著者
深沢 佳那子
出版者
学習院大学大学院人文科学研究科
雑誌
学習院大学人文科学論集 (ISSN:09190791)
巻号頁・発行日
no.24, pp.187-226, 2015

This report is about the description of private parts in Japanese mythology.Japanese mythology has a lot of stories about female private parts.The fi rst time this appeared is the scene when Izanami gave birth to Kagutsuchi who is the god of fi re. Due to this,Izanami's private part is burned and dies. This is the origin of fi re story, Izanami is believed as mother goddess. There was faith that mother goddess gave birth to something valuable for humans in the ancient age.Originally, private parts relate to giving birth and living. However in this story, it relates to death as well as in O-getsuhime and Ukemochi stories described below.After the deaths of O-getsuhime and Ukemochi, grains grow from some parts of their corpses including their private parts.They are mother goddess and ancient people believed that mother goddess gave fertility after they were killed. We can see the same belief in Dogu and bowl in Jomon era, and in the background of Izanami's story.In the story of Yamatototohimomosohime, female private part relate to death as well. Since Yamatototohimomosohime broke a taboo, she cannot get married to O-mononushi. In which she dies by getting a chopstick stabbed in her private part.There is a similar story in Ama-no-iwayado mythology also. It is a story of Hataorime, who dies due to her job tool shuttle stabbed in her private part.Yamatototohimomosohime's death means retaliation and Hataorime's death is what causes the story of Amaterasu to hide in the iwayado. Both deaths include negative elements, the deaths are not normal. Thus, when female private parts are broken, it symbolized a negative death for goddesses. This is because female private parts symbolize life itself and woman.Breaking female private parts means stopping life and negative death to denial woman.However, in the Ninuriya mythology, stabbing the private part causes birth. Due to a red arrow stabbing Seyadatarahime's private part, she becomes pregnant. In this story, red arrow means male private part, and female private part relate to life.Since female private part relates to life originally, the story of stabbing female private part in which caused death was made paradoxically.Amenouzume' s story is one of the most famous for female private part story. In the story, female private part has exorcism power, in which she exposes her private part to make the gods laugh. This then led to Amaterasu to come out from the iwayado. The female private part in this story means women's holy power. However, in the background of the story the gods laugh at the female private part show, that there is male society and thought that men believed women's holy power.On the other hand, there is no story about male private parts.Although, in the jomon era, Japanese ancient people made many stone fi gures that were shaped in male private parts. The male private part fi gure, Sekibo symbolized energy and god who can bless bad spirits. Male symbol was believed as a single existence, are independent from the male's body. It was not faith in men but in the private part. That is why there are no stories which god's private parts were emphasized.However in the ancient times, there was no culture to make fi gures of female private parts. Dogu is famous for women's body statue, but there are seldom representations of the private parts. Dogu has breasts and represents of pregnancy. It is bound for the faith of mother goddess. Due to this, the faith of mother goddess is from not the female private parts, but the mother goddess's body.Though, it was believed that female private parts held holy power, the two beliefs had seemed to coexist.In order to show the coexistence, the classifi cation of "ideal woman" and "actual woman" that Kazuo Matsumura advocated was used. Amaterasu who is a virgin goddess is pure and clean, who represents the ideal woman. On the other hand, Izanami who experienced pregnancy, dead world, divorce represents an actual woman. These images were made by male society. Izanami gave birth by using female private part as an actual woman and not as mother goddess. The belief in mother goddess gives birth something valuable for human is in goddess body.Ukemochi and O-getsuhime mythologies are the origins of agriculture story. In these stories, female private parts appear,but there is no special meaning. They are mother goddess and give birth to something valuable, but there is no individual belief for female private parts.However people believed that private parts held holy power. In the ancient era, there was faith that women held holy power, in their female private parts which symbolized women.Then, Breaking the symbol of living and women, causes goddess's negative death. Yamatotohimomosohime and Hataorime mythologies express this. Breaking private parts what are originally giving birth causes death. When they died a negative death, their private parts, which symbolized of women's holy power, were broken. By doing so, this made a denial their dignity.On the other hand, Seyadatarahime's Ninuriya story is simply about sex and birth. Sometimes people believed female private parts as use for reproduction, and it did not relate to faith in mother goddess and fertility.Izanami's story is complexly structured. It is made from three elements, 1) primitive faith that mother goddess gave birth to god of fi re, 2) actual women who gave birth by using her female private part, 3) negative death by breaking the female private part, and it bound for uncleanness of death. Izanami gave birth as mother goddess, but the giving birth by using female private part is not derived from the personality of mother goddess. It is as an actual woman, and, the private part was a "device that is broke" to denial woman.Female private parts in Japanese mythology means symbol of living that is from the function, moreover, it means woman's symbol. People believed that women's holy power is in female private parts.Female and male private parts cannot be represented as a whole. This is due to the different beliefs in which the ancient people held.
著者
内藤 豊裕
出版者
学習院大学大学院人文科学研究科
雑誌
学習院大学人文科学論集 (ISSN:09190791)
巻号頁・発行日
no.26, pp.131-173, 2017

C'est à partir de la seconde moitié des années 1980 qu'au Japon le phénomène du séiyû, ou acteur de voix, a pris une forme d'autonomie, en même temps qu'une configuration médiatique originale commençait à se bâtir. A partir des années 1990, l'existence du séiyû est sortie de l'ombre. Rien n'a pourtant changé quant à la manière dont un séiyû compose son personnage par l'intermédiaire de la voix. Au début des années 1990, le séiyû s'est présenté comme un artiste. Le mot signifiait « sujet d'expression susceptible d'être diffusé sous des formes diverses, plutôt qu'il ne désignait le praticien d'un art proprement dit. En 1997, SHIINA Hekiru a donné deux jours de concert au NIPPONBUDOKAN, salle éminemment symbolique pour la musique au Japon. A l'époque, SHIINA, bien que Séiyû, ne prêtait sa voix à presque aucun personnage de dessin animé. Contrairement à aujourd'hui, il n'existait pas, à l'époque, d'environnement médiatique favorable à l'expansion de la sphère d'activité des séiyû.SHIINA a acquis une grande popularité comme vedette de la chanson mais elle est aussi un précurseur, dans un temps où le statut de vedette de la chanson était hors de la sphère du séiyû. Ses chansons ont évolué, passant des mélodies typiques de la variétés à une musique de type rock. Cette évolution s'est étendue à l'ensemble de son spectacle et a fini par la faire sortir de la catégorie des chanteuses de variété. Cette musique et ces mises en scène de concert étaient sans doute le reflet du goût et du caractère particuliers de la chanteuse. Ils lui ont permis d'acquérir la position d'artiste à l'identité reconnue et importante pour le public. Enfin le séiyû est devenu un phénomène médiatique indépendant de toute image visuelle.Depuis ce jour, la mise en scène des dessins animés s'est mise à prendre en compte la reconnaissance par le public de l'identité du séiyû. La réception du personnage de dessin animé a cessé d'entrer en contradiction avec la reconnaissance de l'identité personnelle du séiyû. Une telle situation paraît indiquer que le séiyû a atteint la dynamique propre à la vedette du cinéma telle que l'a définie Richard DYER.
著者
三輪 健太朗
出版者
学習院大学
雑誌
学習院大学人文科学論集 (ISSN:09190791)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, pp.239-274, 2010

This paper discusses the issue of realism in Japanese manga and American animation and suggests that we should change the framework which is dominant in Japanese criticism of manga in recent years by focusing the history of American animation. First, we refer to discussions by Eiji Otsuka and Go Ito who are the most influential critics of manga today. Otsuka insists that Japanese manga originated from American animation, whose characters have bodies which are never injured. Then he argues that Japanese manga got realism after the war by giving realistic bodies to such non-realistic characters. On the other hand, Ito insists that the reality of the character is based on the simplicity of drawing. Although there are differences between them, they both focus on the "character" and their frameworks prevent us from capturing another kind of realism which could be found by focusing contemporary 3DCG animations. 3DCG animations led by Pixar resulted from the development of techniques to represent physical space in reality. This paper describes it as a shift from "dots of ink" to "the falling body". In Disney's early works, we often find gags such that a character in the air doesn't fall until he notices that he doesn't have supports. Such meta-fictional gags reveal that the animation is nothing more than "dots of ink" rather than "representations of reality". The history from early Disney to Pixar has aimed to represent physical space which has the law of gravity, hiding its origin as "dots of ink". This shift also occurred in Japanese manga, but it is hard to find it because of the framework which focused on "character". Therefore, this paper suggests the change from "character" to "space". Of course, manga and animation have retained its origin despite the progress of tendency to represent reality. Therefore, we can describe the history of them as the history of conflicts between "dots of ink" and "representations of reality".
著者
内藤 豊裕
雑誌
学習院大学人文科学論集 (ISSN:09190791)
巻号頁・発行日
no.24, pp.317-347, 2015-10-01

Au japon, certains acteurs sont spécialisés dans l’usage de la voix. On les appelle Seiyû. Contrairement à ce qui se passe en Europe, le doublage japonais ne se soucie guère de synchroniser l’image et la voix. HIROKAWA Taichirô, l’un des Seiyû les plus populaires au Japon, a entrepris de détacher le doublage de la synchronisation dès les années 1970, créant ainsi la vogue du doublage excessif. Ce type de doublage tient compte de la réalité de l’acteur en dehors du personnage auquel il prête sa voix. Ce phénomène trouve son origine dans les conditions de l’introduction du cinéma au Japon.Quand les premiers fi lms muets ont été importés, les Japonais d’alors étant incapables de lire les intertitres, un benshi commentait en direct les événements produits sur l’écran, à la manière du présentateur d’une baraque foraine. Ce benshi était partie intégrante du spectacle cinématographique. Par la suite, le Japon a produit ses propres fi lms muets, généralement constitués de pièces de théâtre enregistrées par la caméra.Ces fi lms étaient très pauvres en moyens narratifs, faute d’intertitres et de montage et du fait de la technique primitive des caméras. Pour y suppléer est apparue une forme particulière d’annoncier, les kowairo-benshi : aussi nombreux que les personnages du fi lm, ceux-ci lisaient le dialogue en direct, mais se limitaient à échanger des répliques, sans aucun commentaire ou description narrative. Leur corps était visible du public.Il est clair que leur fonction ressemble à celle de Seiyû.La généalogie du Seiyû passe donc par le kowairo-benshi, ce qui entraîne deux conclusions : d’abord que le Seiyû prend en charge le dialogue en tant que composante indispensable de l’action, ensuite que son corps se dédouble entre le personnage du fi lm et la réalité de la voix seule.
著者
河野 智子
出版者
学習院大学
雑誌
学習院大学人文科学論集 (ISSN:09190791)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, pp.27-49, 1996
被引用文献数
1

本論文の目的は,若かりしアィザック・ニュートン卿が錬金術に何を見出そうとしていたかを明らかにすることである。ニュートソが真剣に錬金術に取り組んでいた事実をケイソズが指摘して以来,魔術師ニュートンと科学者ニュートンとの折り合いをつけることは,研究者たちの悩みの種だった。この問題を解決するのに主に二通りの方法が採られてきた。一つは,彼の錬金術関連の研究ならびに実験を,錬金術が化学と同様な価値を持っていた時代の,まさに合理的で科学的なものだったと考えることで,「魔術師二L一トソ」を否定する方法である。もう一つは,彼の試みが機械論に対する一種の反逆ないし修正であったと考えることで,「科学者」と「魔術師」の両方を受け入れる方法である。後者のほうがより正確であるようだ。なぜなら,その初期から,ニュートンは錬金術を化学と厳しく区別していたからである。彼にとっては,「通俗化学」は「より大きな粒子」の機械的な作用のみを扱うものだった。一方,「錬金術」は,より大きな粒子を構成する小さな粒子がふるまうような,生長に関わる作用を扱うものであった。彼が化学よりも錬金術の可能性を重視した理由は,真理は聖書や預言,すべての古代の神秘的な記述の中に隠されているとする,古代の知恵への信仰にあった。また彼は,あらゆるものが一なる普遍物質から成り立っていて,ある手段によって他の事物へと変成できることを信じていた。その結果,錬金術における金属変成の概念を容易に認められたのである。彼はその変成を可能にすべく,物質を構成段階に分解しようとした。そして「腐敗」にとりわけ注目した。というのも,この腐敗を分解の過程として見なし,同様にそれを自然における生命活動と考えたからである。このことは若きニュートンが,個々の粒子への物体の分解を,機械的な作用ではなく,生き生きとした作用として考えていたことを意味する。彼にとって万物は,発生,成長,そして死のような,活力を与えるような原理によって動かされていた。そうでなければ何ものも個々の構成粒子に分解されないし,凝集によって一塊の物体になることもできない。若きニュートンは錬金術を錬金術として捉え,「賢者の水銀」を見出そうとした。「水銀」こそが,そうした物体を活性化する力を持つものだったからだ。そうすることはその当時では自然なことだった。錬金術では宇宙を一生命体として捉えたからである。The aim of this study is to show what Sir Isaac Newton hoped to discover in alchemy in his youth。 Since Keynes pointed out the fact that Newton had been seriously devoted to alcherny, it has been a problem for researchers to compromise NewtQn as a magician with Newton as a scientist. There have been two main ways to interpret this problem. One is to reject"Newton as a magician,"thinking that his alchemical studies and experi皿ents were just rational chemical ones at the time alchemy still had its value as chemistry. The other is to accept both"a scientist"and"a magician," thinking his attempt as a kind of rebellion or revision against mechanism. It see皿s to me that the Iatter may be more correct, because Newton strictly distinguished alchemy fro皿chemistry even in his early days. For him, "vulgar chemistry"only treats mechanical actions of"grosser particles," while"alchemy"treats vegetational actiolls performed by smaller particles which constitute grosser ones. The reason which made him value the pos・ sibility of alchemy over chemistry was his belief in prisαa sapientia, which meant that the truth should be hidden in Scripture, Prophecies, and all the ancient mystic descriptions. He also believed that everything is of one catholic matter and could be transmuted to another by certain means, so that he could easily accept the concept of transmutation in metals embodied in alchemy. He wanted to disintegrate皿atters to their constitutional level to make the transmutation possible, and paid a particular attention to"putre・ faction"because he regarded this as the process bf disintegration, same as the life cycle seen in the nature. This皿eans that young Newton con. sidered the material body's disintegration into individual particles not as a mechanical action but as a vital one. TQ him, everything in this world was influenced by the active principle such as genaration, growth, and death. Otherwise nothing can be distintegrated into individual particles nor can become a mass body by cohesion. Young Newton thought alchemy as a1一 chemy, and tried to find"philosopher's mercury"because"mercury"was the very thing which has such a power to activate matters。 At that time, it was a natural thing to do because alchemy treated the universe as a living thing.
著者
内藤 豊裕
雑誌
学習院大学人文科学論集
巻号頁・発行日
no.26, pp.131-173, 2017-10

C’est à partir de la seconde moitié des années 1980 qu’au Japon le phénomène du séiyû, ou acteur de voix, a pris une forme d’autonomie, en même temps qu’une configuration médiatique originale commençait à se bâtir. A partir des années 1990, l’existence du séiyû est sortie de l’ombre. Rien n’a pourtant changé quant à la manière dont un séiyû compose son personnage par l’intermédiaire de la voix. Au début des années 1990, le séiyû s’est présenté comme un artiste. Le mot signifiait « sujet d’expression susceptible d’être diffusé sous des formes diverses, plutôt qu’il ne désignait le praticien d’un art proprement dit. En 1997, SHIINA Hekiru a donné deux jours de concert au NIPPONBUDOKAN, salle éminemment symbolique pour la musique au Japon. A l’époque, SHIINA, bien que Séiyû, ne prêtait sa voix à presque aucun personnage de dessin animé. Contrairement à aujourd’hui, il n’existait pas, à l’époque, d’environnement médiatique favorable à l’expansion de la sphère d’activité des séiyû.SHIINA a acquis une grande popularité comme vedette de la chanson mais elle est aussi un précurseur, dans un temps où le statut de vedette de la chanson était hors de la sphère du séiyû. Ses chansons ont évolué, passant des mélodies typiques de la variétés à une musique de type rock. Cette évolution s’est étendue à l’ensemble de son spectacle et a fini par la faire sortir de la catégorie des chanteuses de variété. Cette musique et ces mises en scène de concert étaient sans doute le reflet du goût et du caractère particuliers de la chanteuse. Ils lui ont permis d’acquérir la position d’artiste à l’identité reconnue et importante pour le public. Enfin le séiyû est devenu un phénomène médiatique indépendant de toute image visuelle.Depuis ce jour, la mise en scène des dessins animés s’est mise à prendre en compte la reconnaissance par le public de l’identité du séiyû. La réception du personnage de dessin animé a cessé d’entrer en contradiction avec la reconnaissance de l’identité personnelle du séiyû. Une telle situation paraît indiquer que le séiyû a atteint la dynamique propre à la vedette du cinéma telle que l’a définie Richard DYER.
著者
足立 加勇
出版者
学習院大学
雑誌
学習院大学人文科学論集 (ISSN:09190791)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, pp.343-374, 2009

Animated manga films are a form of manga consumption reflecting strong popular demand for this art form. This essay focuses on cyborg comics whose unique defining feature is the heroes' self-negation arising from their selfawareness as monsters. Here, taking representative examples, the original comic and its animated version are compared in an effort to highlight the salient differences between manga and anime genres. In the TV animation series Cyborg 009, produced in 1968 at the end of the first anime boom, the heroes were depicted as pure warriors for peace with no reference to their monster nature, which the original manga had stressed. The antiwar message in the animated series was persuasive because peace was considered a universal value. The animated feature Cyborg 009: Super Galaxy Legend, released in 1980 during the second anime boom, however, emphasized the close bonds of fellows as cyborg rather than universal values. In the manga GUNSLINGER GIRL, which coincided with the third anime boom of the 2000s, it is no longer possible for the heroines to embody universal values; they fight simply for bonds between themselves and the man they love. The original manga contained a perspective exterior to human bonding that was capable of objectifying human ties, but in the animated film version, that vantage point cedes its importance; only actors involved in these close relationships are capable of understanding the protagonists' behavior and true motives. In the animation process, we find a disappearance of universal values in response to societal changes, and a corresponding desire for strong, compelling personal bonds. Through the softening of the heroes' and heroines' monster nature, their self-negation loses its critical power, imparting to the human bonds they form an absolute character. The desire for close personal ties has contributed to the success of animated film versions by providing the motivation for psychologically more complex characters. The extreme nature of these bonds, however, has also produced a more narrow-minded, stereotypical view of human nature, bringing manga animation to a developmental impasse.
著者
深沢 佳那子
出版者
学習院大学大学院人文科学研究科
雑誌
学習院大学人文科学論集 (ISSN:09190791)
巻号頁・発行日
no.24, pp.187-226, 2015

This report is about the description of private parts in Japanese mythology.Japanese mythology has a lot of stories about female private parts.The fi rst time this appeared is the scene when Izanami gave birth to Kagutsuchi who is the god of fi re. Due to this,Izanami's private part is burned and dies. This is the origin of fi re story, Izanami is believed as mother goddess. There was faith that mother goddess gave birth to something valuable for humans in the ancient age.Originally, private parts relate to giving birth and living. However in this story, it relates to death as well as in O-getsuhime and Ukemochi stories described below.After the deaths of O-getsuhime and Ukemochi, grains grow from some parts of their corpses including their private parts.They are mother goddess and ancient people believed that mother goddess gave fertility after they were killed. We can see the same belief in Dogu and bowl in Jomon era, and in the background of Izanami's story.In the story of Yamatototohimomosohime, female private part relate to death as well. Since Yamatototohimomosohime broke a taboo, she cannot get married to O-mononushi. In which she dies by getting a chopstick stabbed in her private part.There is a similar story in Ama-no-iwayado mythology also. It is a story of Hataorime, who dies due to her job tool shuttle stabbed in her private part.Yamatototohimomosohime's death means retaliation and Hataorime's death is what causes the story of Amaterasu to hide in the iwayado. Both deaths include negative elements, the deaths are not normal. Thus, when female private parts are broken, it symbolized a negative death for goddesses. This is because female private parts symbolize life itself and woman.Breaking female private parts means stopping life and negative death to denial woman.However, in the Ninuriya mythology, stabbing the private part causes birth. Due to a red arrow stabbing Seyadatarahime's private part, she becomes pregnant. In this story, red arrow means male private part, and female private part relate to life.Since female private part relates to life originally, the story of stabbing female private part in which caused death was made paradoxically.Amenouzume' s story is one of the most famous for female private part story. In the story, female private part has exorcism power, in which she exposes her private part to make the gods laugh. This then led to Amaterasu to come out from the iwayado. The female private part in this story means women's holy power. However, in the background of the story the gods laugh at the female private part show, that there is male society and thought that men believed women's holy power.On the other hand, there is no story about male private parts.Although, in the jomon era, Japanese ancient people made many stone fi gures that were shaped in male private parts. The male private part fi gure, Sekibo symbolized energy and god who can bless bad spirits. Male symbol was believed as a single existence, are independent from the male's body. It was not faith in men but in the private part. That is why there are no stories which god's private parts were emphasized.However in the ancient times, there was no culture to make fi gures of female private parts. Dogu is famous for women's body statue, but there are seldom representations of the private parts. Dogu has breasts and represents of pregnancy. It is bound for the faith of mother goddess. Due to this, the faith of mother goddess is from not the female private parts, but the mother goddess's body.Though, it was believed that female private parts held holy power, the two beliefs had seemed to coexist.In order to show the coexistence, the classifi cation of "ideal woman" and "actual woman" that Kazuo Matsumura advocated was used. Amaterasu who is a virgin goddess is pure and clean, who represents the ideal woman. On the other hand, Izanami who experienced pregnancy, dead world, divorce represents an actual woman. These images were made by male society. Izanami gave birth by using female private part as an actual woman and not as mother goddess. The belief in mother goddess gives birth something valuable for human is in goddess body.Ukemochi and O-getsuhime mythologies are the origins of agriculture story. In these stories, female private parts appear,but there is no special meaning. They are mother goddess and give birth to something valuable, but there is no individual belief for female private parts.However people believed that private parts held holy power. In the ancient era, there was faith that women held holy power, in their female private parts which symbolized women.Then, Breaking the symbol of living and women, causes goddess's negative death. Yamatotohimomosohime and Hataorime mythologies express this. Breaking private parts what are originally giving birth causes death. When they died a negative death, their private parts, which symbolized of women's holy power, were broken. By doing so, this made a denial their dignity.On the other hand, Seyadatarahime's Ninuriya story is simply about sex and birth. Sometimes people believed female private parts as use for reproduction, and it did not relate to faith in mother goddess and fertility.Izanami's story is complexly structured. It is made from three elements, 1) primitive faith that mother goddess gave birth to god of fi re, 2) actual women who gave birth by using her female private part, 3) negative death by breaking the female private part, and it bound for uncleanness of death. Izanami gave birth as mother goddess, but the giving birth by using female private part is not derived from the personality of mother goddess. It is as an actual woman, and, the private part was a "device that is broke" to denial woman.Female private parts in Japanese mythology means symbol of living that is from the function, moreover, it means woman's symbol. People believed that women's holy power is in female private parts.Female and male private parts cannot be represented as a whole. This is due to the different beliefs in which the ancient people held.
著者
高桑 浩一
雑誌
学習院大学人文科学論集 (ISSN:09190791)
巻号頁・発行日
no.13, pp.105-127, 2004-10-31

In two papers published in l982, Taryo Obayashi(1929-2001)pointed out that some common features exist betWeen the myths aboutんnewakahiko or/Vi8ihayahi, who are regarded as heretical gods in Japanese sovereignty myths, and myths about the founders of ancient Korean dynasties like Ko8ut yo or Silla. In血is paper, reexa血ning the Obayas㎞’sstudy,1 restructured the common features of these myths as follows: 1)The heroes of these myths are connected with Heaven by ascending there after death. But, at the same time, they are connected with Earth in that their dead bodies or articles left behind are buried. 2)Their bows and arrows are the symbols of their status as Heaven-God. These articles also have a function as regalia, which is what any successor of sovereignty should own. What awakens our interest is that these features are not clearly found in the myths of H∂ηo痂’8’, who is considered as the legitimate successor of sovereignty of Japan in“KOjiki”or“Nihonshoki”. This fact shows the complex nature of the influence on Japanese myths from Korean Peninsula.
著者
横田 宇雄
出版者
学習院大学
雑誌
学習院大学人文科学論集 (ISSN:09190791)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, pp.233-253, 2011

Dans Le Naturalisme au théâtre (1881), Zola veut instaurer une révolution entre naturalisme et romantique semblable à celle de 1830 entre classicisme et romantique. Son théâtre poursuit lÅfillusion absolue de la vie. Alors que Thérèse Raquin, basé sur une description analytique exacte, l'étude de la nature et l'observation, n'avaiteu aucun succès L'Assommoir, une pièce mélodramatique connaît un succès qui déplaît à son auteur. On peut apprécier L'Assommoir en tant que mélodrame. Il ne s'agit pas d'une oeuvre à la manière de Becque, dans l'esprit naturaliste, mais d'un document sur la société de cette époque. Vers la fin du XIXème siècle, les adaptations de roman au théâtre sont nombreuses et permettent de réfléchir aux procédés d'une telle adaptation. Les frères Goncourt ont montré que le naturalisme au théâtre ne pouvait être réalisé au même titre que dans un roman. Cependant Zola est averti des différences entre roman et théâtre et s'efforce d'en tenir compte. Ses réflexions sur le sujet sont rassemblées dans Le Naturalisme au théâtre et Nos Auteur dramatique (1881). Cet article se propose de vérifier la logique mise en oeuvre dans le naturalisme au théâtre. Zola reporte la fonction de description du roman sur le décor de théâtre. Le décor de théâtre doit décrire les différents milieux où vivent les personnages et agir de façon à permettre au comédien d'agir en conformité avec la vérité. Le décor de Zola détermine un code de représentation et n'est pas un simple élément de théâtre. L'action du comédien opère sous ce code. L'auteur dramatique n'endosse pas la responsabilité de tous les éléments de la représentation. Il a besoin du pouvoir synthétique apporté par le décor, les comédiens et les costumes. Par la suite, Antoine reportera la fonction de la description romanes que sur la mise en scéne. La fonction du décor au naturalisme est une auticipation de la mise en scéne.
著者
可児 洋介
雑誌
学習院大学人文科学論集 (ISSN:09190791)
巻号頁・発行日
no.19, pp.275-302, 2010-10-01

This essay not only disregards privileged signifiant which is called newtype in Mobile Suit Gundam as a tear of text, but also captures it as a field in which some different discourse were intermingling, and argues its various aspects. Concretely, this essay not only reduces that concept to the intention of the Tomino Yoshiyuki’s author-subject, but also connects it to wide-ranging contemporary situation, furthermore, discloses the generation-strife of its consumers which had a estrangement between the literary-cultural generation and the visual-cultural generation. Moreover, it confirms the birth of the imagined communities which consist of peculiar to “accepter-creater” of a limited animation, and states that such events symbolized a shift between meaning and sense or between stories and databases, and suggests that they(newtypes)born then have supported supply and demand of real-robot-anime which is like Super Dimension Fortress Macross and Neon Genesis Evangelion.
著者
松本 奈々
雑誌
学習院大学人文科学論集 (ISSN:09190791)
巻号頁・発行日
no.27, pp.1-61, 2018-10

This thesis aims to analyse Sobuji, which is a policy derived from Toyotomi Hideyoshi’s force and an anti-Hojo force in Kanto area. To shed light on a region formally called Shimotsuke (current Sano- a city located in the south-west part of Tochigi prefecture), paying a great deal of attention solely to Shimotsuke can internalise the history of Sobuji policy more in-depth. By scrutinising specifically, Sano clan will demonstrate its unique role in the medieval Japanese history, as its contribution has been relatively underrated in academia. Especially Tentokuji Hoen and his servant Yamagami Dogyu’s accomplishment conducted for Sano had a significant impact on the whole Japanese politics at the time. Sano was located right at the boundary between Shimotsuke and Kozuke (these two literally mean the lower and upper area). The border had a role in distinguishing the pro-Hojyo and the anti-Hojo forces. Hoen’s lineage was quite complicated but worth highlighting at the same time. Hoen was a son of Sano Toyotsuna, which namely means he was Masatsuna’s younger brother as well as an uncle of Munetsuna. Consequently, it is evident that he has a roots-wise relation to the main branch of Sano family. Although Hoen became a Buddhist priest in his early life, his strong connection with major aristocrats in the Kamigata area firmly remained in the political world. As a result, Hoen massively impacted on Japanese high society. At the time when Oda Nobunaga’s Togoku Shioki prevailed, Hoen was a diplomat of Takigawa Kazumasu, who was in charge of Kanto Otoritsugi. Hoen’s primary role was as an envoy between Oda administrations centred in the west and the anti-Hojo power in Kanto area. Following the famous Honnoji-no-hen in 1582, Hoen fought a battle with the Hojo force in Kozuke with a help of Takigawa Kazumasu as one of the sequels of Honnoji’s incident. This war, also happened in 1582, was later called as Kannagawa war. Despite his career in Kozuke, he returned to Sano and reassumed his position of a negotiator of Sano region soon after Kannagawa war. At just about the same time, the Hojo army attacked Sano that the Kanto anti-Hojo force became heightened after 1593. Therefore, the Kanto anti-Hojo force attempted to gain the favour of Toyotomi Hideyoshi to secure their safety behind Hideyoshi’s power. Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who overthrew a pro-Nobunaga force (also known as Shibata Katsuie’s troops), found these sequent to be a chance to build up his career to rule entire Japan. Hideyoshi’s interest towards situations in Kanto area reached a consensus between Kanto and Hideyoshi’s demand and supply. As a result, Kanto successfully got the most out of Toyotomi’s colossal force. Also, Hideyoshi was able to draw Kanto force into his army. Considering Sano’s geographically unique role, the Hojo group attempted to aqruire Sano to utilise the function of borders. Thus, Sano kept under pressure to stay close relations with the Hojo force. In the summer of 1575, Hoen left Sano to move to Kyoto since the Hojo force took over Sano’s rule. Hojo’s dominance over Hoen’s power resulted in Hoen’s remarkable decision to serve Hideyoshi with the intention of ousting the Hojo force from beloved Sano. As well as Hoen, Yamagami Dogyu was also in charge of Sano’s vassal in Hideyoshi’s Sobuji policy. This policy had a side that Hideyoshi’s intention to draw the Kanto anti-Hojo force. For instance, Uesugi Kagekatsu, who allied with the anti-Hojo force, took charge of a position to sort out the situations against the Hojo force through Sobuji policy. On the other hand, Tokugawa Ieyasu negotiated with the Hojo force and avoided apparently oppose to the Hojo force as Kagekatsu did. Amongst historians, the conventional appreciation of Sobuji policy has widely been recognised as Hideyoshi’s ordinance to prevail a truce all over Japan. However, this essay illustrates that Sobuji policy was established with Hideyoshi’s desire to control the Hojo force. Hoen’s extensive connection shows how military alliance had associated with the development of Sobuji policy. I hope it dawns on historians that it should be examined to fully grasp the importance of Sobuji policy for further understandings alongside Hoen’s desire to return to his dearest home, Sano.
著者
土橋 友梨子
出版者
学習院大学
雑誌
学習院大学人文科学論集 (ISSN:09190791)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, pp.107-131, 2012

En 1772, Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), hanté du délire depersécution, entreprend de rédiger une oeuvre extraordinaire : Rousseau juge deJean-Jacques—Dialogues (1782). Dans cet ouvrage, l'auteur, qui s'estimedéfiguré et diffamé par l'hostilité unanime des ennemis et du public, fait dialoguer« Rousseau » et « le Français » afin de prouver désespérément l'innocencede « Jean-Jacques » et de dévoiler les injustices qui lui sont faites. Cetteoeuvre a longtemps été considérée comme un document du délire paranoïaquede Rousseau et tenue à distance par les chercheurs littéraires. Tel était son statutjusqu'à l'intervention de Michel Foucault (1962) et de Jean-Marie Goulemot(1979).Est-ce pour cette raison que les études non seulement sur leur contenu, maisaussi sur leur rédaction et leurs manuscrits — les études génétiques — n'avancentpas au même rythme que ses autres ouvrages, en particulier LesConfessions (Première partie en 1782 et Seconde partie en 1789), sesMémoires ? En ce qui concerne Les Confessions, il y a beaucoup d'études faitessur les manuscrits : les recherches représentatives sont Rousseau et les manuscritsdes Confessions de Hermine de Saussure (1958), plusieurs études deCharly Guyot, celles de Frédéric S. Eigeldinger, etc. Certes, Robert Osmont,éditeur des Dialogues de la Pléiade (1959), présente déjà leurs variantes etl'histoire de la rédaction en utilisant trois manuscrits et les petits brouillons desDialogues. Mais on ne peut pas dire que ces études ne soient achevées, parcequ'il manque l'examen d'un manuscrit appelé le manuscrit de BNF. Longtempsmis pour perdu, celui-ci n'a que récemment rejoint les collections de laBibliothèque nationale de France (1995 ou 1996).C'est ainsi que, afin de rendre pertinentes les études génétiques desDialogues, il faut tout d'abord transcrire le texte en question pour l'intégrerdans les autres manuscrits des Dialogues et mettre en ordre les travaux que les anciens éditeurs ont faits séparément. Dans cet article, on présente doncl'ensemble de l'histoire de la rédaction de cette oeuvre, y compris des manuscrits,en montrant une partie de la transcription du manuscrit de BNF.
著者
藤井 勉
雑誌
学習院大学人文科学論集 (ISSN:09190791)
巻号頁・発行日
no.19, pp.151-162, 2010-10-01

The purpose of this research was testing correlations between“ implicit” theories of intelligence scale and social desirability scales. Participants, 91 university students, joined this study(questionnaire survey). Results showed that correlations between “implicit” theories of intelligence scale and social desirability scales(self deception and impression management)were positive and significant. It was revealed that the response of traditional self-report scale (implicit theories of intelligence)was affected by social desirability biases.
著者
村山 直子
雑誌
学習院大学人文科学論集 (ISSN:09190791)
巻号頁・発行日
no.9, pp.103-121, 2000-09-30

According tQ a myth, the Central Land of the Reed Plains was mainly conquered by Futsunushi alld Takemikazuchi. Both of them are generally considered to be worshipped by the Nakatomi clan. But in my opinion, Futsunushi originally had a close relation to the Mononobe clan, charged with military and religious affairs. It appears that the Nakatomi clan linked itself to Futsunushi in place of the Mononobe clan after the downfall of the latter. Takemikazuchi is enshrined in Kashima shrine in Ibaragi Prefecture, and Futsunushi is enshrined in Katori shrine in Chiba Prefecture. In the area around Katori shrine, there are many sites of bead making in the middle of the Kofun period, and in those sites quite many imitation beads made of stone were excavated that represent the power of the Yamato regime, whereas in the area around Kashima shrine no site like these has been found. So it is likely thatKatori shrine was an important strategic point when the Yamato regime extended its power to the eastern land. On the other hand, the Mononobe clan played an important part in Yamato army. These facts show that there is a close relation between Futsunushi and the Mononobe clan. Besides, Futsunushi led the conquest of the Central Land of the Reed Plains in the myth of the Nihonshoki, whereas Takemikazuchi plays there a subordinative part. It appears that at first this myth narrated exclusively Futsunushi’s deed, and Takemikazuchi’s role was added to it later. Izumo region which is the scene of this myth has a close relation to the Mononobe clan, and Futsunushi was worshipped in Izumo from ancient times. There is a shrine named Kanbara near the place where a site of bead making in the middle of the Kofun period was discovered, and Iwatsutsuwo and iwatsutsume who are Futsunushi’s parents are enshrined there. Thus Katori shrine and Kanbara shrine which are dedicated to Futsunushi and his parents are located in the area where the sites of bead making which verify the controle of the Mononobe clan exist. As a result of these analyses I conclude that there is an intimate connection between Futsunushi and the Mononobe clan.