著者
古田 明子
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, pp.201-224, 2000-03-31

The TV animation Sailor Moon,broadcast from 1992 to 1997,won an unusual popularity among the young female audience in Japan at that time. This study is an attempt to clarify an implicit message theanimation conveys to the audience under the disguise of a childish story of love, peace and justice by examining the underlying structure each episode of the animation has. A TV animation which repeats practically the same story every week is a very effective cultural apparatus but hasbeen seldom studied in detail. Each episode generally follows the pattern of a typical initiation story: the heroine undergoes a process of maturity through the experienceof symbolic death and rebirth. But the story at the same time cleverly escapes from such an interpretation. What is characteristic with the story is that the initiation process is definitely related to consumer behavior: endless pursuit of commercial goods. And in this sense the heroine never accomplishes the initiation and this incompleteness or failure in initiation indeed places Sailor Moon in a unique position in the lineage of popularlegends. We see many other examples of such incompleteness. The heroine's metamorphosis itself betrays this. For what she puts on after taking off her girlish clothes is, unlike a traditional heroine, a "sailor suit", the symbol of eternal girlishness which accompanies an implication of commercialized sexuality. In the last episode,the heroine discloses her naked body of a matured woman before she becomes the savior of the world. Seemingly she finally attains motherhood and succeeds in showing a role model to the young audience but only to turn out to be a false one. Forher final purpose remains to be to reproduce her duplicates: ideal consumersof the consumption society. It is at that moment that a "Girl" throws off the mask of "Lovely One" and exposes her true face of"Woman".
著者
横田 恵子
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, pp.21-39, 2006-03-31

From the early 90's, we have been increasing our efforts to incorporate 'comprehensive sexual education' mainly in our secondary education. However, at the same time, strong reactions have been happening against the education. The Conservatives have led many campaigns against liberal educational efforts in order to persuade public opinion. In this paper, I provide an overview of the current processes of Comprehensive Sexual Education-Bashing in Japan. The Conservatives and some communion members are conspiring with mass media against any practices based on Comprehensive Sexual Education, and even some of them are affiliate with by the governmental organizations. They are also scheming against the liberals to introduce the concept of Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage Education that spread among many Americans. I also describe a case of political intervention. The conservatives forced liberal educational groups to make changes in their HIV prevention programs for teenagers which was based on the Comprehensive Sexual Education perspective.
著者
横田 恵子
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, pp.183-194, 2005-03-31

Social movements like Feminism have decreased during the last decade. Especially, young women who seem to adapt to Japanese society are less committed to such activities than others. Besides, these women have few interests outside their ordinary lives. However, it doesn't mean that these women have had any problematic experiences. The young women never take part in the Claim-making Activities because they have been annoyed by strong affirmation adopted by social movements during the past decade in Japan. We have to explore an alternative way to empower these women.
著者
景山 佳代子
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
no.28, pp.1-25, 2014-03

本研究では、2013年5月13日の橋本徹大阪市長の慰安婦発言を研究することで、その語りがいかに私たちが当たり前にしている性の実践と結びついているかを明らかにする。橋本氏のツイッターでのコメントおよび記者会見での発言のテキストを、KH Coder と呼ばれるコーディングプログラムを使って分析し、慰安婦問題という文脈での橋本氏の語りの特徴を明らかにした。彼は世界の軍隊も、性の対象として女性を利用したという点では、日本と同じ加害者であると指摘した。それは日本の韓国慰安婦に対する責任を曖昧にする(不可視化していく)語りとなっていた。重要なのは、彼のこうした語りが決して特殊なものではなく、私たち日常の語りと地続きのものであるということだ。性的な問題の社会的要因を不問にし、その問題の主体が誰かを見えなくする。橋本氏の「慰安婦」「風俗」という問題の論じ方からは、そんな自明とされる性の見えない構造が浮かび上がってくる。The purpose of this paper is to study the discourse of Osaka Mayor Toru Hashimoto's comments about WWWII `comfort women', to examine how his explanation of Japan's `comfort women' is related to invisible sexual practices in our day-to-day life. Using the textual data of Hashimoto's twitter comments and the records of his press conferences and through analysis using the computer coding program KH Coder, we found that he pointed to the responsibility of other nations' militaries as sexual assailants of women during wartime by using the concept of `women's human rights'. On the other hand, he didn't apply this universal standard to Japan's actions toward the Korean comfort women. As a result, the debate about `comfort women'shifts the responsibility from Japan's military to others, including Japan, and Japan's responsibility becomes vague. Here the important thing is that his rhetoric is not unique and is taken for granted by a certain type of people. His discourse on comfort women is based on our daily communication, which does not focus on the subjectivity and social factors of sexual problems in Japanese society. In this paper, we further our understanding of how we identify invisible structures that exist as part of our common sense from visible discourse.
著者
堀江 有里
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, pp.75-98, 2010-03

Recently, identity politics have been questioned as a politic of human rights for social minorities. They, who question point out the followings:1) the strategy makes a group monolithic under the only"identity", thus excludes and marginalizes those who do not live according to the norms of the group, and2) treat an identity as a typical one while in reality each individual has various identities in her/himself. In spite of these questions against identity politics, some scholars and activists have kept maintaining identity politics as a useful strategy for minorities, because there are people who are stigmatized by their identities and excluded from the society. This paper looks at lesbian and gay activism in the United Church of Canada as a case, considering the question against identity politics as mentioned above and analyses its limitations and potentialities. In cases of Christian churches, most lesbian and gay activisms have maintained to "accept"themselves to be minorities in the society. However such a strategy can not change the norms of majorities and brings divisions among minorities as a result:1)"acceptable""good people and 2)"not acceptable""deviant"people. To overcoming this limitation, this paper examines an alternative way to find a new horizon for minorities.
著者
日高 庸晴
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
no.21, pp.49-66[含 英文要旨], 2007-03

Quantitative research methods are an effective tool in investigating the social context of health issues. In particular, some methods, such as internet sampling, can be used to reach hard to reach populations which are hidden in more general populations. Quantitative research in the U.S., which have investigated the relationship of demographic, psychosocial, and biological variables on health and health related behaviors, have incorporated sexual orientation into survey investigations. There is a large body of research that aims to clarify the relationship between sexual orientation on social, psychological, and other health issues. Since the mid-1980s, a number of large scale U.S. health studies have targeted sexual minorities such as gay, bisexual, and transgender populations through community based samples, large scale internet sample and nation wide studies using representative sampling. The results indicate high prevalence of suicide attempts, high levels of psychosocial distress including anxiety, depression, loneliness, and low self esteem and HIV risk behaviors. Due to the fact that Japanese epidemiological health surveys do not include sexual orientation in survey scales, to date there have been few studies conducted into the health status and behaviors of sexual minorities in Japan. There is great need to investigating the situation regarding these previously ignored populations in order to develop and implement medical and social prevention and support interventions. This paper aims to review the body of data in this field, including large scale epidemiological studies, in order to discuss the health and psychological status and needs of sexual minority populations in Japan.
著者
高村 峰生
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, pp.51-69, 2015-03

本論はスウェーデンの映画監督であるイングマール・ベルイマンの『秋のソナタ』(1978)において顔がどのように表現され、映画の時間性と結びついているかを、特に母娘の口論の場面に注目して分析している。序論ではベルイマンのクローズアップの典型例として『不良少女モニカ』(1953)における主人公モニカの顔を捉えたシーンに触れ、この場面が表情の微細な変化に観客の関心を向けさせ、ステレオタイプ化された表情と対立するような顔を持続的な時間のうちに表現していると論じた。このモニカのショットは現在時間の持続を捉えているが、『秋のソナタ』においては過去が重要な意味を持っている。夫を失ったばかりのシャルロッテは娘のエヴァの家を訪問するが、そこでいままで目を背けていた過去と対面させられる。たとえば、シャルロッテは重度の障害者であるエヴァの妹ヘレーナが家にいるとは知らず、対面することに苦痛を感じる。ヘレーナはしかし母との再会を喜び、うめくような声で「顔を持って、よく見て」と頼む。このことは「顔」こそが真実を明らかにするものであることを示唆している。シャルロッテはしばしば表情を作ってその場を取り繕うとするが、その試みは過去の記憶の充満したこの屋敷という空間においては挫折する。母と娘の口論のシーンは、家庭を顧みることなくコンサートピアニストとして世界を飛び回っていた母親シャルロッテへのエヴァの非難と、それに対するシャルロッテの自己弁護から成り立っている。二人の間の緊張が最も高まった瞬間において、両者は互いに向き合うのではなくカメラの方を向いており、自我を喪失したように宙を見つめるだけの顔面が我々に向けられることになる。エヴァは4歳を直前にして死んだエーリックの記憶に寄り添いながら生きており、彼女のシャルロッテへの言葉は死の世界からのメッセージでもある。二人がカメラを向くシーンにおいて観客に伝えられるのは過去の重みであり、死の気配である。ベルイマンは顔のクローズアップによって過去が顔面のうちに身体化する様子を捉えたのである。The essay analyzes the embodiment of past memories in human faces in Ingmar Bergman's Autumn Sonata (1978), with a particular focus on close-up shots in the scene of a ferocious argument between a mother and a daughter.For the sake of critical comparison, the essay begins by introducing a famous close-up shot of the heroine's face in Bergman's earlier work Summer with Monika (1953). While Monika emphasizes the present time through a shot of the title character's intense gaze at the audience, Autumn Sonata demonstrates the tenacity of the past experiences by showing the ways in which the characters' remembrances bring changes to their facial expressions.Set in an enclosed space of a house, Autumn Sonata depicts how the mother Charlotte, who has recently lost her husband, is forced to encounter the unfavorable family history which the daughter Eva incessantly attempts to evoke. Shortly after the mother's arrival at the daughter's home, for example, Eva tells Charlotte that her handicapped sister Helena is living in the same house. This news is unsettling enough for Charlotte to break her habitual artificial smile. Eva has believed that no boundary exists between life and death since her son's premature death, and she herself has been living as if she was half alive, half dead.The intense argument between the mother and the daughter mostly consists of Eva's denunciation of the self-centered mother who traveled around the world as a concert pianist without much concern for her family. At the most intense moment in their argument, their faces are directed in the direction of the camera, exposing their total absence of self through their facial expressions. What are communicated to the audience in the scene are the gravity of the past and the invisible existence of death. Through the close-up shots of the two women's faces, Autumn Sonata captures the mysterious moments in which the past memories and others' deaths seize human faces.
著者
古田 明子
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, pp.201-224, 2000-03-31

The TV animation Sailor Moon,broadcast from 1992 to 1997,won an unusual popularity among the young female audience in Japan at that time. This study is an attempt to clarify an implicit message theanimation conveys to the audience under the disguise of a childish story of love, peace and justice by examining the underlying structure each episode of the animation has. A TV animation which repeats practically the same story every week is a very effective cultural apparatus but hasbeen seldom studied in detail. Each episode generally follows the pattern of a typical initiation story: the heroine undergoes a process of maturity through the experienceof symbolic death and rebirth. But the story at the same time cleverly escapes from such an interpretation. What is characteristic with the story is that the initiation process is definitely related to consumer behavior: endless pursuit of commercial goods. And in this sense the heroine never accomplishes the initiation and this incompleteness or failure in initiation indeed places Sailor Moon in a unique position in the lineage of popularlegends. We see many other examples of such incompleteness. The heroine's metamorphosis itself betrays this. For what she puts on after taking off her girlish clothes is, unlike a traditional heroine, a "sailor suit", the symbol of eternal girlishness which accompanies an implication of commercialized sexuality. In the last episode,the heroine discloses her naked body of a matured woman before she becomes the savior of the world. Seemingly she finally attains motherhood and succeeds in showing a role model to the young audience but only to turn out to be a false one. Forher final purpose remains to be to reproduce her duplicates: ideal consumersof the consumption society. It is at that moment that a "Girl" throws off the mask of "Lovely One" and exposes her true face of"Woman".
著者
國吉 知子
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, pp.23-49, 2015-03

母と娘の関係性は身近なテーマであるが、心理学的な複雑さを内包している。近年では少子化の影響を受け、一卵性母娘など母娘の問題が家族の問題としてクローズアップされているが、実は童話や神話の中にも母娘のテーマは表現されている。本稿は、まず娘の母親への生涯にわたる依存性の高さと、62%の女性が母親に依存的であるという質問紙を用いた実証研究を概観した。次に深層心理学的観点から、母と娘に特有の親密性の高さと娘の自立の困難さについて、神話やディズニー素材(「白雪姫」「ラプンツェル」「リトルマーメイド2」「メリダとおそろしの森」「アナと雪の女王」)を取り上げ、それぞれの物語における母娘関係を分析し、これらに共通する興味深いパターンと、母娘の絆がいかに強く分離しにくいかを示した。さらに、母娘関係を深く理解するために、母親が娘をコントロールする無意識的メカニズム、すなわち、抑圧、同一化という自我の防衛機制や「母」役割が持つ献身の問題(斉藤 2008)を紹介した。特に、献身の問題については、マゾヒスティック・コントロール(高石 1997)の観点から論じ、その対処について述べた。その結果、女性の自立を考えるには、従来の男性の自立モデルとは異なる、女性特有の自立スタイルを考えることが重要であることが示唆された。The theme of mother and daughter relationships are familiar,however, these relationships contain many complex psychological factors. Recently, the increasing phenomenon of an overly intimate mother and daughter relationship, which is influenced by the declining number of children, has come into focus as a common family problem. However, we can find the same kind of relationship in many old tales and ancient myths. In this article, I first reviewed two survey-based psychological studies, which suggested that some daughters have a life-long dependency on their mothers,and that 62% of daughters have a tendency to depend on their mothers. Secondly, I assessed the strength of the bonds shared between mothers and daughters from the perspective of Depth Psychology. I also pointed out the difficulty of a daughter's separation and independence in a typical mother/daughter relationship, as can be seen in myths and Disney animations such as Snow White,Tangled,Little Mermaid 2,Brave, and Frozen. Lastly,to understand these phenomena, I introduced the theory of Saito(2008),who explained that mothers use ego-defense mechanisms, such as suppression and identification, to control their daughters.I also discussed the role of a mother's devotion from the theory of the "masochistic-control mechanism", which was developed by Takaishi(1997). I then described a way of coping with this unconscious control from mothers. In conclusion, I emphasized that there is a necessity for a new and more suitable model for a woman's original process of gaining independence, which is rather different from that of most men.
著者
難波江 和英
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, pp.113-143, 2012-03

This paper is an attempt to present a new interpretation of The Suspect X's Dedication by Keigo Higashino through an analysis concerning the discourse of sexuality in the text. The initial key to critical approach to The Suspect X's Dedication has been set in the "controversy over the authenticity of mystery fiction"led by several writers such as Reito Nikaido,Ken Hatano,and Shigeki Omori. Major topics in the controversy vary from the definition of "authentic mystery fiction" to thevalidity of clues to reasoning and the technical probability of tricks. Thesecritiques,however,fail to read The Suspect X's Dedication primarily as a pieceof literary work. Furthermore,major critics concerned discuss man-womanrelationships in the text with general heterosexual terms, and fail to differentiate their critical language from their daily language. The most "critical" point in this paper lies, as shown herein,in the unconscious liaison between the formation of human beings as sexual existence and the discourse of sexuality they use in daily life. Seen in this light,The Suspect X's Dedication stands out among the other works of the Galileo Series. It is that this work not only portrays people as sexual existence but also reveals the process through which they undergo theirself-formation as such and live it as social reality. Worthy of note is the factthat the scholar-detective,Manabu Yukawa,who is usually treated as genius,refers to himself as an "ordinary person"only in this case. From this fact derives a couple of points that have escaped critics' attention so far. One is the unreality of the case that has made even Yukawa am an of mediocrity,while the other is a new vision of human existence that is made available by the suspect X,Tetsuya Ishigami, as he commits an "extraordinary" crime in theguise of an "ordinary" person. The key to these points is placed in where it can hardly be detected,viz. in the term "dedication." It is impossible, however,for the reader to account forthe prominence of the work by defining the term,for it has never been used inthe work except for the title. How can it be then that Ishigami has managed tolive the "meaning" of"dedication" so as to exploit the possibility of human existence beyond the understanding of ordinary people? The most efficient approach to the question is to investigate the formation of heterosexual love which the other characters promote with reference to the discourse of sexuality, and to define the term "dedication"as something that cannot be found in there. This paper thus identifies the secular mode of heterosexual love as a circle and aims to capture Ishigami's sense of "dedication"as its void.-143-
著者
内田 樹
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.3-26, 1996-03

Selon Harold Schechter, les legendes urbaines se composent de deux facteurs: l'archetype imaginaire commun a tous et l'inquietude propre du temps. La ou un archetype ahistorique se trouve relie avec une inquietude historiquement conditionnee, se produit une legende urbaine "dramatique". A partir de cette hypothese, nous analysons, dans la presente etude, trois films qui forment la saga "Alien":"Alien"de Ridley Scott(1979), "Aliens"de James Cameron(1986),"Alien 3"de David Fincher(1992). Ce qui nous interesse n'est pas l'archetype qui reste inchange a travers ces films, mais la transformation grotesque du statut de l'heroine. Ripley, heroine de la saga, presente, au debut,le reve feministe: astronaute experte, independante, courageuse, et seule survivante de la bataille sanglante avec un "Alien". Mais, dans 13 ans, elle doit mourir completement depouillee: sans famille, sans camarades, sans armes,sans futur, sans gloire, et enceinte d'un "Alien". D'ou vient cette chute? Nous en cherchons l'explication dans la tendance misogyne chez les hommes americains face au feminisme menac__.ant des annees 80.
著者
河西 秀哉
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, pp.27-46, 2014-03

日本近現代における売買春について論じた。近世より継続していた売春は、マリア・ルース号事件を契機に、1872年に「芸娼妓解放令」へと結実する。これは、文明開化の一つとして実施されたもので、前近代的な身売りは建前上禁止された。しかし実際は、「自由意志」に基づく稼業として、売春は継続する。こうした仕組みは、欧米の制度を視察して構築されたもので、前近代の売春制度は欧米流の売春統制制度を基にした「公娼制度」へと再編された。つまり、売春に国家の公認が得られたとも言える。政府は私娼の取り締まりは行うものの、売春制度自体を無くそうとはしなかった。敗戦後、日本政府は1945年8月18日に特殊慰安施設協会(RAA)の設置を指示する。これは、占領軍兵士らへの売春を目的とした施設であり、政府はこれに対して資金の貸し付けを行うなど、積極的な関与をみせている。こうした施設の設置を敗戦3日後に指示したことに、政府の売春への意識を見ることができよう。RAAはGHQ兵士の中で性病が蔓延したことで、翌年3月には閉鎖され、そこで働いていた女性たちは放り出され、街娼となっていく。GHQは覚書「日本における公娼制度廃止に関する件」を1946年1月22日に出し、近代の公娼制度は廃止された。しかし日本側の意向もあって、「必要悪」とされて結局は継続し、「赤線」が誕生する。政府は赤線を認める一方、私娼である街娼は取締り、収監・保護して性病治療と矯正に努めた。そうして保護された街娼の生の声が、史料として残されている。それを見ると必ずしも私たちのイメージとは異なる街娼の実態が明らかになる。高学歴者が街娼となったケース、夫や家族に戦争犠牲者を持つケース、一度街娼となってからは生活するために抜け出せないケースなど、その実態は様々である。占領終了後、赤線を廃止しようとする動きは高まるが、法整備はその後なかなか進行しなかった。I have discussed prostitution in the modern period in Japan. In 1872, following the Maria Luz Incident, Japanese bonded prostitution, which had continued from the early modern period onward, was finally addressed by Geishogi kaiho rei(芸娼妓解放令), a law that emancipated prostitutes. This law was enacted as part of Japan's Westernization movement, and it ostensibly prohibited feudalistic bonded labor. In reality, however, prostitution continued as a business based on the "free will" of the women involved. This form of prostitution was constructed as a result of observing the way this industry functioned in Europe. In this way, the feudal system of prostitution was reformed into a "licensed prostitution system," based on western-style systems for regulating prostitution. It can therefore be said that prostitution was officially approved by the state. While the Japanese government did conduct crackdowns on unlicensed prostitution, it made no attempts to eliminate the system itself. After the Second World War, the Japanese government set up the Tokushu Ian Shisetsu Kyokai (literally, the "special comfort facility association"), referred to in English as the Recreation and Amusement Association (RAA). This association provided prostitutes for occupying Allied troops. The government showed active involvement with this association by, for example, providing loans to its facilities. The fact that these facilities were introduced just three days after Japan's surrender gives us an idea of the government's attitude towards prostitution. The RAA was discontinued in March the following year because of the General Headquarters of the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (GHQ). The women who worked in the facilities were dismissed and ended up working as street prostitutes. On January 22, 1946, the GHQ issued the memorandum "Abolition of Licensed Prostitution in Japan," and the modern-era system of licensed prostitution was abolished as a result .However, the Japanese authorities had their own attitude toward prostitution. It was ultimately allowed to continue and the Akasen districts (literally, "red line" districts-comparable with the term red-light district ) emerged. While the government did sanction these Akasen districts, it also cracked down on unlicensed street prostitution and made efforts to place street prostitutes in protective custody, where they would be treated for sexually transmitted diseases and receive correctional rehabilitation. The direst comments of the street prostitutes who were taken into custody were transcribed and archived. A read-through of these accounts reveals that our image of street prostitution differs from the reality. Many different types of women worked as street prostitution. These included highly educated women, women who had lost their husbands or other family members in the war, and women who, after entering street prostitution, found themselves unable to make a living in any other way. After the occupation of Japan ended, the movement to abolish the Akasen districts grew in strength, but there was little progress in terms of legislation.
著者
難波江 和英
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, pp.73-114, 2003-03-31

This is the last part of the present trilogy study on discourses of heterosexual love in J-POP. The opening chapter contains a summary of Part I and Part II, which is devised to help the reader have a quick review of the preceding chapters so that they will readily posit the main body of Part III in a proper and whole contextual perspective. The second chapter titled "Historicizing the Heisei Period" discusses the cultural climate of the Heisei period in which heroines and heroes of J-POP have been faced with difficulties in establishing their love relationship. A further discussion shows that they are obsessed with a new fin-de-siecle syndrome in which pursuits for truth (ex. "the true love" and "the true self") are destined to fail. In other words, they are bewildered to see that theirs is an age in which love appears to be something other than love or in which love is simply hidden form their view. This is due to the merge of sexual liberation and sexual commodification that has been characterizing the capitalistic facets of modern Japan. In this situation, the key to their search for "the true love" shifts from "heart" through "game" to "performance." The third chapter titled "Love and Happiness" brings into question the missing link between love and happiness in the Heisei period. A broad survey of popular songs from the 1960s to the early stage of the 1970s reveals a couple of musical phenomena unique to this time span. First, there were still a large number of "female songs" in which love and happiness were inseparably linked for women. Second, there were a far smaller number of "male songs" in which men put their love to women directly into words. It is only with some signs of hesitation that they verbalized the sense of happiness they felt to women. A comparative reading of popular songs from the 1960s to the 1980s shows that this restraint of men was beginning to be canceled toward the end of the 1970s. It is at this stage that male characters in popular songs started to sway between the loss of the criterion by which they managed to be "a man" and the newly developed sense of aspiration for such role models as their previous generation had once cherished. The fourth and final chapter is titled "From Happiness to Fulfillment," for it aims to demonstrate selective methods by which young Japanese people of the Heisei period could learn to sublimate their sense of happiness to a new phase of joy - a sense of fulfillment. As some of the major characters in J-POP indicate, their failure to confirm or solidify their sense of happiness per se derives partly from their lack of role models and partly from their consequent obsession with a search for "the true self." In the world of J-POP, a number of heroines and heroes are so busy looking for their "real me" that they fail to see the significance of the other who is capable of both offering and canceling the very foundation of their selfhood. Even when they face their boy/girlfriends, they are too busy getting stuck together to notice that their happiness lies not in mutually satisfying their personal desire but in repeatedly reforming or endlessly unfolding what would otherwise be an amorphous self. The steady merge of love and capitalism in the Heisei period spurs this trend into more radical commodification of "love=happiness" than ever. Incidentally, some of the heroines in J-POP go so far as to measure the degree of their happiness either by comparing it with others' or by converting it to its monetary value, viz. the amount of money their boyfriends have spent for them. In this respect, the Heisei period, in which love is allegedly missing, comes out nothing more than a trendy drama of cultural materialism through which the norm of love, if not love itself, has gained its tangible form. It does not mean that "the true love" as well as "the true self" does exist as some entity. It should be rather that love manifests itself as a lived rendering of virtual reality in the sense that it can be created, developed, transformed, perished, and recreated through the social network of human beings and with the accumulation of thoughts and experiences. Those who do not hold this view are eager to pursue the entity of "the true happiness" as if it were somewhere beyond the realm of their daily life, and end up gratifying their personal desire on the basis of the stereotyped image of happiness. As a critical reading of "The Magic of Midsummer" by Lead suggests, it is only within the framework of their daily routine that a series of unforgettable and therefore "happy" events emerge, just when they are led from the shadow of uneasiness through the secular cloud of happiness into the internal glow of bliss in their love relationship.
著者
米田 眞澄
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, pp.69-86, 2014-03

日本では、2000年の国連による「国際的な組織犯罪の防止に関する国際連合条約を補足する人(特に女性及び児童)の取引を防止し、抑止し及び処罰するための議定書」の採択を受け、2004年12月に人身取引対策基本計画を策定し、人身売買の取締と被害者の保護のための政策が開始された。2005年には議定書批准に向けた国内法整備を目的に刑法、出入国管理及び難民認定法などの関連法の改正がなされた。とりわけ、人身売買者の処罰については、刑法に新たに人身売買罪(刑法226条の2)が新設されたことが注目された。しかし、人身取引事犯の検挙数は少なく、その多くは、人身売買罪ではなく、売春防止法あるいは職業安定法など既存の法律を使って逮捕・起訴されている。これは、人身売買罪の成立要件である不法な支配の確立とその移転について、売渡し人が被害者に対して支配を確立していたとみなされる基準が狭いためである。一方、被害者の保護からは、借金の返済の為に売春を強要される女性たちがいることが明らかとなってきている。そのような女性たちは戦後に多くみられたが、当時においても、ほとんど処罰がなされないと批判されていた。本稿では、借金返済のために売春を強要される事例においても人身売買罪の適用は困難であり、性的搾取を目的とする人身売買の摘発にあたっての国の方針は戦後から変わっていないことを明らかにする。After the United Nations adopted the Palermo Protocol in 2000, Japan drew up the Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons in December 2004. In 2005 Japan amended the penal code, the immigration law and several other laws to ratify the Protocol. Particularly, it is worthy of notice that the new crime of "buying and selling persons" was designated. In practice there have been few human trafficking arrests in Japan, and in most cases the older laws related to anti-prostitution and the employment security are applied instead of the new crime. The main reason is that the definition of the crime of "buying and selling persons" is too narrow. Recently it has been shown that some female victims of human trafficking for sexual exploitation are forced into prostitution because of debt. There were so many women in such a conditions after World War II. In those days most traffickers were not punished. In this article, I explore the difficulties in applying the new crime in Japan and show that the national policy on arresting traffickers for sexual exploitation has not changed since the postwar period.