- 著者
- 大久保 街亜
- 出版者
- 心理学評論刊行会
- 雑誌
- 心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
- 巻号頁・発行日
- vol.59, no.1, pp.57-67, 2016

<p>Although null hypothesis significance testing has been strongly criticized for decades, it has been the dominant statistical method in the field of psychology. Non-reproducibility of findings in psychology can be attributed, at least partially, to an arbitrary threshold (i.e., .05) in the null hypothesis significance testing and overrepresentation of <i>p</i>-values. The present study surveyed papers from the <i>Japanese Journal of Social Psychology</i> and examined whether or not such overrepresentation also existed among psychology researchers in Japan. Effect size measures and <i>p</i>-values did not correspond well when <i>p</i>-values were set at around .05. Moreover, the frequency of <i>p</i>-values just below .05 was greater than expected. These results imply that the overrepresentation of <i>p</i>-values can produce unreliable and irreproducible results. Two types of remedies are discussed to alleviate the problems of overrepresentation of the <i>p</i>-values.</p>

- 著者
- 椎名 乾平
- 出版者
- 心理学評論刊行会
- 雑誌
- 心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
- 巻号頁・発行日
- vol.59, no.4, pp.415-444, 2016 (Released:2018-03-21)
- 参考文献数
- 146

Pearson’s correlation coefficient is an important statistic. For over a century, the index has been used in various branches of science. This paper introduces both its creation and initial developments that are often forgotten or ignored. Because no theory is independent of the original setting and the research plan of its creators, knowledge about the context of pioneering ideas helps researchers better understand the meaning of the coefficient. The paper highlights the work of Bravais, Galton, Pearson, artillery scientists, Spearman, and many other early contributors, and describes their original intentions, achievements, and faults. Key comments on the present statistical theories and practices are also presented in several pivotal comments.

- 著者
- 浅田 晃佑 熊谷 晋一郎
- 出版者
- 心理学評論刊行会
- 雑誌
- 心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
- 巻号頁・発行日
- vol.58, no.3, pp.379-388, 2015 (Released:2018-06-19)

- 著者
- 豊田 秀樹
- 出版者
- 心理学評論刊行会
- 雑誌
- 心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
- 巻号頁・発行日
- vol.60, no.4, pp.379-390, 2017 (Released:2019-03-22)
- 参考文献数
- 9
- 被引用文献数
- 1

A p-value can be simply defined as the probability that under a specified statistical model a statistical summary of the data (e.g., the mean difference between two groups) would be equal to or more extreme than its observed value. p-values do not measure the probability that the studied hypothesis was true, or the probability that the data were produced by random chance alone (Wasserstein & Lazar, 2016). What researchers usually want is p(HjD), the probability that a research hypothesis was true, given the data. Three examples were shown that analyzed using the probability that a hypothesis was true, instead of p-values. A peer-reviewed policy using a new standard for publishing useful papers for society was proposed.

- 著者
- 下條 信輔
- 出版者
- 心理学評論刊行会
- 雑誌
- 心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
- 巻号頁・発行日
- vol.24, no.1, pp.16-42, 1981 (Released:2019-07-24)

- 著者
- 椎名 乾平
- 出版者
- 心理学評論刊行会
- 雑誌
- 心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
- 巻号頁・発行日
- vol.56, no.1, pp.7-34, 2013 (Released:2018-08-18)

- 著者
- 村井 潤一郎 橋本 貴充
- 出版者
- 心理学評論刊行会
- 雑誌
- 心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
- 巻号頁・発行日
- vol.61, no.1, pp.116-136, 2018 (Released:2019-07-11)
- 参考文献数
- 77
- 被引用文献数
- 4

Many problems have been reported concerning null hypothesis significance testing (NHST), although it is used in most psychological research. The authors believe that this situation will not change, at least not in the near future. Before shifting to a Bayesian approach, there are several things that must be done in psychological research that uses NHST. Among them, sample size planning (SSP) is especially important. In practice, whether significant results exist primarily depends on sample size, and many studies have indicated that SSP is vital. However, the use of SSP is rare in psychological research. Most psychological research basically depends on the significance of NHST; therefore, psychologists should conduct SSP before collecting data. We describe the present situation of SSP in psychological research, discuss related topics, argue for the importance of SSP, and present future directions for SSP in psychological research using NHST.

- 著者
- 森永 康子
- 出版者
- 心理学評論刊行会
- 雑誌
- 心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
- 巻号頁・発行日
- vol.60, no.1, pp.49-61, 2017 (Released:2018-07-20)
- 参考文献数
- 76
- 被引用文献数
- 3

It is unclear why the number of women in the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) is still small. In this review article, I focus on gender stereotypes (i.e., the belief that “women canʼt do math”) from a social psychological perspective. It has been reported that women and girls are influenced by negative stereotypes in experimental settings as well as in the real world. For example, researchers have found that negative stereotypes can undermine the performance of women in math exams. More recently, implicit stereotypes have been found to affect womenʼs math preferences either equally or even more than explicit stereotypes. How can we counteract the effects of negative stereotypes? Interventions, such as informing women that their math performances and career decisions are often unconsciously influenced by gender stereotypes, have been introduced based on accumulated knowledge of both gender and stereotypes. Having reviewed such literature, I conclude that psychologists in Japan should put more effort into conducting research on how to encourage women and girls to pursue their career plans, especially in the STEM field.

- 著者
- 山田 祐樹
- 出版者
- 心理学評論刊行会
- 雑誌
- 心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
- 巻号頁・発行日
- vol.59, no.1, pp.15-29, 2016 (Released:2018-04-13)
- 参考文献数
- 108
- 被引用文献数
- 3

Several studies on scientific replication and meta-analytic approaches have illustrated the issue of low reproducibility or low effect size in psychology and related fields. Herein, the author described not only the problems generally underlying fields (e.g., questionable research practices and misconduct) but also problems specific to cognitive psychology. Reproducibility or effect size of experimental studies has gathered little attention from researchers in cognitive psychology. In addition, the lack of cognitive studies on researchers in cognitive psychology is related to the disregard for motivational factors on the reproduction/replication problems. Based on the understanding of these issues, the author discusses how future cognitive psychology can overcome them.

- 著者
- 定藤 規弘
- 出版者
- 心理学評論刊行会
- 雑誌
- 心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
- 巻号頁・発行日
- vol.59, no.3, pp.274-282, 2016 (Released:2018-02-06)
- 参考文献数
- 37

Development of social cognition is embedded in real-time social interactions between individuals, i.e., inter-subjectivity. To depict its neural underpinning, we have conducted a multi-brain approach utilizing hyperscanning fMRI that enables depiction of the neural activities of the two brains during a real-time interaction, i.e., joint attention. Hyperscanning fMRI of pairs of adults performing joint attention showed inter-individual neural synchronization in the right inferior frontal gyrus after all of the task-related effects were modeled out. To explore how the joint attention and eye-contact generates the state of shared attention, we conducted hyperscanning fMRI in which pairs of participants performed a real-time mutual gaze, before and after the joint attention task. During the mutual gaze, eye-blink synchronization, a behavioral index of shared attention, increased after the joint attention. The increase of eye-blink synchronization correlated positively with the increase of inter-individual neural synchronization within the right inferior frontal gyrus during mutual gaze. This enhanced neural synchronization also correlated positively with enhanced eye-blink synchronization during the previous joint attention. Thus, shared attention is represented and retained by pair-specific neural synchronization of the right inferior frontal gyrus. Furthermore, we have also successfully treated the two brains as a single unit, in order to understand the neural substrates of inter-subjectivity. We will apply this “two-in-one” strategy to various behavioral milestones of the development of social cognition from mutual imitation to prosocial behavior. Our “two-in-one” strategy using hyperscanning fMRI will become an indispensable and ground-breaking method to open the new field of “inter-subjectivity” social neuroscience.

- 著者
- 渡邊 芳之
- 出版者
- 心理学評論刊行会
- 雑誌
- 心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
- 巻号頁・発行日
- vol.59, no.1, pp.98-107, 2016 (Released:2018-04-13)
- 参考文献数
- 33
- 被引用文献数
- 8

Herein, I discuss some methodological aspects on the reproducibility of psychological data. Reduced reproducibility of psychological data can occur as a consequence of research misconduct, inadequate statistical methods, effects of uncontrolled latent variables, and low occurrence probability of the studied phenomena itself. As such, the validity of data and their analyses may be subject to these sources of irreproducibility, and the expected reproducibility level depends on theoretical and methodological characteristics of the studied phenomena and related variables. Until recently, psychologists’ historical reluctance for replication studies, derived from demonstrational and anecdotal usage of psychological data, has prevented psychologists from considering the issues related to reproducibility. Some possible alternatives for psychologists addressing reproducibility issues are also discussed.

- 著者
- 北山 忍
- 出版者
- 心理学評論刊行会
- 雑誌
- 心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
- 巻号頁・発行日
- vol.22, no.4, pp.429-448, 1979 (Released:2019-08-07)

- 著者
- 三中 信宏
- 出版者
- 心理学評論刊行会
- 雑誌
- 心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
- 巻号頁・発行日
- vol.59, no.1, pp.123-128, 2016 (Released:2018-04-13)
- 参考文献数
- 27
- 被引用文献数
- 2

The recent controversy over statistical data analyses sheds a light on a number of cases of abuse of statistical procedures. In this essay some practical aspects of statistical analyses, mainly in agricultural research, are discussed. During the past century eminent researchers, including K. Pearson, R. A. Fisher, J. Neyman, and E. S. Pearson, have established the theoretical basis of modern mathematical statistics, e.g., experimental design, sampling distributions, and hypothesis testing. Some users in psychology, agronomy, etc. might be liable to commit misconduct in statistical analysis. Of course while they are responsible for what they have done, they must understand not only the proper use of statistical methodology but also the characteristic of each science.

- 著者
- 繁桝 算男
- 出版者
- 心理学評論刊行会
- 雑誌
- 心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
- 巻号頁・発行日
- vol.19, no.2, pp.95-115, 1976 (Released:2019-09-19)

- 著者
- 木川 智美
- 出版者
- 心理学評論刊行会
- 雑誌
- 心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
- 巻号頁・発行日
- vol.59, no.4, pp.387-396, 2016 (Released:2018-03-21)
- 参考文献数
- 45

The purpose of this study is to comprehensively review the trends in psychological research on manipulation of others and to consider the direction of future research in this area. Based on the studies in this review, a model is proposed that can order in terms of effectiveness or susceptibility the manipulations used in antisocial behaviors using combinations of “personality traits that seek to manipulate others or techniques for manipulating others” and “specificities of the object persons of the manipulation”, respectively. As for future issues and prospects, it is desirable to develop a comprehensive model that includes various underlying concepts by defining the common theoretical structure that encompasses various concepts in each area while repeatedly testing the validity of the model. The applicability of the model should be evaluated based on the many actual techniques of manipulating others and on the social cases of manipulating others.

- 著者
- 堀 裕亮
- 出版者
- 心理学評論刊行会
- 雑誌
- 心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
- 巻号頁・発行日
- vol.60, no.3, pp.230-234, 2017 (Released:2019-02-07)
- 参考文献数
- 16

Due to the recent “reproducibility crisis”, the methodology of psychology has been changing. In this situation, the statistical education for undergraduate students majoring in psychology should also be changed. Statistical hypothesis testing and p-values have been the main topics in conventional statistics classes for psychology students. However, it has been pointed out that the emphasis on p-values has lowered the reproducibility of science, including psychology. In this paper, I propose that a main theme of statistics classes for psychology students should be shifted from statistical hypothesis testing to the concept of statistical modelling. Understanding the concept fitting probability distribution to data is a fundamental concept of inferential statistics. This idea will facilitate students’ understanding of some different statistical approaches. It will also be important to teach the students to refrain from making a dichotomous decision based upon a single index.

- 著者
- 池田 功毅 平石 界
- 出版者
- 心理学評論刊行会
- 雑誌
- 心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
- 巻号頁・発行日
- vol.59, no.1, pp.3-14, 2016 (Released:2018-04-13)
- 参考文献数
- 100
- 被引用文献数
- 19

Psychological science is now facing an unprecedented crisis of reproducibility. The field is becoming aware of the systematic problems embedded in its research practices that have been widely employed by most academic journals. An emphasis on aesthetic rather than scientific standards has led to a publication bias for positive results, which, in turn, has encouraged questionable research practices (QRPs), such as p-hacking and HARKing. These processes have potentially created “null fields” where many findings are mere products of false positives. This risk is especially large in fields where the prior probability of the hypotheses being true is low. In fact, a recent large-scale replication project reported that the reproducibility of psychological literature is less than 40%. The psychology community is starting to respond to this crisis by becoming aware of the importance of pre-registered replication, and by reforming the publication standards of many journals. In this paper, we provide an overview of the facts and solutions to the present problems.

- 著者
- 大久保 街亜
- 出版者
- 心理学評論刊行会
- 雑誌
- 心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
- 巻号頁・発行日
- vol.59, no.1, pp.57-67, 2016 (Released:2018-04-13)
- 参考文献数
- 49
- 被引用文献数
- 11

Although null hypothesis significance testing has been strongly criticized for decades, it has been the dominant statistical method in the field of psychology. Non-reproducibility of findings in psychology can be attributed, at least partially, to an arbitrary threshold (i.e., .05) in the null hypothesis significance testing and overrepresentation of p-values. The present study surveyed papers from the Japanese Journal of Social Psychology and examined whether or not such overrepresentation also existed among psychology researchers in Japan. Effect size measures and p-values did not correspond well when p-values were set at around .05. Moreover, the frequency of p-values just below .05 was greater than expected. These results imply that the overrepresentation of p-values can produce unreliable and irreproducible results. Two types of remedies are discussed to alleviate the problems of overrepresentation of the p-values.

- 著者
- 寺澤 悠理 梅田 聡
- 出版者
- 心理学評論刊行会
- 雑誌
- 心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
- 巻号頁・発行日
- vol.57, no.1, pp.49-66, 2014 (Released:2018-07-13)

- 著者
- 中村 早希 三浦 麻子
- 出版者
- 心理学評論刊行会
- 雑誌
- 心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
- 巻号頁・発行日
- vol.61, no.2, pp.157-168, 2018 (Released:2019-11-06)
- 参考文献数
- 52

In various social situations such as elections or shopping, individuals are often persuaded in multiple directions by different sources (i.e., multiple-source-and-direction persuasion). In this paper, we discussed the attitude change process in this type of situation, based on two dual-process models of persuasion: (1) the heuristic-systematic model and (2) the elaboration likelihood model. These models assume single-source-and-direction persuasion and cannot be applied without modification to multiple-source-and-direction persuasion. Therefore, this paper focuses on the simultaneous consideration of multiple persuasive messages as a process particular to this situation. In addition, by using a concrete experimental design, we demonstrated in this paper how a hypothesized model accounts for a recipient’s attitude change. We emphasized the significance and the future prospects of clarifying the attitude change process in multiple-source-and-direction persuasion.