著者
田中 さをり
出版者
日本手話学会
雑誌
手話学研究 (ISSN:18843204)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, pp.11-24, 2017-12-01 (Released:2018-12-21)
参考文献数
20

In the historical discussions left by philosophers, we can find not a few descriptions about sign language and deaf people. However, it is hard to say that the accurate translations on each description has been done and philosophical debate has been continuing to this day. The description about sign language and deaf people often includes the author’s own opinion associated with the belief how human’s intelligence should be cultivated and the reader also tends to interpret the description with his/her normative consciousness of scandalized body model. For this reason, the erroneous translations and the non-essential discussions were created and each discussion has been consumed as mere a thought, not as a philosophical problem. In this background, this paper focuses on the modern but the controversial interpretations of Aristotle’s literatures and Wundt’s discussions on sign language. In each discussion, the author shows the possible way how we can argue the original philosophical problem from the contemporary point of view.
著者
中野 聡子
出版者
日本手話学会
雑誌
手話学研究 (ISSN:18843204)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, pp.3-16, 2016-12-15 (Released:2017-12-27)
参考文献数
76

In the present study, we review previous research on the development of theory of mind in deaf children and the acquisition of sign language by deaf children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; children with D-ASD). Development of theory of mind is closely related to social interactions based on verbal communication. Therefore, deaf children who grew up in families with normal hearing perform poorly on the false-belief task, and exhibit tendencies resembling those of children with ASD. Moreover, difficulties in joint attention and perspective-taking, which are important elements of language acquisition, limit the acquisition of sign language by children with D-ASD regardless of differences in modality. It has been reported, however, that compared to deaf children with typical development (TD), children with high-functioning D-ASD did not exhibit marked differences in the comprehension and production of facial markers indicating the grammar and expressions of sign language, such as negation and question. Similarly, no differences were observed between children with high-functioning D-ASD and deaf children with TD on the Benton Facial Recognition Test. It was thought that when exposed to sign language, children with D-ASD pay more attention to facial expressions than do children with ASD who have normal hearing, and thereby develop a greater ability to recognize facial expressions. These findings offer suggestions regarding the nature of language acquisition and its associated cognitive mechanisms.
著者
Ritsuko Miyamoto Soya Mori
出版者
Japanese Association of Sign Linguistics
雑誌
手話学研究 (ISSN:18843204)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, pp.17-30, 2015-12-01 (Released:2016-12-21)
参考文献数
43
被引用文献数
1

This study investigates lexicostatistical, phonological and morpho-syntactic features of Kenyan Sign Language (KSL) and compares them with those of ASL. It concludes that evidence shows KSL is not a sister language of ASL for three major reasons. The first reason is that core vocabulary cognates are only 13-22% between the two languages. The second reason is that there are phonological differences, especially those of H2 hand-shape distribution. The third reason is that there are morpho-syntactic differences, such as three arguments and word-order, between the two languages. The findings of the current research project should next be confirmed by comparative research between different sign languages in the area. We could have a newer view of KSL as a language developed with the nativity of signed languages in the whole of eastern Africa.
著者
宮本 律子 秋山 奈巳 亀井 伸孝
出版者
日本手話学会
雑誌
手話学研究 (ISSN:18843204)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, pp.51-58, 2015-12-01 (Released:2016-12-21)

This is the report of how the sign language workshop at the 8th World Congress of African Linguistics (WOCAL8) was organized and managed. WOCAL 8 was held at Kyoto University, Japan from 20th to 24th of August 2015. This was the third workshop that focused entirely on sign languages in Africa. Firstly, we report how it was financially planned, and then how coordination between interpreters and presenters was achieved. We made this purely academic workshop open to the local Deaf community to empower the community by offering interpretations in JSL just like they did in German Sign Language at WOCAL 6.
著者
田門 浩
出版者
日本手話学会
雑誌
手話学研究 (ISSN:18843204)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, pp.81-96, 2012 (Released:2013-12-25)
参考文献数
48
被引用文献数
1

2 0 0 0 OA 指文字の浸透

著者
木下 知威
出版者
日本手話学会
雑誌
手話学研究 (ISSN:18843204)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, pp.53-102, 2017-12-01 (Released:2018-12-21)
著者
吉岡 佳子
出版者
日本手話学会
雑誌
手話学研究 (ISSN:18843204)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, pp.3-36, 2013 (Released:2014-12-21)
参考文献数
26

Although sign linguistics and pragmatics started almost at the same time in the early 1960's, few studies have been reported so far on pragmatics in sign languages. The present study aims at examining how politeness is realized in Japanese Sign Language (JSL). For this purpose, a videotaped discourse completion test (6 requests and 6 rejections) was conducted with the help of 8 native JSL signers. As a result, the JSL signers used a variety of politeness strategies, including both positive and negative ones, proposed by Brown & Levinson (1978/1987). It is particularly noteworthy that off-record strategies, i.e., indirect language uses with implicature, were observed in 12 cases among 90. In addition, a nonmanual marker (NMM) "polite grimace" was observed 19 times both in requests and in rejections. It co-occurred with /ask/, /reject/, /it's OK/, /sorry/ and /borrow/. Using this NMM, the signers seemingly showed their feelings such as "I really hate to tell you this, but", "against my will, I have to say", etc. Hoza (2007) reports that "polite grimace" is also observed in ASL. However, the NMM "polite grimace" in JSL is unique in that it is often combined with two-handed signs, which are derived from unmarked one-handed signs and show deference, and/or bowing, i.e., a traditional etiquette in Japan. Thus, the present study clarifies that the politeness theory is applicable to JSL too. From another viewpoint, it indicates the richness of JSL as a language.
著者
南田 政浩 松岡 和美 矢野 羽衣子
出版者
日本手話学会
雑誌
手話学研究 (ISSN:18843204)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, pp.39-44, 2011-12-19 (Released:2012-12-20)
参考文献数
6
被引用文献数
1

In this article, we describe our ongoing project to develop self-study support materials for learners of Japanese Sign Language (JSL). ELAN (EUDICO Linguistic Annotator), provided by the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, was used for this project. ELAN made it possible for learners to view detailed descriptions of different NMMs (non-manual markers) by referring to tiers separately assigned to different parts of the body (e. g., head, eyebrows, eyes, chins, etc. ) Wh-questions were selected for the development samples, as there were syntactic descriptions available (Takakuwa 1997, Uchibori et al. 2010), and because JSL learners tend to have difficulty learning the system of NMMs associated with this construction. Two types of videotaped materials were included in the DVD: a group of short sentences were included meant to help learners to focus on the grammatical properties of the Whquestions, and a recording of a natural conversation between two native signers meant to serve as a sample of natural expressions observed in a themed conversation, such as discussing ‘shopping'. Since the samples were developed and signed by two deaf native signers raised in deaf families, the data included in the DVD may be used as samples of authentic sign language expressions by sign language researchers.
著者
亀井 伸孝
出版者
日本手話学会
雑誌
手話学研究 (ISSN:18843204)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, pp.99-112, 2008-09-14 (Released:2016-07-09)
参考文献数
10

This paper represents a preliminary treatment of the ethnography of African Deaf communities, focusing on the Deaf community in the Republic of Cameroon. Ethnographic data on the population, organizations, sign languages, education, history, vocations and sign language interpreters within this Deaf community are presented. Certain anecdotes originating from Deaf churches and Deaf schools are also presented. The historical and cultural characteristics of African societies underscore the following research interests: (a) the multilingual situation of spoken languages and of sign languages; (b) the presence of foreign sign languages and the attitudes of Deaf people; and (c) the " unintentional results " Deaf Africans of low levels of development. In addition, two ideas to promote cultural anthropological research based on the fieldwork conducted within Deaf cultures are suggested: (a) the construction of databases on African Deaf communities and cultures; and (b) the training of Deaf and hearing fieldworkers who can conduct research in sign languages.
著者
Morgan Michael W.
出版者
Japanese Association of Sign Linguistics
雑誌
手話学研究 (ISSN:18843204)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, pp.13-43, 2005

これまで手話の類型論的研究はごくわずかしかない。これまでの研究は、全言語型論ではなく単独の特徴を中心にした研究である。このことはASLだけではなく、あまり研究されていない日本手話(JSL)についても言える。本稿はG.A.クリモフ(Г.А. Климов)の理論を応用しようと試みたものである。この理論によると、世界の諸言語は全部五つのタイプに属する: 主格・体格言語、能格言語、活格・状態格言語、など。それぞれのタイプは文法上の格役割より30以上の語彙的、形態的、統語的特徴に基づいている。この特徴はすべて意味論上の管理体(すなわちサピアのいわゆる「言語の構造的特質」(structural genius))に起因する。本稿ではこのこれまで典型的にアメリカインディアンの言語に見られる活格・状態格言タイプは、JSLも活格言語として見なすため多くのクリモフの特徴を持っていると論じる。これらのそれぞれの特徴を提示し、JSLデータをこれまで活格・状態格言語と考えられている言語のデータと比較する。本稿の主要な点の一つは、動詞の名刺項(動作主、主語、被動者、近い・遠い目的語、など)との一致と編入の役割を分析して、新しいJSL動詞類型論を提案する。JSLのデータをASL、およびその他の系統的にも地域的にも無関係な手話、並びにJSLが使われる地域に文化的に支配的である日本語と比べる。