著者
古田 明子
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, pp.201-224, 2000-03-31

The TV animation Sailor Moon,broadcast from 1992 to 1997,won an unusual popularity among the young female audience in Japan at that time. This study is an attempt to clarify an implicit message theanimation conveys to the audience under the disguise of a childish story of love, peace and justice by examining the underlying structure each episode of the animation has. A TV animation which repeats practically the same story every week is a very effective cultural apparatus but hasbeen seldom studied in detail. Each episode generally follows the pattern of a typical initiation story: the heroine undergoes a process of maturity through the experienceof symbolic death and rebirth. But the story at the same time cleverly escapes from such an interpretation. What is characteristic with the story is that the initiation process is definitely related to consumer behavior: endless pursuit of commercial goods. And in this sense the heroine never accomplishes the initiation and this incompleteness or failure in initiation indeed places Sailor Moon in a unique position in the lineage of popularlegends. We see many other examples of such incompleteness. The heroine's metamorphosis itself betrays this. For what she puts on after taking off her girlish clothes is, unlike a traditional heroine, a "sailor suit", the symbol of eternal girlishness which accompanies an implication of commercialized sexuality. In the last episode,the heroine discloses her naked body of a matured woman before she becomes the savior of the world. Seemingly she finally attains motherhood and succeeds in showing a role model to the young audience but only to turn out to be a false one. Forher final purpose remains to be to reproduce her duplicates: ideal consumersof the consumption society. It is at that moment that a "Girl" throws off the mask of "Lovely One" and exposes her true face of"Woman".
著者
横田 恵子
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, pp.183-194, 2005-03-31

Social movements like Feminism have decreased during the last decade. Especially, young women who seem to adapt to Japanese society are less committed to such activities than others. Besides, these women have few interests outside their ordinary lives. However, it doesn't mean that these women have had any problematic experiences. The young women never take part in the Claim-making Activities because they have been annoyed by strong affirmation adopted by social movements during the past decade in Japan. We have to explore an alternative way to empower these women.
著者
景山 佳代子
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
no.28, pp.1-25, 2014-03

本研究では、2013年5月13日の橋本徹大阪市長の慰安婦発言を研究することで、その語りがいかに私たちが当たり前にしている性の実践と結びついているかを明らかにする。橋本氏のツイッターでのコメントおよび記者会見での発言のテキストを、KH Coder と呼ばれるコーディングプログラムを使って分析し、慰安婦問題という文脈での橋本氏の語りの特徴を明らかにした。彼は世界の軍隊も、性の対象として女性を利用したという点では、日本と同じ加害者であると指摘した。それは日本の韓国慰安婦に対する責任を曖昧にする(不可視化していく)語りとなっていた。重要なのは、彼のこうした語りが決して特殊なものではなく、私たち日常の語りと地続きのものであるということだ。性的な問題の社会的要因を不問にし、その問題の主体が誰かを見えなくする。橋本氏の「慰安婦」「風俗」という問題の論じ方からは、そんな自明とされる性の見えない構造が浮かび上がってくる。The purpose of this paper is to study the discourse of Osaka Mayor Toru Hashimoto's comments about WWWII `comfort women', to examine how his explanation of Japan's `comfort women' is related to invisible sexual practices in our day-to-day life. Using the textual data of Hashimoto's twitter comments and the records of his press conferences and through analysis using the computer coding program KH Coder, we found that he pointed to the responsibility of other nations' militaries as sexual assailants of women during wartime by using the concept of `women's human rights'. On the other hand, he didn't apply this universal standard to Japan's actions toward the Korean comfort women. As a result, the debate about `comfort women'shifts the responsibility from Japan's military to others, including Japan, and Japan's responsibility becomes vague. Here the important thing is that his rhetoric is not unique and is taken for granted by a certain type of people. His discourse on comfort women is based on our daily communication, which does not focus on the subjectivity and social factors of sexual problems in Japanese society. In this paper, we further our understanding of how we identify invisible structures that exist as part of our common sense from visible discourse.
著者
日高 庸晴
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, pp.49-66, 2007-03-31

Quantitative research methods are an effective tool in investigating the social context of health issues. In particular, some methods, such as internet sampling, can be used to reach hard to reach populations which are hidden in more general populations. Quantitative research in the U.S., which have investigated the relationship of demographic, psychosocial, and biological variables on health and health related behaviors, have incorporated sexual orientation into survey investigations. There is a large body of research that aims to clarify the relationship between sexual orientation on social, psychological, and other health issues. Since the mid-1980s, a number of large scale U.S. health studies have targeted sexual minorities such as gay, bisexual, and transgender populations through community based samples, large scale internet sample and nation wide studies using representative sampling. The results indicate high prevalence of suicide attempts, high levels of psychosocial distress including anxiety, depression, loneliness, and low self esteem and HIV risk behaviors. Due to the fact that Japanese epidemiological health surveys do not include sexual orientation in survey scales, to date there have been few studies conducted into the health status and behaviors of sexual minorities in Japan. There is great need to investigating the situation regarding these previously ignored populations in order to develop and implement medical and social prevention and support interventions. This paper aims to review the body of data in this field, including large scale epidemiological studies, in order to discuss the health and psychological status and needs of sexual minority populations in Japan.
著者
堀江 有里
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, pp.75-98, 2010-03

Recently, identity politics have been questioned as a politic of human rights for social minorities. They, who question point out the followings:1) the strategy makes a group monolithic under the only"identity", thus excludes and marginalizes those who do not live according to the norms of the group, and2) treat an identity as a typical one while in reality each individual has various identities in her/himself. In spite of these questions against identity politics, some scholars and activists have kept maintaining identity politics as a useful strategy for minorities, because there are people who are stigmatized by their identities and excluded from the society. This paper looks at lesbian and gay activism in the United Church of Canada as a case, considering the question against identity politics as mentioned above and analyses its limitations and potentialities. In cases of Christian churches, most lesbian and gay activisms have maintained to "accept"themselves to be minorities in the society. However such a strategy can not change the norms of majorities and brings divisions among minorities as a result:1)"acceptable""good people and 2)"not acceptable""deviant"people. To overcoming this limitation, this paper examines an alternative way to find a new horizon for minorities.
著者
古田 明子
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, pp.201-224, 2000-03-31

The TV animation Sailor Moon,broadcast from 1992 to 1997,won an unusual popularity among the young female audience in Japan at that time. This study is an attempt to clarify an implicit message theanimation conveys to the audience under the disguise of a childish story of love, peace and justice by examining the underlying structure each episode of the animation has. A TV animation which repeats practically the same story every week is a very effective cultural apparatus but hasbeen seldom studied in detail. Each episode generally follows the pattern of a typical initiation story: the heroine undergoes a process of maturity through the experienceof symbolic death and rebirth. But the story at the same time cleverly escapes from such an interpretation. What is characteristic with the story is that the initiation process is definitely related to consumer behavior: endless pursuit of commercial goods. And in this sense the heroine never accomplishes the initiation and this incompleteness or failure in initiation indeed places Sailor Moon in a unique position in the lineage of popularlegends. We see many other examples of such incompleteness. The heroine's metamorphosis itself betrays this. For what she puts on after taking off her girlish clothes is, unlike a traditional heroine, a "sailor suit", the symbol of eternal girlishness which accompanies an implication of commercialized sexuality. In the last episode,the heroine discloses her naked body of a matured woman before she becomes the savior of the world. Seemingly she finally attains motherhood and succeeds in showing a role model to the young audience but only to turn out to be a false one. Forher final purpose remains to be to reproduce her duplicates: ideal consumersof the consumption society. It is at that moment that a "Girl" throws off the mask of "Lovely One" and exposes her true face of"Woman".
著者
高村 峰生
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, pp.51-69, 2015-03

本論はスウェーデンの映画監督であるイングマール・ベルイマンの『秋のソナタ』(1978)において顔がどのように表現され、映画の時間性と結びついているかを、特に母娘の口論の場面に注目して分析している。序論ではベルイマンのクローズアップの典型例として『不良少女モニカ』(1953)における主人公モニカの顔を捉えたシーンに触れ、この場面が表情の微細な変化に観客の関心を向けさせ、ステレオタイプ化された表情と対立するような顔を持続的な時間のうちに表現していると論じた。このモニカのショットは現在時間の持続を捉えているが、『秋のソナタ』においては過去が重要な意味を持っている。夫を失ったばかりのシャルロッテは娘のエヴァの家を訪問するが、そこでいままで目を背けていた過去と対面させられる。たとえば、シャルロッテは重度の障害者であるエヴァの妹ヘレーナが家にいるとは知らず、対面することに苦痛を感じる。ヘレーナはしかし母との再会を喜び、うめくような声で「顔を持って、よく見て」と頼む。このことは「顔」こそが真実を明らかにするものであることを示唆している。シャルロッテはしばしば表情を作ってその場を取り繕うとするが、その試みは過去の記憶の充満したこの屋敷という空間においては挫折する。母と娘の口論のシーンは、家庭を顧みることなくコンサートピアニストとして世界を飛び回っていた母親シャルロッテへのエヴァの非難と、それに対するシャルロッテの自己弁護から成り立っている。二人の間の緊張が最も高まった瞬間において、両者は互いに向き合うのではなくカメラの方を向いており、自我を喪失したように宙を見つめるだけの顔面が我々に向けられることになる。エヴァは4歳を直前にして死んだエーリックの記憶に寄り添いながら生きており、彼女のシャルロッテへの言葉は死の世界からのメッセージでもある。二人がカメラを向くシーンにおいて観客に伝えられるのは過去の重みであり、死の気配である。ベルイマンは顔のクローズアップによって過去が顔面のうちに身体化する様子を捉えたのである。The essay analyzes the embodiment of past memories in human faces in Ingmar Bergman's Autumn Sonata (1978), with a particular focus on close-up shots in the scene of a ferocious argument between a mother and a daughter.For the sake of critical comparison, the essay begins by introducing a famous close-up shot of the heroine's face in Bergman's earlier work Summer with Monika (1953). While Monika emphasizes the present time through a shot of the title character's intense gaze at the audience, Autumn Sonata demonstrates the tenacity of the past experiences by showing the ways in which the characters' remembrances bring changes to their facial expressions.Set in an enclosed space of a house, Autumn Sonata depicts how the mother Charlotte, who has recently lost her husband, is forced to encounter the unfavorable family history which the daughter Eva incessantly attempts to evoke. Shortly after the mother's arrival at the daughter's home, for example, Eva tells Charlotte that her handicapped sister Helena is living in the same house. This news is unsettling enough for Charlotte to break her habitual artificial smile. Eva has believed that no boundary exists between life and death since her son's premature death, and she herself has been living as if she was half alive, half dead.The intense argument between the mother and the daughter mostly consists of Eva's denunciation of the self-centered mother who traveled around the world as a concert pianist without much concern for her family. At the most intense moment in their argument, their faces are directed in the direction of the camera, exposing their total absence of self through their facial expressions. What are communicated to the audience in the scene are the gravity of the past and the invisible existence of death. Through the close-up shots of the two women's faces, Autumn Sonata captures the mysterious moments in which the past memories and others' deaths seize human faces.
著者
難波江 和英
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, pp.113-143, 2012-03

This paper is an attempt to present a new interpretation of The Suspect X's Dedication by Keigo Higashino through an analysis concerning the discourse of sexuality in the text. The initial key to critical approach to The Suspect X's Dedication has been set in the "controversy over the authenticity of mystery fiction"led by several writers such as Reito Nikaido,Ken Hatano,and Shigeki Omori. Major topics in the controversy vary from the definition of "authentic mystery fiction" to thevalidity of clues to reasoning and the technical probability of tricks. Thesecritiques,however,fail to read The Suspect X's Dedication primarily as a pieceof literary work. Furthermore,major critics concerned discuss man-womanrelationships in the text with general heterosexual terms, and fail to differentiate their critical language from their daily language. The most "critical" point in this paper lies, as shown herein,in the unconscious liaison between the formation of human beings as sexual existence and the discourse of sexuality they use in daily life. Seen in this light,The Suspect X's Dedication stands out among the other works of the Galileo Series. It is that this work not only portrays people as sexual existence but also reveals the process through which they undergo theirself-formation as such and live it as social reality. Worthy of note is the factthat the scholar-detective,Manabu Yukawa,who is usually treated as genius,refers to himself as an "ordinary person"only in this case. From this fact derives a couple of points that have escaped critics' attention so far. One is the unreality of the case that has made even Yukawa am an of mediocrity,while the other is a new vision of human existence that is made available by the suspect X,Tetsuya Ishigami, as he commits an "extraordinary" crime in theguise of an "ordinary" person. The key to these points is placed in where it can hardly be detected,viz. in the term "dedication." It is impossible, however,for the reader to account forthe prominence of the work by defining the term,for it has never been used inthe work except for the title. How can it be then that Ishigami has managed tolive the "meaning" of"dedication" so as to exploit the possibility of human existence beyond the understanding of ordinary people? The most efficient approach to the question is to investigate the formation of heterosexual love which the other characters promote with reference to the discourse of sexuality, and to define the term "dedication"as something that cannot be found in there. This paper thus identifies the secular mode of heterosexual love as a circle and aims to capture Ishigami's sense of "dedication"as its void.-143-
著者
内田 樹
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.3-26, 1996-03

Selon Harold Schechter, les legendes urbaines se composent de deux facteurs: l'archetype imaginaire commun a tous et l'inquietude propre du temps. La ou un archetype ahistorique se trouve relie avec une inquietude historiquement conditionnee, se produit une legende urbaine "dramatique". A partir de cette hypothese, nous analysons, dans la presente etude, trois films qui forment la saga "Alien":"Alien"de Ridley Scott(1979), "Aliens"de James Cameron(1986),"Alien 3"de David Fincher(1992). Ce qui nous interesse n'est pas l'archetype qui reste inchange a travers ces films, mais la transformation grotesque du statut de l'heroine. Ripley, heroine de la saga, presente, au debut,le reve feministe: astronaute experte, independante, courageuse, et seule survivante de la bataille sanglante avec un "Alien". Mais, dans 13 ans, elle doit mourir completement depouillee: sans famille, sans camarades, sans armes,sans futur, sans gloire, et enceinte d'un "Alien". D'ou vient cette chute? Nous en cherchons l'explication dans la tendance misogyne chez les hommes americains face au feminisme menac__.ant des annees 80.
著者
淵上 愛子
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, pp.167-188, 2007-03-31

本論文は、小学生を対象にしている学年別学習雑誌にみられる、女の子が好む傾向の内容、男の子が好む傾向の内容がどのようなものであるかを比較する。また、女の子と男の子がどのように描かれているのかということを考察する。これらを10歳前後の女の子に焦点を当てて進めていく。考察の結果、「女の子」と「男の子」にはさまざまな違いがみられ、それぞれの性別で興味があることや、好まれる内容には特徴があるということが言えた。また、友人関係の築き方の違いなど、人間関係における性別ごとの特徴などもみることができた。そしてこれらの違いの中には、しばしば女の子はかわいらしく、守られる存在、男の子は強くてたくましいというジェンダー・ステレオタイプがみられるものもあり、それをもとにして描かれた内容のものがこの学年別学習雑誌には多くみられる。また、女の子向け、男の子向けの両方の内容を盛り込んでいることで、女の子も男の子も読むことができ、性別による極端な読者の偏りがなくなると言えるだろう。
著者
内田 樹
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, pp.153-177, 1999-03

Dans notre derniere analyse,nous avons interprete la Saga-Alien: Alien (1979),Aliens (1986) et Alien 3(1992) a partir de I'hypothese de Harold Schecter. Il a ecrit qu'une des sources du fantasme qui hante laSaga-Alien est la legende classique : serpent dans le ventre. Mais en meme temps,cette legende est nourrie abondamment d'un ressentiment contemporain contre les feministes americains des annees 70-90.Aux Etats-Unis,une des censures les plus severes sur les films est imposee par les feministes. Pour esquiver l'accusation feministe portee au nom de "la correction politique (politically correctness)",la Saga-Alien a employe la strategie de l'entrisme: jouer les feministes tout en les flattant excessivement. Au niveau narratif,les films de la Saga-Alien etaient absolument innocents: I'heroine (Ellen Ripley,astronaute) a gagne toutes les batailles sanglantes sur l' Alien, signe du desir sexuel masculin. Mais au niveau iconographique,la schema est completement renversee. L'heroine est convoquee au milieu de l'ecran seulement pour etre persecutee et punie au centre de tous les regards des spectateurs masculins.
著者
藏中 さやか
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, pp.119-135, 2013-03

This paper concretely discusses various ways to take up The Izayoi Nikki by Abutsuni as a possible teaching material for `Classics A' or`Classics B' of high schools. Conventional education practices are broadly classified into 3 categories:(1) focusing on its aspect of traveler's literature;(2) connecting it with politics and societies of the Middle Ages; and (3) understanding that it is a piece of work that was influenced by Tales olIse. This paper advocates for the first time to take up The Izayoi Nikki as a teaching material to consider the ways of life of women,and shows learning plans for the first to third classes.
著者
難波江 和英
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, pp.73-114, 2003-03-31

This is the last part of the present trilogy study on discourses of heterosexual love in J-POP. The opening chapter contains a summary of Part I and Part II, which is devised to help the reader have a quick review of the preceding chapters so that they will readily posit the main body of Part III in a proper and whole contextual perspective. The second chapter titled "Historicizing the Heisei Period" discusses the cultural climate of the Heisei period in which heroines and heroes of J-POP have been faced with difficulties in establishing their love relationship. A further discussion shows that they are obsessed with a new fin-de-siecle syndrome in which pursuits for truth (ex. "the true love" and "the true self") are destined to fail. In other words, they are bewildered to see that theirs is an age in which love appears to be something other than love or in which love is simply hidden form their view. This is due to the merge of sexual liberation and sexual commodification that has been characterizing the capitalistic facets of modern Japan. In this situation, the key to their search for "the true love" shifts from "heart" through "game" to "performance." The third chapter titled "Love and Happiness" brings into question the missing link between love and happiness in the Heisei period. A broad survey of popular songs from the 1960s to the early stage of the 1970s reveals a couple of musical phenomena unique to this time span. First, there were still a large number of "female songs" in which love and happiness were inseparably linked for women. Second, there were a far smaller number of "male songs" in which men put their love to women directly into words. It is only with some signs of hesitation that they verbalized the sense of happiness they felt to women. A comparative reading of popular songs from the 1960s to the 1980s shows that this restraint of men was beginning to be canceled toward the end of the 1970s. It is at this stage that male characters in popular songs started to sway between the loss of the criterion by which they managed to be "a man" and the newly developed sense of aspiration for such role models as their previous generation had once cherished. The fourth and final chapter is titled "From Happiness to Fulfillment," for it aims to demonstrate selective methods by which young Japanese people of the Heisei period could learn to sublimate their sense of happiness to a new phase of joy - a sense of fulfillment. As some of the major characters in J-POP indicate, their failure to confirm or solidify their sense of happiness per se derives partly from their lack of role models and partly from their consequent obsession with a search for "the true self." In the world of J-POP, a number of heroines and heroes are so busy looking for their "real me" that they fail to see the significance of the other who is capable of both offering and canceling the very foundation of their selfhood. Even when they face their boy/girlfriends, they are too busy getting stuck together to notice that their happiness lies not in mutually satisfying their personal desire but in repeatedly reforming or endlessly unfolding what would otherwise be an amorphous self. The steady merge of love and capitalism in the Heisei period spurs this trend into more radical commodification of "love=happiness" than ever. Incidentally, some of the heroines in J-POP go so far as to measure the degree of their happiness either by comparing it with others' or by converting it to its monetary value, viz. the amount of money their boyfriends have spent for them. In this respect, the Heisei period, in which love is allegedly missing, comes out nothing more than a trendy drama of cultural materialism through which the norm of love, if not love itself, has gained its tangible form. It does not mean that "the true love" as well as "the true self" does exist as some entity. It should be rather that love manifests itself as a lived rendering of virtual reality in the sense that it can be created, developed, transformed, perished, and recreated through the social network of human beings and with the accumulation of thoughts and experiences. Those who do not hold this view are eager to pursue the entity of "the true happiness" as if it were somewhere beyond the realm of their daily life, and end up gratifying their personal desire on the basis of the stereotyped image of happiness. As a critical reading of "The Magic of Midsummer" by Lead suggests, it is only within the framework of their daily routine that a series of unforgettable and therefore "happy" events emerge, just when they are led from the shadow of uneasiness through the secular cloud of happiness into the internal glow of bliss in their love relationship.