著者
古田 明子
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, pp.201-224, 2000-03-31

The TV animation Sailor Moon,broadcast from 1992 to 1997,won an unusual popularity among the young female audience in Japan at that time. This study is an attempt to clarify an implicit message theanimation conveys to the audience under the disguise of a childish story of love, peace and justice by examining the underlying structure each episode of the animation has. A TV animation which repeats practically the same story every week is a very effective cultural apparatus but hasbeen seldom studied in detail. Each episode generally follows the pattern of a typical initiation story: the heroine undergoes a process of maturity through the experienceof symbolic death and rebirth. But the story at the same time cleverly escapes from such an interpretation. What is characteristic with the story is that the initiation process is definitely related to consumer behavior: endless pursuit of commercial goods. And in this sense the heroine never accomplishes the initiation and this incompleteness or failure in initiation indeed places Sailor Moon in a unique position in the lineage of popularlegends. We see many other examples of such incompleteness. The heroine's metamorphosis itself betrays this. For what she puts on after taking off her girlish clothes is, unlike a traditional heroine, a "sailor suit", the symbol of eternal girlishness which accompanies an implication of commercialized sexuality. In the last episode,the heroine discloses her naked body of a matured woman before she becomes the savior of the world. Seemingly she finally attains motherhood and succeeds in showing a role model to the young audience but only to turn out to be a false one. Forher final purpose remains to be to reproduce her duplicates: ideal consumersof the consumption society. It is at that moment that a "Girl" throws off the mask of "Lovely One" and exposes her true face of"Woman".
著者
横田 恵子
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, pp.21-39, 2006-03-31

From the early 90's, we have been increasing our efforts to incorporate 'comprehensive sexual education' mainly in our secondary education. However, at the same time, strong reactions have been happening against the education. The Conservatives have led many campaigns against liberal educational efforts in order to persuade public opinion. In this paper, I provide an overview of the current processes of Comprehensive Sexual Education-Bashing in Japan. The Conservatives and some communion members are conspiring with mass media against any practices based on Comprehensive Sexual Education, and even some of them are affiliate with by the governmental organizations. They are also scheming against the liberals to introduce the concept of Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage Education that spread among many Americans. I also describe a case of political intervention. The conservatives forced liberal educational groups to make changes in their HIV prevention programs for teenagers which was based on the Comprehensive Sexual Education perspective.
著者
河西 秀哉
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, pp.27-46, 2014-03

日本近現代における売買春について論じた。近世より継続していた売春は、マリア・ルース号事件を契機に、1872年に「芸娼妓解放令」へと結実する。これは、文明開化の一つとして実施されたもので、前近代的な身売りは建前上禁止された。しかし実際は、「自由意志」に基づく稼業として、売春は継続する。こうした仕組みは、欧米の制度を視察して構築されたもので、前近代の売春制度は欧米流の売春統制制度を基にした「公娼制度」へと再編された。つまり、売春に国家の公認が得られたとも言える。政府は私娼の取り締まりは行うものの、売春制度自体を無くそうとはしなかった。敗戦後、日本政府は1945年8月18日に特殊慰安施設協会(RAA)の設置を指示する。これは、占領軍兵士らへの売春を目的とした施設であり、政府はこれに対して資金の貸し付けを行うなど、積極的な関与をみせている。こうした施設の設置を敗戦3日後に指示したことに、政府の売春への意識を見ることができよう。RAAはGHQ兵士の中で性病が蔓延したことで、翌年3月には閉鎖され、そこで働いていた女性たちは放り出され、街娼となっていく。GHQは覚書「日本における公娼制度廃止に関する件」を1946年1月22日に出し、近代の公娼制度は廃止された。しかし日本側の意向もあって、「必要悪」とされて結局は継続し、「赤線」が誕生する。政府は赤線を認める一方、私娼である街娼は取締り、収監・保護して性病治療と矯正に努めた。そうして保護された街娼の生の声が、史料として残されている。それを見ると必ずしも私たちのイメージとは異なる街娼の実態が明らかになる。高学歴者が街娼となったケース、夫や家族に戦争犠牲者を持つケース、一度街娼となってからは生活するために抜け出せないケースなど、その実態は様々である。占領終了後、赤線を廃止しようとする動きは高まるが、法整備はその後なかなか進行しなかった。I have discussed prostitution in the modern period in Japan. In 1872, following the Maria Luz Incident, Japanese bonded prostitution, which had continued from the early modern period onward, was finally addressed by Geishogi kaiho rei(芸娼妓解放令), a law that emancipated prostitutes. This law was enacted as part of Japan's Westernization movement, and it ostensibly prohibited feudalistic bonded labor. In reality, however, prostitution continued as a business based on the "free will" of the women involved. This form of prostitution was constructed as a result of observing the way this industry functioned in Europe. In this way, the feudal system of prostitution was reformed into a "licensed prostitution system," based on western-style systems for regulating prostitution. It can therefore be said that prostitution was officially approved by the state. While the Japanese government did conduct crackdowns on unlicensed prostitution, it made no attempts to eliminate the system itself. After the Second World War, the Japanese government set up the Tokushu Ian Shisetsu Kyokai (literally, the "special comfort facility association"), referred to in English as the Recreation and Amusement Association (RAA). This association provided prostitutes for occupying Allied troops. The government showed active involvement with this association by, for example, providing loans to its facilities. The fact that these facilities were introduced just three days after Japan's surrender gives us an idea of the government's attitude towards prostitution. The RAA was discontinued in March the following year because of the General Headquarters of the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (GHQ). The women who worked in the facilities were dismissed and ended up working as street prostitutes. On January 22, 1946, the GHQ issued the memorandum "Abolition of Licensed Prostitution in Japan," and the modern-era system of licensed prostitution was abolished as a result .However, the Japanese authorities had their own attitude toward prostitution. It was ultimately allowed to continue and the Akasen districts (literally, "red line" districts-comparable with the term red-light district ) emerged. While the government did sanction these Akasen districts, it also cracked down on unlicensed street prostitution and made efforts to place street prostitutes in protective custody, where they would be treated for sexually transmitted diseases and receive correctional rehabilitation. The direst comments of the street prostitutes who were taken into custody were transcribed and archived. A read-through of these accounts reveals that our image of street prostitution differs from the reality. Many different types of women worked as street prostitution. These included highly educated women, women who had lost their husbands or other family members in the war, and women who, after entering street prostitution, found themselves unable to make a living in any other way. After the occupation of Japan ended, the movement to abolish the Akasen districts grew in strength, but there was little progress in terms of legislation.
著者
横田 恵子
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, pp.183-194, 2005-03-31

Social movements like Feminism have decreased during the last decade. Especially, young women who seem to adapt to Japanese society are less committed to such activities than others. Besides, these women have few interests outside their ordinary lives. However, it doesn't mean that these women have had any problematic experiences. The young women never take part in the Claim-making Activities because they have been annoyed by strong affirmation adopted by social movements during the past decade in Japan. We have to explore an alternative way to empower these women.
著者
三浦 欽也
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
論集 (ISSN:03891658)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.2, pp.63-73, 2012-12

"Kawaii", which is often translated as "cute" in English, is a word specific to Japanese modern and popular culture. In this paper, we attempted to characterize the items that female students feel to be "kawaii". First, we had female students list items that they would call "kawaii" , together with a list of terms that they would use to describe each item. From all the collected descriptive terms, we selected the twenty-seven terms that were most frequently used. Secondly, we had a separate group of female students list "kawaii" items similarly, and had them decide the degree of suitability of each of the twenty-seven descriptive terms for all the items. As a result of a cluster analysis of the data, these "kawaii" items were divided into three groups. It was observed that one group consists of items concerning the so called baby-schema, another group consists of items concerning personal adornment and the other consists of items possessing characteristics of both of the former two groups. Thirdly, we also analyzed the same data using factor analysis, and obtained three factors. One factor concerns baby-schema, another factor concerns personal adornment and the other concerns personal evaluation. We also examined the differences among the three groups in average scores of the factors using ANOVA, the results of which support former observations about the characteristics of the three groups.
著者
景山 佳代子
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
no.28, pp.1-25, 2014-03

本研究では、2013年5月13日の橋本徹大阪市長の慰安婦発言を研究することで、その語りがいかに私たちが当たり前にしている性の実践と結びついているかを明らかにする。橋本氏のツイッターでのコメントおよび記者会見での発言のテキストを、KH Coder と呼ばれるコーディングプログラムを使って分析し、慰安婦問題という文脈での橋本氏の語りの特徴を明らかにした。彼は世界の軍隊も、性の対象として女性を利用したという点では、日本と同じ加害者であると指摘した。それは日本の韓国慰安婦に対する責任を曖昧にする(不可視化していく)語りとなっていた。重要なのは、彼のこうした語りが決して特殊なものではなく、私たち日常の語りと地続きのものであるということだ。性的な問題の社会的要因を不問にし、その問題の主体が誰かを見えなくする。橋本氏の「慰安婦」「風俗」という問題の論じ方からは、そんな自明とされる性の見えない構造が浮かび上がってくる。The purpose of this paper is to study the discourse of Osaka Mayor Toru Hashimoto's comments about WWWII `comfort women', to examine how his explanation of Japan's `comfort women' is related to invisible sexual practices in our day-to-day life. Using the textual data of Hashimoto's twitter comments and the records of his press conferences and through analysis using the computer coding program KH Coder, we found that he pointed to the responsibility of other nations' militaries as sexual assailants of women during wartime by using the concept of `women's human rights'. On the other hand, he didn't apply this universal standard to Japan's actions toward the Korean comfort women. As a result, the debate about `comfort women'shifts the responsibility from Japan's military to others, including Japan, and Japan's responsibility becomes vague. Here the important thing is that his rhetoric is not unique and is taken for granted by a certain type of people. His discourse on comfort women is based on our daily communication, which does not focus on the subjectivity and social factors of sexual problems in Japanese society. In this paper, we further our understanding of how we identify invisible structures that exist as part of our common sense from visible discourse.
著者
堀江 有里
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, pp.75-98, 2010-03

Recently, identity politics have been questioned as a politic of human rights for social minorities. They, who question point out the followings:1) the strategy makes a group monolithic under the only"identity", thus excludes and marginalizes those who do not live according to the norms of the group, and2) treat an identity as a typical one while in reality each individual has various identities in her/himself. In spite of these questions against identity politics, some scholars and activists have kept maintaining identity politics as a useful strategy for minorities, because there are people who are stigmatized by their identities and excluded from the society. This paper looks at lesbian and gay activism in the United Church of Canada as a case, considering the question against identity politics as mentioned above and analyses its limitations and potentialities. In cases of Christian churches, most lesbian and gay activisms have maintained to "accept"themselves to be minorities in the society. However such a strategy can not change the norms of majorities and brings divisions among minorities as a result:1)"acceptable""good people and 2)"not acceptable""deviant"people. To overcoming this limitation, this paper examines an alternative way to find a new horizon for minorities.
著者
余 六一 任 萍
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
論集 (ISSN:03891658)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, no.1, pp.41-47, 2008-06

絶海中津是日本〓〓宗禅僧,也是日本中世禅林的代表人物,〓同門〓堂周信同被称〓"五山文学双壁"。其詩文造詣高深,作品《蕉堅集》被視〓日本五山文学的瑰宝。他33〓入明留学,在明滞留〓間〓〓10年,其留学〓〓不〓使其詩文造詣大〓提高,而且思想上也深受中国禅林〓〓的影〓。其詩文集《蕉堅稿》就集中体現了其〓儒一致思想及其〓道家思想的受容。前者可从其多次提及宋代倡〓〓儒一致的代表人物契嵩及其《〓教編》,并多次借用〓代僧,儒交好的典故〓抒胸臆等得以看出,后者則在其詩中多〓表〓了隠逸出世思想和逍遥游世的〓度中得以体現。通〓〓《蕉堅集》的考察和研究,我〓不〓窺出絶海中津在思想〓面上有着〓同〓期日本禅林僧侶不同的特点,尤其〓得〓注。
著者
日高 庸晴
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
no.21, pp.49-66[含 英文要旨], 2007-03

Quantitative research methods are an effective tool in investigating the social context of health issues. In particular, some methods, such as internet sampling, can be used to reach hard to reach populations which are hidden in more general populations. Quantitative research in the U.S., which have investigated the relationship of demographic, psychosocial, and biological variables on health and health related behaviors, have incorporated sexual orientation into survey investigations. There is a large body of research that aims to clarify the relationship between sexual orientation on social, psychological, and other health issues. Since the mid-1980s, a number of large scale U.S. health studies have targeted sexual minorities such as gay, bisexual, and transgender populations through community based samples, large scale internet sample and nation wide studies using representative sampling. The results indicate high prevalence of suicide attempts, high levels of psychosocial distress including anxiety, depression, loneliness, and low self esteem and HIV risk behaviors. Due to the fact that Japanese epidemiological health surveys do not include sexual orientation in survey scales, to date there have been few studies conducted into the health status and behaviors of sexual minorities in Japan. There is great need to investigating the situation regarding these previously ignored populations in order to develop and implement medical and social prevention and support interventions. This paper aims to review the body of data in this field, including large scale epidemiological studies, in order to discuss the health and psychological status and needs of sexual minority populations in Japan.
著者
河西 秀哉
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
論集 (ISSN:03891658)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.1, pp.49-61, 2012-06

The article aims to identify the role of choruses and what they achieved in the Asia- Pacific War. Japan had employed all national powers toward the Asia-Pacific War. To achive victory, the citizenry needed to mobilize and collect all available resources, including the ue of song. These songs were not considered art; instead, they were used as a proactive tool to increase unity in the workforce. In addition, the Great japan Patriotic Industrial Association, which brought laborers into the all-out war effort, was proactively engaged in welfare movements. It was through this effort that musicians were able to contribute during the war. Musicians consistently aimed to socialize music and attempted to popularize music through the welfare movements. From the perspective of the war effort, their use of choruses was regarded as a tool for increasing workplace unity. Their logic was to use music to eliminatte the classism in the workplace, which reflected an ieal behaind the war effort in general.
著者
中野 敬一
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
no.28, pp.47-67, 2014-03

本論では聖書において「売春女性」がどう扱われているかを確認した。まず旧約聖書では「神殿娼婦」と「遊女」が登場する。神殿娼婦は異教の習慣であり、イスラエルの聖所においては厳しく禁じられていた(例:申命記23:18)。しかし実際にはイスラエルにおいても神殿娼婦との淫行がみられ、預言者は神の審判を予言したのである。(例 : ホセア記4:14)。一方、遊女に対しては神殿娼婦ほどの避難はなされていない。新約聖書には、旧約聖書における「遊女」の同義語である「娼婦」が登場する。彼女たちの社会的地位は低く、特に律法学者やファリサイ派などのユダヤ教指導者層から差別されていた。しかしイエスは「徴税人や娼婦たちの方が、あなたたちより先に神の国に入るだろう」(マタイ福音書21:31)と述べた。また「罪深い女」(ルカ 7:36)と呼ばれていた娼婦を受け入れた。イエスは彼女たちを救いに招いたのである。しかし、後のキリスト者やキリスト教会はイエスの姿勢を継承しなかったと言える。例えば、パウロはコリント教会における淫行を禁じ、そのような行いをなす人々を排除するよう命じた。彼はキリスト者が娼婦と一体となることを戒めており、「みだらな者は神の国を受け継ぐことができない」と述べた(Ⅰコリント 6:10)。パウロらの思想は後のキリスト教会に受け継がれた。教父時代においては禁欲が重視され、売春女性は教会から排除された。しかし、同時に「必要悪」として認められた。さらにこのような傾向は中世ヨーロッパのキリスト教会にも継続され、社会や教会の純潔が守られるために、売春は是認されるのである。宗教改革者たちも売春女性を厳しく差別したが、カトリック教会と同様「必要悪」として彼女たちを容認したのである。 In this paper, I explored how prostitutes are treated in the Bible. "Shrine prostitute" and "harlot" appear in the Old Testament. The shrine prostitute was a custom of paganism and was forbidden in Israeli holy places (ex. Deuteronomy 23:18). In fact, however, immoral sexual acts with shrine prostitutes were observed in Israel, and the prophets foretold the judgement of God (ex. Hosea 4:14). On the other hand, Israelis did not criticize harlots as shrine prostitutes. "Prostitute", which is a synonym of "harlot", appears in the New Testament. Their social status was low; they were discriminated against by the class of Jewish leaders such as the scribes and the Pharisees. However, Jesus said to them, "the tax collectors and the prostitutes are going into the kingdom of God ahead of you" (Matthew 21:31 ). In addition, he accepted "a sinful woman" (Luke 7:36 ) who was a prostitute. Jesus invited her to salvation. However, it may be said that the later Christian church and heritage did not follow this position of Jesus. For example, the apostle Paul forbade sexual immorality in the Corinth church and commanded that it remove people who performed such an act. Paul banned a Christian and a prostitute from becoming one body and stated, "fornicators will not inherit the kingdom of God" (I Corinthians 6:10). The thoughts of Paul were inherited by the later Christian churches. Abstinence was made much of in the Church Father era, and prostitutes were removed from churches. However, it was recognized as "a necessary evil" at the same time. Furthermore, this tendency continued in the Catholic Church of the Middle Ages, and the church approved prostitution to protect the purity of society and the church. Religious reformers also discriminated harshly against prostitutes, but accepted them as "a necessary evil" in the same way as the Catholic Church.
著者
山内 祥史
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
論集 (ISSN:03891658)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.2, pp.1-52, 1985-12
著者
浜下 昌宏
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
論集 (ISSN:03891658)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.2, pp.49-58, 2008-01

The basic research subject of this paper is on the question as to why Japanese humanities, in particular, philosophy and aesthetics had been so much focused on German scholarship in the Meiji era. As preliminaries, I try to trace several factors leading to German origins to make a rough sketch of them, (1) The Iwakura mission experienced similar conditions to Japan in Germany: a developing nation for the nation-state, the emperor system with a constitution, etc. (2) ITO Hirobumi made the greatest effort to devise the Meiji constitution following the advice from Professor Lorenz von Stein who was willing to support Japanese for their political and legal development. (3) AOKI Shuzo was the key person for the pro-Germany group in Japan. He was clever enough to understand Europe and European's virtues not only in terms of scholarship but also of customs and society. (4) Most Japanese students who became leaders of a distinct field, mostly in the field of the humanities, studied at the University of Berlin. It would be interesting to know the reason, when there were a lot of eminent universities in Germany. Japanese access to Germany, in particular to Prussia, would have been resulted from some psychological or political foundations.
著者
小松 秀雄
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
論集 (ISSN:03891658)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.2, pp.153-164, 2008-01

In the eighties of the 20th Michel Gallon, John Law and Bruno Latour have constructed the theory of actor-network in the field of science and technology studies. Then in the nineties Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger have proposed the theory of situated learning and community of practice. In the first chapter of this paper I intend to consider the theory of 'hybrid collectives (communities)' and the concept of 'translation' which M.Gallon (French sociologist) has developed in his theory of actor-network. Gallon has criticized traditional sociologists for 'social constructionism'. And in the second chapter I investigate the situational approach and theory of community of practice while I take up the literatures such as "Situated Learning" (1991.) and "Communities of Practice" (2002.). In the final chapter I attempt to apply the theory of actor-network and the concept of community of practice to the downtown area (Yamabokocho) of the Gion Festival (Gion Matsuri) of Kyoto in the modem society.
著者
田中 真一
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
若手研究(B)
巻号頁・発行日
2007

本研究では、名古屋方言の韻律構造(リズム・アクセント・イントネーションの構造)を明らかにすることを目標とし、一般言語学的観点からの調査および分析を行った。その結果として、アクセントおよびピッチに、種々の音韻構造が関与することを明らかにした。また、フィールドワーク調査による名古屋方言の録音の作業を通して、方言音声の記録という性格を持たせることを目標とした。