著者
大久保 街亜
出版者
心理学評論刊行会
雑誌
心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.1, pp.57-67, 2016

<p>Although null hypothesis significance testing has been strongly criticized for decades, it has been the dominant statistical method in the field of psychology. Non-reproducibility of findings in psychology can be attributed, at least partially, to an arbitrary threshold (i.e., .05) in the null hypothesis significance testing and overrepresentation of <i>p</i>-values. The present study surveyed papers from the <i>Japanese Journal of Social Psychology</i> and examined whether or not such overrepresentation also existed among psychology researchers in Japan. Effect size measures and <i>p</i>-values did not correspond well when <i>p</i>-values were set at around .05. Moreover, the frequency of <i>p</i>-values just below .05 was greater than expected. These results imply that the overrepresentation of <i>p</i>-values can produce unreliable and irreproducible results. Two types of remedies are discussed to alleviate the problems of overrepresentation of the <i>p</i>-values.</p>
著者
椎名 乾平
出版者
心理学評論刊行会
雑誌
心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.4, pp.415-444, 2016 (Released:2018-03-21)
参考文献数
146

Pearson’s correlation coefficient is an important statistic. For over a century, the index has been used in various branches of science. This paper introduces both its creation and initial developments that are often forgotten or ignored. Because no theory is independent of the original setting and the research plan of its creators, knowledge about the context of pioneering ideas helps researchers better understand the meaning of the coefficient. The paper highlights the work of Bravais, Galton, Pearson, artillery scientists, Spearman, and many other early contributors, and describes their original intentions, achievements, and faults. Key comments on the present statistical theories and practices are also presented in several pivotal comments.
著者
岡田 謙介
出版者
心理学評論刊行会
雑誌
心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.1, pp.101-115, 2018 (Released:2019-07-11)
参考文献数
87
被引用文献数
8

The Bayes factor has a basic and crucial role in Bayesian evaluation of psychological hypotheses and models. It forms a fundamental part of the advancement of psychological science. Its computation has been a major challenge, although recent advances in numerical estimation methods such as bridge sampling may allow the application of the Bayes factor to a wide range of practical research contexts. The objective of the current paper is to provide psychological scientists an introductory tutorial of the ideas and recent developments concerning the Bayes factor. Some running examples are presented and a few practical application methods are also discussed.
著者
森永 康子
出版者
心理学評論刊行会
雑誌
心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.1, pp.49-61, 2017 (Released:2018-07-20)
参考文献数
76
被引用文献数
3

It is unclear why the number of women in the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) is still small. In this review article, I focus on gender stereotypes (i.e., the belief that “women canʼt do math”) from a social psychological perspective. It has been reported that women and girls are influenced by negative stereotypes in experimental settings as well as in the real world. For example, researchers have found that negative stereotypes can undermine the performance of women in math exams. More recently, implicit stereotypes have been found to affect womenʼs math preferences either equally or even more than explicit stereotypes. How can we counteract the effects of negative stereotypes? Interventions, such as informing women that their math performances and career decisions are often unconsciously influenced by gender stereotypes, have been introduced based on accumulated knowledge of both gender and stereotypes. Having reviewed such literature, I conclude that psychologists in Japan should put more effort into conducting research on how to encourage women and girls to pursue their career plans, especially in the STEM field.
著者
池田 功毅 平石 界
出版者
心理学評論刊行会
雑誌
心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.1, pp.3-14, 2016 (Released:2018-04-13)
参考文献数
100
被引用文献数
19

Psychological science is now facing an unprecedented crisis of reproducibility. The field is becoming aware of the systematic problems embedded in its research practices that have been widely employed by most academic journals. An emphasis on aesthetic rather than scientific standards has led to a publication bias for positive results, which, in turn, has encouraged questionable research practices (QRPs), such as p-hacking and HARKing. These processes have potentially created “null fields” where many findings are mere products of false positives. This risk is especially large in fields where the prior probability of the hypotheses being true is low. In fact, a recent large-scale replication project reported that the reproducibility of psychological literature is less than 40%. The psychology community is starting to respond to this crisis by becoming aware of the importance of pre-registered replication, and by reforming the publication standards of many journals. In this paper, we provide an overview of the facts and solutions to the present problems.
著者
豊田 秀樹
出版者
心理学評論刊行会
雑誌
心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.4, pp.379-390, 2017 (Released:2019-03-22)
参考文献数
9
被引用文献数
1

A p-value can be simply defined as the probability that under a specified statistical model a statistical summary of the data (e.g., the mean difference between two groups) would be equal to or more extreme than its observed value. p-values do not measure the probability that the studied hypothesis was true, or the probability that the data were produced by random chance alone (Wasserstein & Lazar, 2016). What researchers usually want is p(HjD), the probability that a research hypothesis was true, given the data. Three examples were shown that analyzed using the probability that a hypothesis was true, instead of p-values. A peer-reviewed policy using a new standard for publishing useful papers for society was proposed.
著者
Daniël Lakens
出版者
心理学評論刊行会
雑誌
心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.3, pp.221-230, 2019 (Released:2021-02-28)
参考文献数
43

For over two centuries researchers have been criticized for using research practices that makes it easier to present data in line with what they wish to be true. With the rise of the internet it has become easier to preregister the theoretical and empirical basis for predictions, the experimental design, the materials, and the analysis code. Whether the practice of preregistration is valuable depends on your philosophy of science. Here, I provide a conceptual analysis of the value of preregistration for psychological science from an error statistical philosophy (Mayo, 2018). Preregistration has the goal to allow others to transparently evaluate the capacity of a test to falsify a prediction, or the severity of a test. Researchers who aim to test predictions with severity should find value in the practice of preregistration. I differentiate the goal of preregistration from positive externalities, discuss how preregistration itself does not make a study better or worse compared to a non-preregistered study, and highlight the importance of evaluating the usefulness of a tool such as preregistration based on an explicit consideration of your philosophy of science.
著者
村井 潤一郎 橋本 貴充
出版者
心理学評論刊行会
雑誌
心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.1, pp.116-136, 2018 (Released:2019-07-11)
参考文献数
77
被引用文献数
4

Many problems have been reported concerning null hypothesis significance testing (NHST), although it is used in most psychological research. The authors believe that this situation will not change, at least not in the near future. Before shifting to a Bayesian approach, there are several things that must be done in psychological research that uses NHST. Among them, sample size planning (SSP) is especially important. In practice, whether significant results exist primarily depends on sample size, and many studies have indicated that SSP is vital. However, the use of SSP is rare in psychological research. Most psychological research basically depends on the significance of NHST; therefore, psychologists should conduct SSP before collecting data. We describe the present situation of SSP in psychological research, discuss related topics, argue for the importance of SSP, and present future directions for SSP in psychological research using NHST.
著者
木川 智美
出版者
心理学評論刊行会
雑誌
心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.4, pp.387-396, 2016 (Released:2018-03-21)
参考文献数
45

The purpose of this study is to comprehensively review the trends in psychological research on manipulation of others and to consider the direction of future research in this area. Based on the studies in this review, a model is proposed that can order in terms of effectiveness or susceptibility the manipulations used in antisocial behaviors using combinations of “personality traits that seek to manipulate others or techniques for manipulating others” and “specificities of the object persons of the manipulation”, respectively. As for future issues and prospects, it is desirable to develop a comprehensive model that includes various underlying concepts by defining the common theoretical structure that encompasses various concepts in each area while repeatedly testing the validity of the model. The applicability of the model should be evaluated based on the many actual techniques of manipulating others and on the social cases of manipulating others.
著者
山田 祐樹
出版者
心理学評論刊行会
雑誌
心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.3, pp.296-303, 2019 (Released:2021-02-28)
参考文献数
29

In this paper, I discussed new forms of researcher evaluation in psychological research with the view of solving the reproducibility problem. I demonstrate that the current researcher evaluation system is severely biased, rather encouraging publication of less reproducible findings with fraud or bad practices. To alleviate this bias, the proposed remedies include the limitation of duplicate awards, reputation-based individual research indicators, and clarification of contributions. In addition, the evaluation by researchers from society is also biased; therefore, spins, conflicts of interest, and public involvement in research have been raised as important issues. I hope that these discussions will be noticed by interested parties who are not interested in them.
著者
三浦 麻子
出版者
心理学評論刊行会
雑誌
心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.4, pp.285-294, 2017 (Released:2019-03-22)
参考文献数
16

In this paper, the state of communication between psychology and society were discussed from both aspects of psychology receiving information from society (data collection) and psychology transmitting information to society (science communication) using actual practices by the author. Concerning receiving information from society, social psychology research on Internet communication that analyzed real-world data (i.e., posts on blogs, social media, and other online communication forums) was introduced, and the significance of using actual data was demonstrated. Concerning transmitting information to society, practical examples of science communication as an initiative to channel back scientific findings to society (i.e., creating press releases and science news articles) was introduced. In addition, current issues and the necessity of the open science movement were discussed.
著者
水野 君平 唐 音啓
出版者
心理学評論刊行会
雑誌
心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.4, pp.311-327, 2019 (Released:2021-03-31)
参考文献数
92

The purpose of this paper was to compare previous research with “school caste,” which is the phenomenon of status hierarchy between informal groups among Japanese classrooms, and to discuss the direction and perspective of research on school caste. In the current study, we reviewed studies on sociometric popularity, perceived popularity, and peer crowds as research knowledge on children’s social status in schools. We then reviewed literature reports on school caste and discussed how school caste would be positioned as studies on social status among schools. After indicating the problems of promoting research on school caste, we discussed the future direction of research. Finally, we discussed the implications and directions of future empirical studies on school caste or interpeer group status, based on the aforementioned review.
著者
坂口 菊恵
出版者
心理学評論刊行会
雑誌
心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.1, pp.105-110, 2017 (Released:2018-07-20)
参考文献数
40

The progress of brain-imaging research casts doubt on a theory that the degree of brain-lateralization defines sex differences in cognitive strength patterns, i.e., men excel at spatial ability and math, and women excel at verbal fluency and language abilities. Meta-analyses reported that previously believed anatomical brain sex-differences, including the thickness of the corpus callosum, were not replicated. However, findings did not completely exclude the existence of brain/cognitive sex differences. The author reviews recent trends in this debate and covers new evidence that bridges the biological and cultural approaches, including “stereotype threat” investigations for explaining the STEM gender gap. The importance of both defining the scope of interest and dissecting various elements that relate to manifestations of socio-behavioral patterns is stressed.
著者
Ayumi Ikeda Haoqin Xu Naoto Fuji Siqi Zhu Yuki Yamada
出版者
心理学評論刊行会
雑誌
心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.3, pp.281-295, 2019 (Released:2021-02-28)
参考文献数
73

The credibility of psychological findings can be undermined by a history of questionable research practices (QRPs) by researchers. One remedy for this problem is the pre-registration of a study in which a research protocol is registered before beginning an experiment. However, the current style of pre-registration can be negatively affected by other QRPs. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that researchers can engage in QRPs, even after a study has been preregistered. In this demonstration study, we used eight QRPs to obtain statistically meaningful results that supported an ad hoc hypothesis. Major system updates such as pre-registration, peer review, and evaluation are required to address these harmful practices. We hope that the present demonstration study provides momentum for further discussions on next-generation research practices.