著者
砂川 秀樹
出版者
京都大学東南アジア研究所
雑誌
Kyoto Working Papers on Area Studies: G-COE Series
巻号頁・発行日
vol.74, pp.1-13, 2009-03

America, we see a widening of legalizing partnership between the same sex. However, there has not been discussion on the family that takes this into account. Moreover, in the U.S., there are increasing cases where lesbian couples procreate through artificial insemination. How can anthropological kinship studies deal with this? In Japan, there are no institutional bases for legalizing and securing same-sex couples, so that often, the system of adoption in the name of parent-child has been used between mature persons instead. Here, I will also consider how this absence of legal security and the substitutive system of adoption has affected the relationship among gay men and lesbians in Japan.
著者
荒 哲
出版者
京都大学東南アジア研究所
雑誌
東南アジア研究 (ISSN:05638682)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.1, pp.70-108, 2013

Most of the literatures on the Japanese occupation of the Philippines in the local setting tend to focus on the "achievements" of anti-Japanese guerrilla movements. Meanwhile, except for some academic works conducted by the American historian, Alfred McCoy, other aspects of the Japanese occupation in rural areas of the country—such as political strife or factionalism among the local elites—have been avoided in discussions since it has been tabooed since the end of the Asia-Pacific War. Taking the academic gap into consideration, this article examines the memory of the war among local residents in certain area of the Philippines, Leyte. Interviews were conducted in the province of Leyte, focusing on political violence or atrocities in three towns—Ormoc, Abuyog, and La Paz. This article also clarifies that war atrocities in the province were attributed not only to the Japanese occupation policy but also to the political factionalism among the local elites, regardless of their political stance toward the Japanese occupying forces. Their political ambition became quite fierce during the Japanese occupation period, leading to bloody outcomes in each municipality. After the war, the elites' violence or atrocities were "absolved" by local residents so they could establish their political and economic hegemony over the province.
著者
田子内 進
出版者
京都大学東南アジア研究所
雑誌
東南アジア研究 (ISSN:05638682)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.2, pp.145-203, 2006-09-30

この論文は国立情報学研究所の学術雑誌公開支援事業により電子化されました。
著者
栗原 浩英
出版者
京都大学東南アジア研究所
雑誌
東南アジア研究 (ISSN:05638682)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.1, pp.165-167, 2015-07-31

〈特集〉現代東南アジアにおける宗教の越境現象―タイ,ミャンマーを中心に―
著者
竹田 敏之
出版者
京都大学東南アジア研究所
雑誌
Kyoto Working Papers on Area Studies: G-COE Series
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, pp.1-29, 2009-02

The modern Arab world was born from the common bonds of the Arabic language and Arabic culture out of the process of the dismantlement of the traditional Islamic world represented by the Ottoman Empire in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The present author has been examining the formation of the modern Arab world and the establishment of Arabic as a modern national language. For Arabic to become a modern language, it was crucial to structure the grammar in a way that was clear and easy for pupils in elementary and secondary schools to understand. Adapting traditional Arabic vocabulary to a modern context was another crucial task. In this paper, we discuss how the men of letters and linguistic specialists in the Arab world tackled this essential task of adopting a modern vocabulary in the 19th and 20th Centuries. Traditionally, the adaptation of foreign concepts and vocabulary was called "ta'rīb", or "Arabization". In the classical periods, there were numerous discussions on this subject, as the Abbasid era witnessed a great period when a large number of mainly Greek scientific works were translated into Arabic. The Nahda (renewal) period in the 19th century, second only to the Abbasid precedent in its massive size, marked another great period when modern Western texts were translated into Arabic. Of the intellectuals of the Nahda period, al-Tahtawi, al-Shidyaq, and al-Yaziji were the most notable for their contribution to the "Arabization" of modern concepts and vocabularies. In this paper, their contributions are carefully cited and examined. They also called for the formation of language academies where urgent issues for the Arabic language could be addressed and discussed. In the 20th century, such academies were established in Syria, Egypt, Iraq and other Arabic-speaking countries. These academies have served as a common public forum for debates on linguistic and cultural issues that concern all Arabic speaking peoples. Ta'rīb, or the adoption of modern terms in scientific and cultural fields as well as terms used in modern daily life was, in addition to simply importing foreign words in transliterated forms, basically done by one of the following two methods. The first, ishtiqāq (derivation), which created derived words from word-roots, was proposed and used widely to produce many new words. Since this method represents one 2 of the most important characteristics of Arabic, that is, producing new words by derivation, it has been favored in the process of importing Western concepts. The second, naḥt, that is, minting a new word by putting two or three words together, was also proposed. Some scholars preferred this method and tried hard to promote it. Arabic academies spent a long time discussing the naht method of creating new words, and came to the conclusion that, while it is very useful, its function should be restricted to scientific fields. Apparently, the need to foster Arabic as the "common and authentic" language of the Arabs influenced this outcome, while the need to develop a "modern" vocabulary could be served by either of the two methods.
著者
林 育生
出版者
京都大学東南アジア研究所
雑誌
東南アジア研究 (ISSN:05638682)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.2, pp.189-216, 2016

This paper examines the relation between the organizational structure of Yiguan Dao (I-Kuan Tao) in Thailand and its members' network. This study aims at reconsidering the focus on Chinese identity of Chinese religious groups in Thailand and the supposition of “individualization” of religious practices in Thailand. Most studies on Chinese religion in Southeast Asia are concerned with Chinese communities or ethnicity but overlook the context of the host societies. However, Yiguan Dao in Thailand, with its many non-Chinese members, challenges this supposition. With economic development and social change in Thailand, people move from the countryside to urban cities and even abroad. In the context of traditional communities with high mobility, the much-divided organizational structure of Yiguan Dao offers members an opportunity to find a toehold when moving around. People who migrate for higher education, work, or overseas labor find an anchor in the trans-regional network of Yiguan Dao. This transregional network also supports people in the margins or excluded from their own communities. I argue that this challenges the supposition of “individualization” of the Thai religion.
著者
砂川 秀樹
出版者
京都大学東南アジア研究所
雑誌
Kyoto Working Papers on Area Studies: G-COE Series
巻号頁・発行日
vol.74, pp.1-13, 2009-03

America, we see a widening of legalizing partnership between the same sex. However, there has not been discussion on the family that takes this into account. Moreover, in the U.S., there are increasing cases where lesbian couples procreate through artificial insemination. How can anthropological kinship studies deal with this? In Japan, there are no institutional bases for legalizing and securing same-sex couples, so that often, the system of adoption in the name of parent-child has been used between mature persons instead. Here, I will also consider how this absence of legal security and the substitutive system of adoption has affected the relationship among gay men and lesbians in Japan.
著者
宗野 ふもと
出版者
京都大学東南アジア研究所
雑誌
Kyoto Working Papers on Area Studies: G-COE Series
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, pp.1-69, 2009-03

In 1991, Uzbekistan declared independence from the SSSR. The resultant transition from a planned economy to a market economy has had an impact on the daily life of ordinary people living in Uzbekistan. People have been experiencing increasingly severe economic conditions on a daily basis, due to the rise in both inflation and unemployment. In contrast, culturally, there has been a revival of "traditional" Uzbekistani skills in the renewed nationalistic climate that emerged following the independence. This paper analyzes the role that carpet weaving plays in the lives of the weavers themselves by focusing on a carpet factory in Khiva, a town in the Khorezm province of Uzbekistan. In Chapter I, I explain the transformation that occurred in the life of Uzbekistani women under Soviet rule. In Chapter II, I explain the historical change that occurred in the carpet industry in Khiva. In Chapter III, based on data obtained through participant observation, I describe the relationships between the weavers working at the factory. In Chapter IV, I analyze the various roles that carpet weaving plays in the lives of the weavers. The conclusion of the study can be summarized in the following points. First, weavers earn a moderate income for weaving at the factory, which they are free to spend as they wish. Second, the relationships between the weavers are comparatively equal. Third, the equal nature of the relationships forged at the factory serve as a model that they can introduce, should they move factories, or establish a new factory. Fourth, the weavers are motivated daily by the enjoyment and satisfaction they derive from weaving carpets.
著者
岡本 正明
出版者
京都大学東南アジア研究所
雑誌
東南アジア研究 (ISSN:05638682)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.1, pp.137-158, 2007-06-30

この論文は国立情報学研究所の学術雑誌公開支援事業により電子化されました。
著者
原 正一郎
出版者
京都大学東南アジア研究所
雑誌
東南アジア研究 (ISSN:05638682)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.4, pp.608-645, 2009-03-31

Area informatics is the new paradigm in area studies to facilitate accumulation and creation of knowledge in areas. In the process, a huge variety of databases such as catalogs, archives, full texts, images, movies, sounds, statistics, and so on, are being organized and published on the Web;these will be the sources of area-specific knowledge. However, it is difficult for researchers to find and access appropriate databases to retrieve resources effectively because each database is independent and dispersed on the Web; furthermore, their data structures and retrieval procedures are different.Resource Sharing System, an outcome of area informatics, is an innovative information retrieval system that has been developed to solve such problems. It is a server-side system that hides from users each database system's particular data structures and retrieval procedures by employing standard metadata and standard retrieval protocols.In this paper, area informatics is introduced through a brief overview of the relationship between area studies and information sciences. After discussing the structure of Resource Sharing System, the new notion of "metadata suites" is introduced and explained. This is a guideline to build databases to be included in Resource Sharing System. Finally, a sample metadata compiled by CIAS is presented and its availabilities discussed.
著者
宇田川 妙子
出版者
京都大学東南アジア研究所
雑誌
Kyoto Working Papers on Area Studies: G-COE Series
巻号頁・発行日
vol.73, pp.1-21, 2009-03

Developments in reproductive technologies have been considered to affect and transform not only everyday notions but also academic knowledge practices of kinship, especially anthropology of kinship. In this article I would like to reexamine what really has been changing, because reproductive technologies are now being practiced and discussed more in terms of life, specifically embryo, than of kinship. Embryo-life discourse would mean that person were deprived of any relatedness, highly individualized, and then fragmented to parts such as DNA, cells, internal organs etc.. I am afraid that this shift might alienate reproductive technologies from kinship studies. But embryo-life idiom certainly interweaves with kinship one, and this very idiom might generate some new kind of relatedness that might be unpredicted, reconstructing knowledge also of nature, technology, biological facts, body etc.. So articulating this embryo-life discourse with kinship one will give new and more radical scope to kinship studies. Here I work on this issue through the analysis of the situation in Italy, especially of the debate on the medically assisted procreation law enacted in 2004.
著者
加瀬澤 雅人
出版者
京都大学東南アジア研究所
雑誌
Kyoto Working Papers on Area Studies: G-COE Series
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, 2009-02

Ayurveda, which was originally confined to Indian subcontinent and its vicinity, is now becoming a global medical practice, spreading to different areas of the world and acquiring new meanings in theory and practice. The globalization of Ayuveda has also had a great impact on India. Many patients go there from abroad to receive treatment. In the state of Kerala, many residential institutions have sprung up for such patients, and Ayurveda is rapidly growing into a huge industry. It seems that the practice of Ayurveda in India is undergoing reconstruction through contact with the outside world. I argue how we can utilize this Indian medical knowledge to our modernized lifestyle by my research example of India, United States and Japan.
著者
鬼丸 武士
出版者
京都大学東南アジア研究所
雑誌
東南アジア研究 (ISSN:05638682)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.3, pp.303-318, 2005-12-31

この論文は国立情報学研究所の学術雑誌公開支援事業により電子化されました。
著者
笹岡 正俊
出版者
京都大学東南アジア研究所
雑誌
東南アジア研究 (ISSN:05638682)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.3, pp.377-419, 2008

This paper examines the social and cultural meanings of the subsistence consumption of game animals among mountain villagers in Seram Island, Eastern Indonesia. The community under study is highly dependent on <i>sago</i> (starch extracted from sago palm) as staple food. Sago is rich in carbohydrate but contains little protein. Game animals therefore provide an essential protein complement. Field research was carried out in a remote mountain village located in Manusela valley in central Seram where Cuscus (<i>Phalanger orientalis, Spilocuscus maculates</i>), Celebes wild boar (<i>Sus celebensis</i>) and Timor deer (<i>Cervus timorensis</i>) account for almost 90% of the protein resources consumed by villagers.<br>&emsp;The meat of these wild mammals is usually shared by close relatives and adjoining villages. The field data suggests that about 30% of cuscus and 60% of large mammals (Celebes wild boar and Timor deer) are often distributed to others. An "ethics of sharing" encourages villages to distribute wild meat since it enhances the enjoyment of consumption and brings about feelings of satisfaction and pleasure. This sense of contentment over having intimate and good inter-relationships is regarded by villagers as the ideal and desirable way of life. Moreover wild meat sharing also strengthens their collective identity as a mountain people that distinguishes them from those living in coastal areas. Failure to share leads to apprehensions of sorcery arising from jealousy and the fear of <i>malahau</i>, a kind of sanction given by ancestor spirits.