著者
古澤 直人 Furusawa Naoto
出版者
法政大学経済学部学会
雑誌
経済志林 (ISSN:00229741)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.80, no.3, pp.129-187, 2013-03

The accepted theory about the Heiji Disturbance has been rejected timeand again sincethe 1980s, especially in 2004 and afterwards by Mr. Yasuo Motoki. The first aim of this monograph is to test Mr. Yasuo Motoki's theory. The second is to investigate the formation of the motives behind the Yoshitomo Rebellion in the Heiji Disturbance. (1) As a result ofverifying and evaluating the historical context, the Motoki theory proved tobe mistaken. The prize to Yoshitomo should be estimated as being "too small". (2) The account in "Gukansyo (愚管抄)" of Yoshitomo is reliable, and when we consider Yoshitomo's rebellion, we should think of the problem betweenYoshitomo and Kiyomori (清盛) not as being between individuals but rather as a problem between <families>, and must fully respect "Gukansyo". (3)Speaking of the marriage issue between the Yoshitomo family, the Kiyomori family andthe Sinzei (信西) family,Yoshitomo proposed to the 3rd son of the Sinzei family, but was rejected by Sinzei. After that, Yoshitomo was immediately confronted with a marriage between the Sinzei and Kiyomori families. This incident damaged Yoshitomo's self-respectand this is presumed to have greatly increased Yoshitomo's hostility towards both Sinzei and Kiyomori. (4) Although there had been clear differences between the Yoshitomo and Kiyomori families before the Hougen Disturbance, these differences spread steadily after the Hougen Disturbance in spite of Yoshitomo's acts of courage. It is presumed that Yoshitomo held the view that the situation with regard to the Kiyomori family could not be recovered through the usual means.
著者
古澤 直人 Furusawa Naoto
出版者
法政大学経済学部学会
雑誌
経済志林 (ISSN:00229741)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.80, no.4, pp.283-337, 2013-03-15

Nobuyori Fujiwara has not been considered a powerful figure in Japan's history, but, thanks to Mr. Yasuo Motoki's reappraisal of Nobuyori since 2004, our understanding has changed and Nobuyori Fujiwara is now judged to have exerted much more power than we thought. In current academic circles, Motoki's views exert a strong influence. This paper is part of the writer's research on the rebellion, and an investigation of the motives behind the rebellion is its first aim. To test Mr. Motoki's ideas is the second. The results are as follows.(1) The reappraisal of Nobuyori Fujiwara cannot be supported.(2) In considering the rebellion, Nobuyori and Shinzei (信西) should not be considered as individuals but as <families>, and we should follow the descriptions given in "Gukansyo (愚管抄)".(3) It seems that Nobuyori felt a sense of crisis before the many able sons of the Shinzei family and when he looked at the next generation, he could not regain the status quo ante through the usual means. (4) The Shinzei family's advance into aristocratic circles evoked strong animosity, especially towards the 2nd or 3rd sons of the middle class aristocratic family. This is presumed to be the background against which Korekata (惟方) and Narichika (成親) and other participants joined forces in the rebellion.
著者
後藤 浩子 Goto Hiroko
出版者
法政大学経済学部学会
雑誌
経済志林 (ISSN:00229741)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.83, no.4, pp.105-136, 2016-03

This paper analyzes the formation of the concept of a "museum" in eighteenth-century France. During the reigns of Louis XIV and Louis XV, the Royal Academy of Paintings and Sculpture formed a professional art institution, which consisted of artists, connoisseurs and conservators. This institution worked out a plan for a Grand Gallery under the supervision of d'Angiville, who was the general director of buildings, arts and manufacturing under Louis XV. This plan, however, was suspended by the French Revolution, and an art museum was then established after a large struggle between the Gironde and the Montagne. This paper analyzes how arts professionals, borrowing their framework from the field of natural history, invented the "museum" and re-evaluated fine art created during the period of "unenlightenment".
著者
涌井 秀行 Wakui Hideyuki
出版者
法政大学経済学部学会
雑誌
経済志林 (ISSN:00229741)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.82, no.3, pp.109-142, 2015-03

2011年3月11日,東日本大震災は東北地方太平洋沿岸を総なめにした。とりわけ巨大津波は東京電力福島第1原発を襲い,全電源喪失,炉心溶融による放射能被害は取り返しのつかない環境汚染を引き起こした。今も「故郷を返せ」「海をかえせ」の怨嗟の声が渦巻いている。東日本大震災は,戦後日本のシステムの機能不全=「にっちもさっちも」いかなくなった事態のいわば句点。ではないのか。時代状況は,1923年の関東大震災後の状況と酷似していると思う。復興が叫ばれそれが進むなか,1929年の世界大恐慌は昭和恐慌となって出現し,戦前日本経済・社会は壊滅的な打撃を受けた。そして,その打開策は大陸への侵略戦争に突き進むことであった。1931年満州事変から始まる「一五年戦争」である。そうした状況下に出版された著作が,山田盛太郎『日本資本主義分析』(以下『分析』と略記)である。それは,資本主義発達の歴史叙述を意図したものではなく,副題に〈日本資本主義における再生産過程把握〉とあるように,マルクス再生産論を日本資本主義へ具体化するという方法をとり,日本資本主義の軍事的半封建的な型を析出し,階級対抗の〈必至〉と,型の分解による資本制崩壊・変革の見通しを立てた著作である。いま,日本は失われた20年のまっただ中にいて,抜け出せないでいる。その打開のために中国/韓国との緊張関係を意図的に高めながら,自民党公明党政権は軍国主義的な方向へ日本を導いていこうとしている。拙稿は酷似した状況下,山田盛太郎の『分析』と戦後分析の著作を手掛かりに,戦後日本資本主義の構造規定をし,日本の構造変革の要の問題を提起しようとするものである。山田盛太郎『分析』は,何よりも変革の課題と担い手を提起するために日本資本主義の全体構造の把握をめざし,それに成功した書物である。しかし戦後に関してはそうした1冊のまとまった著作はない。だが,筆者は,山田『分析』と戦後の著作をトレースしたうえで,戦後日本資本主義の全構造把握を試みた。山田の指摘・把握の要点は,「従属=自立論争」の渦中,1967年土地制度史学会・秋季大会で提起された「土地国有論」にある。「高度に発達した資本主義国」日本の幻想が生まれるなか,工業と農業の両立する自律=自立的国民経済(再生産)の構築を山田盛太郎は提起した。山田は,1ヘクタール程度の「零細地片私的所有=零細農耕」を改革しなければ,「膨大な中・下層農民の累積する窮乏化」を固定化し,労働者の「低賃金の基盤を温存」させることになる,と道破した。筆者の見解はこの提起が放置されたために,「失われた20年」のただなかに日本は今いるのではないか。その見える姿が,農業の無残な姿であり,食料自給率40%,民族の命を自力でつなぐことができない様である。それは農村と都市の「限界集落」,労働者の強烈な「格差」となって表れている。その変革課題,すなわち歪んで「高度に発達した資本主義」国変革の国民的課題は(1)東アジア経済圏を目指すなかでの国民経済の再構築(対米従属の揚棄)と(2)再構築の中心課題である農業の再生である。On March 11, 2011, the East Japan great earthquake hit the Pacific coast of the Tohoku region. A huge tsunami struck the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. All power supply was lost and three meltdowns occurred. Radioactivity released by this accident caused environmental pollution, from which recovery is still not possible. A great East Japan earthquake was a symbol of malfunction and structural crisis in the Japanese system after the WW2. There is a close resemblance between the situation this time and the situation after the Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923. Although people shouted for revival, the Great Depression resulted in the Showa Depression of 1929. It dealt a destructive blow to Japan's economy and society. This later resulted in Japan causing the war of aggression; a "15year war." Yamada Moritaro published his "analysis of Japanese capitalism" in this situation. His work attempts to analyze the foundations of Japanese capitalism. Using this analysis of fundamentals, he was able to elucidate the basic structure and prospects of Japanese capitalism. Japan is now in the period of the lost 20 years, and we cannot find a way to escape from this situation. For the solution, the Liberal Democratic Party and Komei Party administration is intentionally attempting to draw Japan into militarism by causing a deterioration in the relationships with China and South Korea. I hope to provide the structure of Japanese capitalism after WW2 and the important points of change. The national subject of change in a country with "highly-developed capitalism" is as follows. The first, is reconstruction of the national economy under the East Asia economic area and the second is solution of the land problems.
著者
後藤 浩子
出版者
法政大学経済学部学会
雑誌
経済志林 (ISSN:00229741)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.80, no.1, pp.1-31, 2012-09

In the research field of Irish history, William Petty (1623-87) has been seen as an English absentee who was granted land in Ireland during the Cromwellian era as a result of the Down Survey he carried out. Also, in the history of economic thought, he has been recognized as a founder of political arithmetic. Only scant attention has been paid to the relationship between his writings and his background. Recent research on Petty, however, has not only created an awareness of the importance of his concern to have Ireland improve and progress but has also given considerable attention to the context of his writings. In broad terms, his writings can be understood as a politico-economic theory of settlements for the purpose of the governance of the British Empire. This paper principally aims to analyze the formation of governmental reason (raison gouvernementale) in Petty's writings. To begin with, we define Michel Foucault's concept of governmentality (gouvernementalité) and his view on the formation of politico-economic thought in Great Britain, and compare this with the opinions of J. G. A. Pocock. Then, we analyze the influence of Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes on Petty, and, finally, we describe him as a founder of the Irish tradition of governmental reason.
著者
原田 二郎 Harada Jiro
出版者
法政大学経済学部学会
雑誌
経済志林 (ISSN:00229741)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, no.3, pp.89-109, 2011-02

It is well-known that the idea of different worlds in China (especially theworld of the dead) is very secular. The underworld is a world of governmentoffices operated through officials and documents, but it is located underground.Can we go there by the use of some tunnel?In novels written by the old intellectuals, we find that a man who was totravel to the underworld was visited by messengers from that world. Theyguided him to the world of the dead, but at that time, they did not use atunnel, even though that world is located underground. The underworld iscontiguous to the world above ground. Since it is an alien world, however,it should be separated from the human world. How can the messengersguide a human being to the underground world?According to the novels, when the messengers appear to take someoneto their home, it is a time when the man is dying, or during illness, or in adream. What do these have in common? It is a time when his eyes areclosed. By closing the eyes, the man enters into a different world. Closingthe eyes is the tunnel to the alien world.The Chinese word for the underground world is 'meikai' which means adark world. In Chinese novels, the alien world is a place that a man canreach by going through a dark tunnel, or by closing the eyes.
著者
渡部 訓 Watanabe Satoshi
出版者
法政大学経済学部学会
雑誌
経済志林 (ISSN:00229741)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.76, no.4, pp.251-286[含 英語文要旨], 2009-03

The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision was established at the end of 1974 by the central-bank governors of the G10 countries, to restore international financial system stability in the aftermath of the failure ofBankhaus Herstatt. Its first major achievement was the adoption of the"Concordat" which set up the basic principles for international cooperationin the area of banking supervision. Since the adoption of the Concordat, the Committee has held regular meetings three or four times a year to further promote internationalcooperation in banking supervision. Among its major achievements were: (1) the use of supervision on a consolidated basis; (2) the effective monitoring of banks' solvency and liquidity adequacy; (3) best practicesconcerning country risk management and supervision; and (4) the prudential control of foreign exchange operations and the role of supervision. Also, the Committee provided members with opportunities to exchange information on the following banking supervisory matters: (1) the quality of bank capital; (2) arrangements for bank audits and affiliation relationships between banks and non-banks; (3) deposit insurance arrangements; (4) the supervision of banks' trust business; and (5) the role of profit and loss analysis in bank supervision. However, doubts emerged regarding the effectiveness of international cooperation in banking supervision under the Concordat in the summer of 1982, when Italian bank Banco Ambrosiano and its Luxembourg affiliateBanco Ambrosiano Holding collapsed and the Eurocurrency market was seriously disturbed.The Committee promptly reappraised the original Concordat and finalized its revised version in May 1983. In a change from the original Concordat, under which primary responsibility for supervising foreign subsidiaries and joint ventures rested with the host authorities in the division of responsibilities, the revised Concordat incorporated the principle of consolidated supervision, emphasizing the joint and overlapping nature of parent and host authorities' supervisory responsibilities.This paper discusses international cooperation in the area of bankingsupervision promoted by the Basel Committee by reviewing a wide range of documents such as publications and reports of the Committee.Also, it focuses on the revision of Concordat in the aftermath of the failure of Banco Ambrosiano.
著者
後藤 浩子 Goto Hiroko
出版者
法政大学経済学部学会
雑誌
経済志林 (ISSN:00229741)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.82, no.1, pp.207-238, 2015-03

Compared with other European countries, the development of arts' institutes such as academies of arts and galleries was considerably slow in Great Britain. The Crown did not actively promote and support the arts until the late eighteenth century. Instead, voluntary clubs and societies of arts became places where connoisseurs, antiquaries, art amateurs, and artists mingled. This private-sector vitality can be seen as the British enlightenment movement on the arts scene and was to have a considerable influence on the features of the British museum. This paper shows how the enlightenment formed the British Museum and analyses the changes in purchases of collections and their backgrounds in the following three phases: Firstly, Sloane's collection and natural history; secondly, antiquarian collections and the Dilettanti; and thirdly, the Elgin collection and aesthetic controversy. In conclusion, the museum formed by the enlightenment is characterized by the three concepts of an institute of scientific and aesthetic instruction, a cultural asylum, and a device for aesthetic critique in the public sphere.
著者
奥山 利幸 Okuyama Toshiyuki
出版者
法政大学経済学部学会
雑誌
経済志林 (ISSN:00229741)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.74, no.1, pp.143-168, 2006-08

Baumgardner (1988), Kim (1989), and Weitzman (1994) have attemptedat proving Adam Smith Theorem, but their models are based uponimperfections. In this paper, I show what parts of their theories do anddo not reconcile with Adam Smith's theory of economic growth basedon the division of labor in the industries, and whether or not Smith'stheory contradicts the neoclassical paradigm.
著者
渡部 亮 Watabe Ryo
出版者
法政大学経済学部学会
雑誌
経済志林 (ISSN:00229741)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.77, no.3, pp.25-57, 2010-03

A key question regarding the international financial crisis of 2007-08 is whether it was mainly due to market failure or government failure. Regarding the former, there were well-known issues which had already been encountered in previous business cycles, including debt deflation andthe manic-depressive nature of asset markets, which therefore had been widely investigated by economists. But there were also new experiences such as the combination of securitization and credit derivatives in the socalled"shadow banking system." The expansion of non-banking financial sectors coupled with the networking economy led to creation of various sources of new credit which were not adequately monitored by regulatory authorities, giving rise to a new type of systemic risk. As for governmentfailure, collusive inter-relations between bankers on one hand, and law makers and government officials on the other, encouraged financial deregulations and caused unprecedented excesses in the banking sector.