著者
奥村 優子 鹿子木 康弘 竹内 祥惠 板倉 昭二
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.85, no.3, pp.248-256, 2014 (Released:2014-08-25)
参考文献数
40
被引用文献数
1 2

Recent research demonstrates that social preferences for native language speakers emerge early in development, indicating that infants prefer speakers from their own society. Dialect may also be a reliable cue to group membership because it provides information about an individual’s social and ethnic identity. We investigated whether infants showed social preferences toward native-dialect speakers over those with unfamiliar dialects. Infants at 9 and 12 months of age were shown videos in which two adults (a native-dialect speaker and an unfamiliar-dialect speaker) each spoke to and then offered an identical toy to the participating infants. Next, two real versions of the toys were presented to the infants in person. The 12-month-old infants preferentially reached for the toy offered by the native-dialect speaker. The 9-month-old infants also showed a preference for native-dialect speakers but this finding was not statistically significant. Our results suggest that dialects may be a reliable cue to group membership, and that infants’ orientation toward members of their native community may guide their social and cultural learning.
著者
奥村 優子 鹿子木 康弘
出版者
心理学評論刊行会
雑誌
心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.2, pp.191-203, 2018 (Released:2019-11-06)
参考文献数
67

How do infants extract useful information from a world of distractions? Social learning from others enables infants to acquire information rapidly and efficiently that otherwise would require more time and cognitive resources. In this paper, we aimed to clarify the social learning mechanism of infants by focusing on from whom and how they learn. First, we introduced the theory of natural pedagogy, which argues that young infants can acquire knowledge from ostensive signals. Second, we reviewed recent studies on infant social learning from the viewpoint of two critical factors: agents and ostensive signals. In particular, we provided studies that focused on what type of agent is appropriate as an information source for infant learning and how ostensive signals work effectively for infant learning. Third, we provided tentative suggestions on how the foundations of infant social learning are generated, maintained, and formed in early development.
著者
鹿子木 康弘
出版者
一般社団法人 日本発達心理学会
雑誌
発達心理学研究 (ISSN:09159029)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.4, pp.443-452, 2014

我々は生まれながらにして向社会的なのだろうか? より大胆に言えば,我々は生まれながらにして善なのだろうか? 近年の乳幼児研究によって,発達初期におけるヒトの向社会性が明らかにされつつある。しかしながら,発達科学からのヒトの向社会性の本質についての議論は少ない。そこで,本稿では,実証的な発達研究をもとに,向社会性の性質やその変容を明らかにすることを目的とした。まず,進化生物学の理論を考察することにより,ヒトにおいて向社会性がいかにして形成・維持されるのかを議論する。次に,乳幼児期から就学前児を対象にした向社会性に関連する一連の研究を概観し,ヒトの向社会性は,発達早期において生来的な性質を持つが,発達とともにその性質が変容することを示した。更にその変容を促す要因(社会化,認知能力の発達,暴力的な場面やメディアなどへの接触経験)を考察することにより,発達早期における向社会性がいかに変容するかを描写した。最後に,向社会性の本質の更なる理解のために,今後の方向性として,その生起メカニズムや変容の解明についての試論を行った。
著者
奥村 優子 鹿子木 康弘 竹内 祥惠 板倉 昭二
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.85, no.3, pp.248-256, 2014
被引用文献数
2

Recent research demonstrates that social preferences for native language speakers emerge early in development, indicating that infants prefer speakers from their own society. Dialect may also be a reliable cue to group membership because it provides information about an individual's social and ethnic identity. We investigated whether infants showed social preferences toward native-dialect speakers over those with unfamiliar dialects. Infants at 9 and 12 months of age were shown videos in which two adults (a native-dialect speaker and an unfamiliar-dialect speaker) each spoke to and then offered an identical toy to the participating infants. Next, two real versions of the toys were presented to the infants in person. The 12-month-old infants preferentially reached for the toy offered by the native-dialect speaker. The 9-month-old infants also showed a preference for native-dialect speakers but this finding was not statistically significant. Our results suggest that dialects may be a reliable cue to group membership, and that infants' orientation toward members of their native community may guide their social and cultural learning.