著者
古田 明子
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, pp.201-224, 2000-03-31

The TV animation Sailor Moon,broadcast from 1992 to 1997,won an unusual popularity among the young female audience in Japan at that time. This study is an attempt to clarify an implicit message theanimation conveys to the audience under the disguise of a childish story of love, peace and justice by examining the underlying structure each episode of the animation has. A TV animation which repeats practically the same story every week is a very effective cultural apparatus but hasbeen seldom studied in detail. Each episode generally follows the pattern of a typical initiation story: the heroine undergoes a process of maturity through the experienceof symbolic death and rebirth. But the story at the same time cleverly escapes from such an interpretation. What is characteristic with the story is that the initiation process is definitely related to consumer behavior: endless pursuit of commercial goods. And in this sense the heroine never accomplishes the initiation and this incompleteness or failure in initiation indeed places Sailor Moon in a unique position in the lineage of popularlegends. We see many other examples of such incompleteness. The heroine's metamorphosis itself betrays this. For what she puts on after taking off her girlish clothes is, unlike a traditional heroine, a "sailor suit", the symbol of eternal girlishness which accompanies an implication of commercialized sexuality. In the last episode,the heroine discloses her naked body of a matured woman before she becomes the savior of the world. Seemingly she finally attains motherhood and succeeds in showing a role model to the young audience but only to turn out to be a false one. Forher final purpose remains to be to reproduce her duplicates: ideal consumersof the consumption society. It is at that moment that a "Girl" throws off the mask of "Lovely One" and exposes her true face of"Woman".
著者
横田 恵子
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, pp.21-39, 2006-03-31

From the early 90's, we have been increasing our efforts to incorporate 'comprehensive sexual education' mainly in our secondary education. However, at the same time, strong reactions have been happening against the education. The Conservatives have led many campaigns against liberal educational efforts in order to persuade public opinion. In this paper, I provide an overview of the current processes of Comprehensive Sexual Education-Bashing in Japan. The Conservatives and some communion members are conspiring with mass media against any practices based on Comprehensive Sexual Education, and even some of them are affiliate with by the governmental organizations. They are also scheming against the liberals to introduce the concept of Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage Education that spread among many Americans. I also describe a case of political intervention. The conservatives forced liberal educational groups to make changes in their HIV prevention programs for teenagers which was based on the Comprehensive Sexual Education perspective.
著者
横田 恵子
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, pp.183-194, 2005-03-31

Social movements like Feminism have decreased during the last decade. Especially, young women who seem to adapt to Japanese society are less committed to such activities than others. Besides, these women have few interests outside their ordinary lives. However, it doesn't mean that these women have had any problematic experiences. The young women never take part in the Claim-making Activities because they have been annoyed by strong affirmation adopted by social movements during the past decade in Japan. We have to explore an alternative way to empower these women.
著者
景山 佳代子
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
no.28, pp.1-25, 2014-03

本研究では、2013年5月13日の橋本徹大阪市長の慰安婦発言を研究することで、その語りがいかに私たちが当たり前にしている性の実践と結びついているかを明らかにする。橋本氏のツイッターでのコメントおよび記者会見での発言のテキストを、KH Coder と呼ばれるコーディングプログラムを使って分析し、慰安婦問題という文脈での橋本氏の語りの特徴を明らかにした。彼は世界の軍隊も、性の対象として女性を利用したという点では、日本と同じ加害者であると指摘した。それは日本の韓国慰安婦に対する責任を曖昧にする(不可視化していく)語りとなっていた。重要なのは、彼のこうした語りが決して特殊なものではなく、私たち日常の語りと地続きのものであるということだ。性的な問題の社会的要因を不問にし、その問題の主体が誰かを見えなくする。橋本氏の「慰安婦」「風俗」という問題の論じ方からは、そんな自明とされる性の見えない構造が浮かび上がってくる。The purpose of this paper is to study the discourse of Osaka Mayor Toru Hashimoto's comments about WWWII `comfort women', to examine how his explanation of Japan's `comfort women' is related to invisible sexual practices in our day-to-day life. Using the textual data of Hashimoto's twitter comments and the records of his press conferences and through analysis using the computer coding program KH Coder, we found that he pointed to the responsibility of other nations' militaries as sexual assailants of women during wartime by using the concept of `women's human rights'. On the other hand, he didn't apply this universal standard to Japan's actions toward the Korean comfort women. As a result, the debate about `comfort women'shifts the responsibility from Japan's military to others, including Japan, and Japan's responsibility becomes vague. Here the important thing is that his rhetoric is not unique and is taken for granted by a certain type of people. His discourse on comfort women is based on our daily communication, which does not focus on the subjectivity and social factors of sexual problems in Japanese society. In this paper, we further our understanding of how we identify invisible structures that exist as part of our common sense from visible discourse.
著者
堀江 有里
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, pp.75-98, 2010-03

Recently, identity politics have been questioned as a politic of human rights for social minorities. They, who question point out the followings:1) the strategy makes a group monolithic under the only"identity", thus excludes and marginalizes those who do not live according to the norms of the group, and2) treat an identity as a typical one while in reality each individual has various identities in her/himself. In spite of these questions against identity politics, some scholars and activists have kept maintaining identity politics as a useful strategy for minorities, because there are people who are stigmatized by their identities and excluded from the society. This paper looks at lesbian and gay activism in the United Church of Canada as a case, considering the question against identity politics as mentioned above and analyses its limitations and potentialities. In cases of Christian churches, most lesbian and gay activisms have maintained to "accept"themselves to be minorities in the society. However such a strategy can not change the norms of majorities and brings divisions among minorities as a result:1)"acceptable""good people and 2)"not acceptable""deviant"people. To overcoming this limitation, this paper examines an alternative way to find a new horizon for minorities.
著者
余 六一 任 萍
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
論集 (ISSN:03891658)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, no.1, pp.41-47, 2008-06

絶海中津是日本〓〓宗禅僧,也是日本中世禅林的代表人物,〓同門〓堂周信同被称〓"五山文学双壁"。其詩文造詣高深,作品《蕉堅集》被視〓日本五山文学的瑰宝。他33〓入明留学,在明滞留〓間〓〓10年,其留学〓〓不〓使其詩文造詣大〓提高,而且思想上也深受中国禅林〓〓的影〓。其詩文集《蕉堅稿》就集中体現了其〓儒一致思想及其〓道家思想的受容。前者可从其多次提及宋代倡〓〓儒一致的代表人物契嵩及其《〓教編》,并多次借用〓代僧,儒交好的典故〓抒胸臆等得以看出,后者則在其詩中多〓表〓了隠逸出世思想和逍遥游世的〓度中得以体現。通〓〓《蕉堅集》的考察和研究,我〓不〓窺出絶海中津在思想〓面上有着〓同〓期日本禅林僧侶不同的特点,尤其〓得〓注。
著者
日高 庸晴
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, pp.49-66, 2007-03-31

Quantitative research methods are an effective tool in investigating the social context of health issues. In particular, some methods, such as internet sampling, can be used to reach hard to reach populations which are hidden in more general populations. Quantitative research in the U.S., which have investigated the relationship of demographic, psychosocial, and biological variables on health and health related behaviors, have incorporated sexual orientation into survey investigations. There is a large body of research that aims to clarify the relationship between sexual orientation on social, psychological, and other health issues. Since the mid-1980s, a number of large scale U.S. health studies have targeted sexual minorities such as gay, bisexual, and transgender populations through community based samples, large scale internet sample and nation wide studies using representative sampling. The results indicate high prevalence of suicide attempts, high levels of psychosocial distress including anxiety, depression, loneliness, and low self esteem and HIV risk behaviors. Due to the fact that Japanese epidemiological health surveys do not include sexual orientation in survey scales, to date there have been few studies conducted into the health status and behaviors of sexual minorities in Japan. There is great need to investigating the situation regarding these previously ignored populations in order to develop and implement medical and social prevention and support interventions. This paper aims to review the body of data in this field, including large scale epidemiological studies, in order to discuss the health and psychological status and needs of sexual minority populations in Japan.
著者
河西 秀哉
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
論集 (ISSN:03891658)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.1, pp.49-61, 2012-06

The article aims to identify the role of choruses and what they achieved in the Asia- Pacific War. Japan had employed all national powers toward the Asia-Pacific War. To achive victory, the citizenry needed to mobilize and collect all available resources, including the ue of song. These songs were not considered art; instead, they were used as a proactive tool to increase unity in the workforce. In addition, the Great japan Patriotic Industrial Association, which brought laborers into the all-out war effort, was proactively engaged in welfare movements. It was through this effort that musicians were able to contribute during the war. Musicians consistently aimed to socialize music and attempted to popularize music through the welfare movements. From the perspective of the war effort, their use of choruses was regarded as a tool for increasing workplace unity. Their logic was to use music to eliminatte the classism in the workplace, which reflected an ieal behaind the war effort in general.
著者
山内 祥史
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
論集 (ISSN:03891658)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.2, pp.1-52, 1985-12
著者
浜下 昌宏
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
論集 (ISSN:03891658)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.2, pp.49-58, 2008-01

The basic research subject of this paper is on the question as to why Japanese humanities, in particular, philosophy and aesthetics had been so much focused on German scholarship in the Meiji era. As preliminaries, I try to trace several factors leading to German origins to make a rough sketch of them, (1) The Iwakura mission experienced similar conditions to Japan in Germany: a developing nation for the nation-state, the emperor system with a constitution, etc. (2) ITO Hirobumi made the greatest effort to devise the Meiji constitution following the advice from Professor Lorenz von Stein who was willing to support Japanese for their political and legal development. (3) AOKI Shuzo was the key person for the pro-Germany group in Japan. He was clever enough to understand Europe and European's virtues not only in terms of scholarship but also of customs and society. (4) Most Japanese students who became leaders of a distinct field, mostly in the field of the humanities, studied at the University of Berlin. It would be interesting to know the reason, when there were a lot of eminent universities in Germany. Japanese access to Germany, in particular to Prussia, would have been resulted from some psychological or political foundations.
著者
小松 秀雄
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
論集 (ISSN:03891658)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.2, pp.153-164, 2008-01

In the eighties of the 20th Michel Gallon, John Law and Bruno Latour have constructed the theory of actor-network in the field of science and technology studies. Then in the nineties Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger have proposed the theory of situated learning and community of practice. In the first chapter of this paper I intend to consider the theory of 'hybrid collectives (communities)' and the concept of 'translation' which M.Gallon (French sociologist) has developed in his theory of actor-network. Gallon has criticized traditional sociologists for 'social constructionism'. And in the second chapter I investigate the situational approach and theory of community of practice while I take up the literatures such as "Situated Learning" (1991.) and "Communities of Practice" (2002.). In the final chapter I attempt to apply the theory of actor-network and the concept of community of practice to the downtown area (Yamabokocho) of the Gion Festival (Gion Matsuri) of Kyoto in the modem society.
著者
三浦 欽也
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
論集 (ISSN:03891658)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.2, pp.63-73, 2012-12

"Kawaii", which is often translated as "cute" in English, is a word specific to Japanese modern and popular culture. In this paper, we attempted to characterize the items that female students feel to be "kawaii". First, we had female students list items that they would call "kawaii" , together with a list of terms that they would use to describe each item. From all the collected descriptive terms, we selected the twenty-seven terms that were most frequently used. Secondly, we had a separate group of female students list "kawaii" items similarly, and had them decide the degree of suitability of each of the twenty-seven descriptive terms for all the items. As a result of a cluster analysis of the data, these "kawaii" items were divided into three groups. It was observed that one group consists of items concerning the so called baby-schema, another group consists of items concerning personal adornment and the other consists of items possessing characteristics of both of the former two groups. Thirdly, we also analyzed the same data using factor analysis, and obtained three factors. One factor concerns baby-schema, another factor concerns personal adornment and the other concerns personal evaluation. We also examined the differences among the three groups in average scores of the factors using ANOVA, the results of which support former observations about the characteristics of the three groups.
著者
高村 峰生
出版者
神戸女学院大学
雑誌
女性学評論 (ISSN:09136630)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, pp.51-69, 2015-03

本論はスウェーデンの映画監督であるイングマール・ベルイマンの『秋のソナタ』(1978)において顔がどのように表現され、映画の時間性と結びついているかを、特に母娘の口論の場面に注目して分析している。序論ではベルイマンのクローズアップの典型例として『不良少女モニカ』(1953)における主人公モニカの顔を捉えたシーンに触れ、この場面が表情の微細な変化に観客の関心を向けさせ、ステレオタイプ化された表情と対立するような顔を持続的な時間のうちに表現していると論じた。このモニカのショットは現在時間の持続を捉えているが、『秋のソナタ』においては過去が重要な意味を持っている。夫を失ったばかりのシャルロッテは娘のエヴァの家を訪問するが、そこでいままで目を背けていた過去と対面させられる。たとえば、シャルロッテは重度の障害者であるエヴァの妹ヘレーナが家にいるとは知らず、対面することに苦痛を感じる。ヘレーナはしかし母との再会を喜び、うめくような声で「顔を持って、よく見て」と頼む。このことは「顔」こそが真実を明らかにするものであることを示唆している。シャルロッテはしばしば表情を作ってその場を取り繕うとするが、その試みは過去の記憶の充満したこの屋敷という空間においては挫折する。母と娘の口論のシーンは、家庭を顧みることなくコンサートピアニストとして世界を飛び回っていた母親シャルロッテへのエヴァの非難と、それに対するシャルロッテの自己弁護から成り立っている。二人の間の緊張が最も高まった瞬間において、両者は互いに向き合うのではなくカメラの方を向いており、自我を喪失したように宙を見つめるだけの顔面が我々に向けられることになる。エヴァは4歳を直前にして死んだエーリックの記憶に寄り添いながら生きており、彼女のシャルロッテへの言葉は死の世界からのメッセージでもある。二人がカメラを向くシーンにおいて観客に伝えられるのは過去の重みであり、死の気配である。ベルイマンは顔のクローズアップによって過去が顔面のうちに身体化する様子を捉えたのである。The essay analyzes the embodiment of past memories in human faces in Ingmar Bergman's Autumn Sonata (1978), with a particular focus on close-up shots in the scene of a ferocious argument between a mother and a daughter.For the sake of critical comparison, the essay begins by introducing a famous close-up shot of the heroine's face in Bergman's earlier work Summer with Monika (1953). While Monika emphasizes the present time through a shot of the title character's intense gaze at the audience, Autumn Sonata demonstrates the tenacity of the past experiences by showing the ways in which the characters' remembrances bring changes to their facial expressions.Set in an enclosed space of a house, Autumn Sonata depicts how the mother Charlotte, who has recently lost her husband, is forced to encounter the unfavorable family history which the daughter Eva incessantly attempts to evoke. Shortly after the mother's arrival at the daughter's home, for example, Eva tells Charlotte that her handicapped sister Helena is living in the same house. This news is unsettling enough for Charlotte to break her habitual artificial smile. Eva has believed that no boundary exists between life and death since her son's premature death, and she herself has been living as if she was half alive, half dead.The intense argument between the mother and the daughter mostly consists of Eva's denunciation of the self-centered mother who traveled around the world as a concert pianist without much concern for her family. At the most intense moment in their argument, their faces are directed in the direction of the camera, exposing their total absence of self through their facial expressions. What are communicated to the audience in the scene are the gravity of the past and the invisible existence of death. Through the close-up shots of the two women's faces, Autumn Sonata captures the mysterious moments in which the past memories and others' deaths seize human faces.