the teaching theory that emphasized understanding the meaning of fundamental processes in arithmetic and the relationship between them. In the "Tentative course of study in mathematics", we can see the same emphasis. However, the explanations were different from the Virginia course. In Japanese, the meaning of fundamental processes meant why and how the procedure was introduced as a fundamental process. The Japanese editor introduced Meaning Theory form Virginia course of study and developed the their meaning.
著者
田中 維 江草 遼平 楠 房子 奥山 英登 山口 悦司 稲垣 成哲 野上 智行
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.3, pp.210-224, 2018 (Released:2018-10-27)
参考文献数
18

We developed and evaluated animation-based learning contents for supporting scientific observations of animals in zoos. The contents provide the viewpoints of scientific observation. In order to evaluate whether the contents support observation, we developed cases of contents for observable features and behaviors of the hind flippers, noses, and claws of seals, and implemented a workshop for parents and children. The participants of the workshop were 15 parent-child pairs. Their average age was 7.0 years (SD = 2.0). We analyzed the video data of these 15 parent-child pairs’ observations using the contents. The results show that most parent-child pairs were able to observe the seals’ features and/or behavior using animation-based learning contents.
著者
大髙 泉
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.2, pp.55-64, 2018 (Released:2018-07-12)
参考文献数
45

At present, globalization is still in process, and from now on, globalization will continue to accelerate. In this article, “globalization and science education” will be dealt with from the following perspectives:1. From the Meiji Era, in the process of Westernization and standardization, the establishment and the development of Japanese science education.2. In the present world, the character of globalization and educational policy.3. The present situation and problems of science education in globalization.4. The prospects of science education in Japan correspond to globalization.In this article, the following conclusions were made. First, Japanese science education began amidst the globalization of Westernization since the Meiji Era, and after world war II, Japanese science education developed amidst the globalization of Americanization. Second, globalization has multiple meanings, under the bottom line there is neoliberalism, and in globalization there are aspects of objective reality and ideology, which influence world educational policy. Third, among the points of view of globalization there are some problems concerning the objectives and the curriculum of Japanese science education. Finally, from the point of view of diversity and peculiarity, Japanese science education has the potential to improve world science education.