- 広島女学院大学論集 (ISSN:03748057)
- vol.10, pp.107-127, 1960-12
The characteristics of the educational policies of the Colonial Governmentof Korea,as master-minded by the governor M. Terauchi,were,as exemplified by the "Educational Ordinance of Korea",a) segregated dual educational setup [or the Japanese nationals and for the vernacular Koreans,b) imposition of the Japanese language to the reaches of the school-life of Korean children expelling the Korean vernacular to the last letters. However, even the dictatorial ruling of the Japanese Government could not avert the eventual dilemma of colonial education,i.e.,Even the minimum of education granted to the oppressed is to touch off eventually the racial awakening among the subjected." In the wake of the universal insurrection of March 1,1919 throughout the territory,so-called "civilian administration" was adoptedfor the colony. The civilan administration, however,was in no way intended to grantindependence and autonomy to the Koreans. It was to eventually convert the Korean natives into Japanese subject along the way of the least resistance...a smoother path of administering the policy of "assimilation" originally conceived and put forth. The major change in educational scope along this general shift in policy took form in the revision of the Ordinance. The Revised Educational Ordinance of Korea was put to effectby the third governor M. Saito on Feb. 2,1922. The revised ordinance differed from the former in the following major aspects: a) it united the formerly isolated two educational set-ups,one for the Japanese residents and the other for vernacular Koreans,b) equalized the standards between the comparable grades of the both systems of education,c) approvecl the institution of universities,d) established teachers colleges. According to the revision,the institions for the primary education was in aparallel system,one for the Japanese nationals speaking Japanese and anotherfor the Korean populace speaking in Korean. The Korean children who mastered enough Japanese were allowed to attend the Japanese speaking primary schools,and likewise with middle schools (for boys) and with girls'high schools. Distinction as to whether one spoke Japanese or not was made by the rateof habitual recourse to the privileged language. To be eligible,one had tobe speaking it habitually in his daily life,thus excluding those whose use ofJapanese was limited to the site of their trade or of occasional conversations.The revision also elevated the status of the senior schools for boys and senior schools for girls,both Korean,to the equivalent of the middle schools and the girls' high schools,both for the Japanese. The Imperial University of Keijo (Seoul) was founded May 15,1926,with limited number of Koreanmatriculants. The revision was,in sum,with all its apparent improvement and leniencies,to the interest of the Koreans themselves,a furthering of the imposition of the"assimi1ation" and of the Japanese language.