- The Society for Near Eastern Studies in Japan
- オリエント (ISSN:00305219)
- vol.48, no.2, pp.47-65, 2005
This paper analyzes the establishment by the Ottoman Empire of the <i>Yurtluk ve Ocaklik</i> and the <i>hükûmet</i> in eastern Anatolia and their historical development.<br>After the Ottoman Empire took the eastern Anatolia under its control in the 16th century, it examined the situation of the land tenure and the distribution among the power of Kurdish <i>amirs</i> (chieftain) who had governed the area. This was aimed at merging eastern Anatolia into its local administration system. Thereafter <i>amirs</i> received <i>sancaks</i> (subdivision of a province) as a <i>yurtluk ve ocaklik</i> (hereditary holding) which authorized them to keep inherited privileges. The Ottoman Empire called the <i>sancaks</i> of powerful <i>amirs eyalets</i> (semi-autonomous sancak), but the distinction remained vague. At the end of 16th century when the word <i>hükûmet</i> started to be commonly used instead of <i>eyalet</i>, the <i>sancaks</i> of powerful <i>amirs</i> were designated <i>hükûmets</i> accordingly. The establishment of the <i>hükûmet</i> played a decisive role in differentiating the more and less powerful <i>amirs</i> by naming them separately.<br><i>Hükûmet</i> means the exemption from the land survey and the <i>timar</i> (fief) system, and where all the tax income belonged to the <i>amir</i>. The definition of <i>hükûmet</i> changed over time. In some <i>hükûmets</i> the privileges of <i>amirs</i> were gradually undermined. On the other hand, the <i>amirs</i> who ruled <i>hükûmets</i> remained powerful, obtaining the title of <i>han</i> (<i>khan</i>) instead of <i>bey</i> at the end of 17th century.<br>The establishment of <i>hükûmet</i> exemplified the real nature of the Ottoman governing system. The Ottoman Empire introduced the Ottoman governing system, which embraced traditional political and social order into eastern Anatolia. In other words, the establishment of the <i>yurtluk ve ocaklzk</i> and the <i>hükûmet</i> represents one aspect of the reconstitution of traditional order by the Ottoman Empire.