著者
古澤 直人 Furusawa Naoto
出版者
法政大学経済学部学会
雑誌
経済志林 (ISSN:00229741)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.80, no.3, pp.129-187, 2013-03

The accepted theory about the Heiji Disturbance has been rejected timeand again sincethe 1980s, especially in 2004 and afterwards by Mr. Yasuo Motoki. The first aim of this monograph is to test Mr. Yasuo Motoki's theory. The second is to investigate the formation of the motives behind the Yoshitomo Rebellion in the Heiji Disturbance. (1) As a result ofverifying and evaluating the historical context, the Motoki theory proved tobe mistaken. The prize to Yoshitomo should be estimated as being "too small". (2) The account in "Gukansyo (愚管抄)" of Yoshitomo is reliable, and when we consider Yoshitomo's rebellion, we should think of the problem betweenYoshitomo and Kiyomori (清盛) not as being between individuals but rather as a problem between <families>, and must fully respect "Gukansyo". (3)Speaking of the marriage issue between the Yoshitomo family, the Kiyomori family andthe Sinzei (信西) family,Yoshitomo proposed to the 3rd son of the Sinzei family, but was rejected by Sinzei. After that, Yoshitomo was immediately confronted with a marriage between the Sinzei and Kiyomori families. This incident damaged Yoshitomo's self-respectand this is presumed to have greatly increased Yoshitomo's hostility towards both Sinzei and Kiyomori. (4) Although there had been clear differences between the Yoshitomo and Kiyomori families before the Hougen Disturbance, these differences spread steadily after the Hougen Disturbance in spite of Yoshitomo's acts of courage. It is presumed that Yoshitomo held the view that the situation with regard to the Kiyomori family could not be recovered through the usual means.
著者
古澤 直人 Furusawa Naoto
出版者
法政大学経済学部学会
雑誌
経済志林 (ISSN:00229741)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.80, no.4, pp.283-337, 2013-03-15

Nobuyori Fujiwara has not been considered a powerful figure in Japan's history, but, thanks to Mr. Yasuo Motoki's reappraisal of Nobuyori since 2004, our understanding has changed and Nobuyori Fujiwara is now judged to have exerted much more power than we thought. In current academic circles, Motoki's views exert a strong influence. This paper is part of the writer's research on the rebellion, and an investigation of the motives behind the rebellion is its first aim. To test Mr. Motoki's ideas is the second. The results are as follows.(1) The reappraisal of Nobuyori Fujiwara cannot be supported.(2) In considering the rebellion, Nobuyori and Shinzei (信西) should not be considered as individuals but as <families>, and we should follow the descriptions given in "Gukansyo (愚管抄)".(3) It seems that Nobuyori felt a sense of crisis before the many able sons of the Shinzei family and when he looked at the next generation, he could not regain the status quo ante through the usual means. (4) The Shinzei family's advance into aristocratic circles evoked strong animosity, especially towards the 2nd or 3rd sons of the middle class aristocratic family. This is presumed to be the background against which Korekata (惟方) and Narichika (成親) and other participants joined forces in the rebellion.
著者
後藤 浩子 Goto Hiroko
出版者
法政大学経済学部学会
雑誌
経済志林 (ISSN:00229741)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.83, no.4, pp.105-136, 2016-03

This paper analyzes the formation of the concept of a "museum" in eighteenth-century France. During the reigns of Louis XIV and Louis XV, the Royal Academy of Paintings and Sculpture formed a professional art institution, which consisted of artists, connoisseurs and conservators. This institution worked out a plan for a Grand Gallery under the supervision of d'Angiville, who was the general director of buildings, arts and manufacturing under Louis XV. This plan, however, was suspended by the French Revolution, and an art museum was then established after a large struggle between the Gironde and the Montagne. This paper analyzes how arts professionals, borrowing their framework from the field of natural history, invented the "museum" and re-evaluated fine art created during the period of "unenlightenment".
著者
涌井 秀行 Wakui Hideyuki
出版者
法政大学経済学部学会
雑誌
経済志林 (ISSN:00229741)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.82, no.3, pp.109-142, 2015-03

2011年3月11日,東日本大震災は東北地方太平洋沿岸を総なめにした。とりわけ巨大津波は東京電力福島第1原発を襲い,全電源喪失,炉心溶融による放射能被害は取り返しのつかない環境汚染を引き起こした。今も「故郷を返せ」「海をかえせ」の怨嗟の声が渦巻いている。東日本大震災は,戦後日本のシステムの機能不全=「にっちもさっちも」いかなくなった事態のいわば句点。ではないのか。時代状況は,1923年の関東大震災後の状況と酷似していると思う。復興が叫ばれそれが進むなか,1929年の世界大恐慌は昭和恐慌となって出現し,戦前日本経済・社会は壊滅的な打撃を受けた。そして,その打開策は大陸への侵略戦争に突き進むことであった。1931年満州事変から始まる「一五年戦争」である。そうした状況下に出版された著作が,山田盛太郎『日本資本主義分析』(以下『分析』と略記)である。それは,資本主義発達の歴史叙述を意図したものではなく,副題に〈日本資本主義における再生産過程把握〉とあるように,マルクス再生産論を日本資本主義へ具体化するという方法をとり,日本資本主義の軍事的半封建的な型を析出し,階級対抗の〈必至〉と,型の分解による資本制崩壊・変革の見通しを立てた著作である。いま,日本は失われた20年のまっただ中にいて,抜け出せないでいる。その打開のために中国/韓国との緊張関係を意図的に高めながら,自民党公明党政権は軍国主義的な方向へ日本を導いていこうとしている。拙稿は酷似した状況下,山田盛太郎の『分析』と戦後分析の著作を手掛かりに,戦後日本資本主義の構造規定をし,日本の構造変革の要の問題を提起しようとするものである。山田盛太郎『分析』は,何よりも変革の課題と担い手を提起するために日本資本主義の全体構造の把握をめざし,それに成功した書物である。しかし戦後に関してはそうした1冊のまとまった著作はない。だが,筆者は,山田『分析』と戦後の著作をトレースしたうえで,戦後日本資本主義の全構造把握を試みた。山田の指摘・把握の要点は,「従属=自立論争」の渦中,1967年土地制度史学会・秋季大会で提起された「土地国有論」にある。「高度に発達した資本主義国」日本の幻想が生まれるなか,工業と農業の両立する自律=自立的国民経済(再生産)の構築を山田盛太郎は提起した。山田は,1ヘクタール程度の「零細地片私的所有=零細農耕」を改革しなければ,「膨大な中・下層農民の累積する窮乏化」を固定化し,労働者の「低賃金の基盤を温存」させることになる,と道破した。筆者の見解はこの提起が放置されたために,「失われた20年」のただなかに日本は今いるのではないか。その見える姿が,農業の無残な姿であり,食料自給率40%,民族の命を自力でつなぐことができない様である。それは農村と都市の「限界集落」,労働者の強烈な「格差」となって表れている。その変革課題,すなわち歪んで「高度に発達した資本主義」国変革の国民的課題は(1)東アジア経済圏を目指すなかでの国民経済の再構築(対米従属の揚棄)と(2)再構築の中心課題である農業の再生である。On March 11, 2011, the East Japan great earthquake hit the Pacific coast of the Tohoku region. A huge tsunami struck the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. All power supply was lost and three meltdowns occurred. Radioactivity released by this accident caused environmental pollution, from which recovery is still not possible. A great East Japan earthquake was a symbol of malfunction and structural crisis in the Japanese system after the WW2. There is a close resemblance between the situation this time and the situation after the Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923. Although people shouted for revival, the Great Depression resulted in the Showa Depression of 1929. It dealt a destructive blow to Japan's economy and society. This later resulted in Japan causing the war of aggression; a "15year war." Yamada Moritaro published his "analysis of Japanese capitalism" in this situation. His work attempts to analyze the foundations of Japanese capitalism. Using this analysis of fundamentals, he was able to elucidate the basic structure and prospects of Japanese capitalism. Japan is now in the period of the lost 20 years, and we cannot find a way to escape from this situation. For the solution, the Liberal Democratic Party and Komei Party administration is intentionally attempting to draw Japan into militarism by causing a deterioration in the relationships with China and South Korea. I hope to provide the structure of Japanese capitalism after WW2 and the important points of change. The national subject of change in a country with "highly-developed capitalism" is as follows. The first, is reconstruction of the national economy under the East Asia economic area and the second is solution of the land problems.
著者
阿部 正昭
出版者
法政大学
雑誌
経済志林 (ISSN:00229741)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.69, no.4, pp.323-351, 2002-03-28
被引用文献数
1 or 0
著者
中山 幹夫
出版者
法政大学
雑誌
経済志林 (ISSN:00229741)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.63, no.1, pp.55-108, 1995

経済分析のための数学的方法として定着しているゲーム理論について,その誕生と初期の理論展開を学説史的に展望している.
著者
山本 健兒
出版者
法政大学
雑誌
経済志林 (ISSN:00229741)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.72, no.4, pp.87-180, 2005-03-07

The purpose of this paper is to compare Munich and Berlin within the framework of Manuel Castell's theoretical thinking on space of flows and space of places. It is said that intermetropolitan competition for international business location has become severer and polarization as its byproduct is more and more apparent within the urban space under the globalization. These phenomena correspond to the concepts of space of flows and space of places. The most important spatial unit in the globalized space of flows is a metropolis as a node of information flows, capital flows, material flows, and flows of human beings. It is decision-making of corporations and governments that determines the quantity and characteristics of these flows. In the space of flows, metropolises gradually become to lose their own specificity, and they become to be stratified. Nevertheless, each metropolis continues to have differenciated and diversified places within itself, so that we can consider it a space of places, all of which show their own specificity respectively. Therefore, a metropolis can show its own specific feature even under the pressure of power of space of flows. As well as a number of European metropolises, both Munich and Berlin are the second important metropolises following London and Paris within the space of flows in the European scale. This is illustrated in the internet connections, media industry, innovative capability, flight passengers, location of international trade fairs, location of headquarters of big corporations, and evaluation as business location by big multinational corporations. Especially Munich is remarkable as a node of flows in the European scale and it exceeds Berlin in this sense, although it is not the capital of the nation state. The present author does not deal with all places in the both metropolises, but focuses on a problem district respectively. These problem districts are characterized with poverty and its related phenomena such as concentrations of unemployment, households of one parent and his/her children, migrant minorities and so on. That means that a new problem under globalization appears as some form of exclusion in the problem districts. Their locations and characteristics are, however, not the same between Berlin and Munich. Even within a same metroplis, there are various problem districts. In Berlin, most of them appear in the inner city, which were constructed in the late 19th century as a mixed district of dwellings, factories and commercial functions. The typical case is Kreuzberg, especially the so-called SO 36 district and the quarter around Kottbusser Tor. On the other hand, the phenomena in Munich are more apparent at the outer districts than at the inner city. A large number of the so-called social dwellings were developed on a large scale after World War II in the Munich outskirts. But there is also a problem district in the inner city of Munich, Schwanthalerhöhe, the construction history of which resembles Kreuzberg, and Berlin also has a problem district in the outskirts, where a large estate of high-rising apartment buildings were constructed in the 1970s and the 1980s under the regime of socialist government of German Democratic Republic. All the problem districts have their own characteristics respectively. Therefore, we can find variety of places within each metropolis, even if we focus only on the problem districts. The city authority, various non-profit organizations and people in the problem districts have tried to renovate the physical conditions and revitalize the social atmosphere in the problem districts both in Munich and Berlin. It is worthy of mention that citizens' participation including migrant minorities without full citizenship are considered important and practiced in the both metropolises. In the 1980s and the 1990s, careful renovation was promoted in Kreuzberg. And in 1999, the so-called quarter management was launched in 15 quarters in Berlin in the framework of the cooperative task between the federal government and the Land government. This project is supported by EU. The quarter around Kottbusser Tor in Kreuzberg is one of them. On the other hand, the so-called careful renovation has been continued in Schwanthalerhöhe of Munich since the 1970s. In the both cases, maintenance of intra-district variety in some senses and participation of the local people in the project is taken into account as key factors for the regeneration and revitalization of the problem districts and quarters. In this point, we can see important characteristics of European urban society. Nevertheless, Munich seems to be more successful also in the revitalization of the problem district than Berlin. The present author does not clarify the reason for it in this paper. He does not also discuss results and problems of the quarter management in Berlin. In order to conduct the research further, it should be important to shed light on the place identity of the local people. We should ask if it is possible for different groups in a locale to feel common identity or sense of belonging to a place. We cannot be optimistic, if we face the situation of the quarter around Kottbusser Tor.
著者
後藤 浩子
出版者
法政大学経済学部学会
雑誌
経済志林 (ISSN:00229741)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.80, no.1, pp.1-31, 2012-09

In the research field of Irish history, William Petty (1623-87) has been seen as an English absentee who was granted land in Ireland during the Cromwellian era as a result of the Down Survey he carried out. Also, in the history of economic thought, he has been recognized as a founder of political arithmetic. Only scant attention has been paid to the relationship between his writings and his background. Recent research on Petty, however, has not only created an awareness of the importance of his concern to have Ireland improve and progress but has also given considerable attention to the context of his writings. In broad terms, his writings can be understood as a politico-economic theory of settlements for the purpose of the governance of the British Empire. This paper principally aims to analyze the formation of governmental reason (raison gouvernementale) in Petty's writings. To begin with, we define Michel Foucault's concept of governmentality (gouvernementalité) and his view on the formation of politico-economic thought in Great Britain, and compare this with the opinions of J. G. A. Pocock. Then, we analyze the influence of Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes on Petty, and, finally, we describe him as a founder of the Irish tradition of governmental reason.
著者
原田 二郎 Harada Jiro
出版者
法政大学経済学部学会
雑誌
経済志林 (ISSN:00229741)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, no.3, pp.89-109, 2011-02

It is well-known that the idea of different worlds in China (especially theworld of the dead) is very secular. The underworld is a world of governmentoffices operated through officials and documents, but it is located underground.Can we go there by the use of some tunnel?In novels written by the old intellectuals, we find that a man who was totravel to the underworld was visited by messengers from that world. Theyguided him to the world of the dead, but at that time, they did not use atunnel, even though that world is located underground. The underworld iscontiguous to the world above ground. Since it is an alien world, however,it should be separated from the human world. How can the messengersguide a human being to the underground world?According to the novels, when the messengers appear to take someoneto their home, it is a time when the man is dying, or during illness, or in adream. What do these have in common? It is a time when his eyes areclosed. By closing the eyes, the man enters into a different world. Closingthe eyes is the tunnel to the alien world.The Chinese word for the underground world is 'meikai' which means adark world. In Chinese novels, the alien world is a place that a man canreach by going through a dark tunnel, or by closing the eyes.
著者
山本 健兒
出版者
法政大学
雑誌
経済志林 (ISSN:00229741)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.69, no.4, pp.271-302, 2002-03-28
被引用文献数
3 or 0

The chief aim of this paper is a reexamination, within a Japanese context, of the "learning region" concept. Since the mid l990s, this concept has often been employed in the economic geography of the Western World, where it generally focuses upon industrial clusters of high-technology small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) under the pressure of economic globalization. However, the same concept can also be applied to the middle-tech and low-tech manufacturing industries in the l970s. A concrete instance is aptly provided by the Suwa-Okaya district of Nagano Prefecture in Japan. In this region, after World War II, precision machine industry was developed, followed in the l970s by micro-electronics industry for office instruments; together, both SMEs and larger corporations learned technologies and skills of NC (numerically controlled) machines with and from each other. The Precision Technology Research Institute of Nagano Prefecture played an important role for the establishment of the NC Technology Research Association, in which over fifty corporations took part; more than half of them were based in the Suwa-Okaya district. Through the activities of the association, participants could obtain knowledge of NC machines. At first, the skills accumulated in individual firms as tacit knowledge, which, in the course of association activities, was transformed to codified knowledge. With the collaboration of a machine manufacturer located outside the district, one of the participating SMEs contributed to innovations of NC lathe technology. In l982, due to diffusion and skill development among SMEs in Nagano Prefecture, the association was dissolved. But the same year saw the birth of its successor: a new association, which continues its activity today. The sustainability of the Suwa-Okaya district as an industrial cluster can, at least in part, be attributed to the network of local corporations.
著者
山本 有造
出版者
法政大学
雑誌
経済志林 (ISSN:00229741)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.73, no.4, pp.97-110, 2006-03-03

What kind of special features did "the Japanese Colonial Empire"have in the general history of modern colonial empires?In recent years, we can find new developments in the research of thehistory of modern empires and the history of Japanese empire. However,the trend has not yet resulted in the stage of discussing specialfeatures from a comparative-historical view, relating to the "Japaneseempire" to general "empires". As a first step, the purpose of this paperis to look back upon the history of the colonial rule of Japan over about50 years and to summarize some special features. As we reach 60 yearsafter the defeat of Japan, it must be worth showing such a trial todiscuss the source of Japan's influence on modern East Asian history.We discuss special features found in the rule of modern Japanesecolonial empire, summarizing the four points below: (1) Late-comingimperialism, (2) Neighbor invasive imperialism, (3) Inland assimilationprinciple, and (4) Industrial development principle.
著者
渡部 訓 Watanabe Satoshi
出版者
法政大学経済学部学会
雑誌
経済志林 (ISSN:00229741)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.76, no.4, pp.251-286[含 英語文要旨], 2009-03

The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision was established at the end of 1974 by the central-bank governors of the G10 countries, to restore international financial system stability in the aftermath of the failure ofBankhaus Herstatt. Its first major achievement was the adoption of the"Concordat" which set up the basic principles for international cooperationin the area of banking supervision. Since the adoption of the Concordat, the Committee has held regular meetings three or four times a year to further promote internationalcooperation in banking supervision. Among its major achievements were: (1) the use of supervision on a consolidated basis; (2) the effective monitoring of banks' solvency and liquidity adequacy; (3) best practicesconcerning country risk management and supervision; and (4) the prudential control of foreign exchange operations and the role of supervision. Also, the Committee provided members with opportunities to exchange information on the following banking supervisory matters: (1) the quality of bank capital; (2) arrangements for bank audits and affiliation relationships between banks and non-banks; (3) deposit insurance arrangements; (4) the supervision of banks' trust business; and (5) the role of profit and loss analysis in bank supervision. However, doubts emerged regarding the effectiveness of international cooperation in banking supervision under the Concordat in the summer of 1982, when Italian bank Banco Ambrosiano and its Luxembourg affiliateBanco Ambrosiano Holding collapsed and the Eurocurrency market was seriously disturbed.The Committee promptly reappraised the original Concordat and finalized its revised version in May 1983. In a change from the original Concordat, under which primary responsibility for supervising foreign subsidiaries and joint ventures rested with the host authorities in the division of responsibilities, the revised Concordat incorporated the principle of consolidated supervision, emphasizing the joint and overlapping nature of parent and host authorities' supervisory responsibilities.This paper discusses international cooperation in the area of bankingsupervision promoted by the Basel Committee by reviewing a wide range of documents such as publications and reports of the Committee.Also, it focuses on the revision of Concordat in the aftermath of the failure of Banco Ambrosiano.
著者
後藤 浩子 Goto Hiroko
出版者
法政大学経済学部学会
雑誌
経済志林 (ISSN:00229741)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.82, no.1, pp.207-238, 2015-03

Compared with other European countries, the development of arts' institutes such as academies of arts and galleries was considerably slow in Great Britain. The Crown did not actively promote and support the arts until the late eighteenth century. Instead, voluntary clubs and societies of arts became places where connoisseurs, antiquaries, art amateurs, and artists mingled. This private-sector vitality can be seen as the British enlightenment movement on the arts scene and was to have a considerable influence on the features of the British museum. This paper shows how the enlightenment formed the British Museum and analyses the changes in purchases of collections and their backgrounds in the following three phases: Firstly, Sloane's collection and natural history; secondly, antiquarian collections and the Dilettanti; and thirdly, the Elgin collection and aesthetic controversy. In conclusion, the museum formed by the enlightenment is characterized by the three concepts of an institute of scientific and aesthetic instruction, a cultural asylum, and a device for aesthetic critique in the public sphere.
著者
奥山 利幸 Okuyama Toshiyuki
出版者
法政大学経済学部学会
雑誌
経済志林 (ISSN:00229741)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.74, no.1, pp.143-168, 2006-08

Baumgardner (1988), Kim (1989), and Weitzman (1994) have attemptedat proving Adam Smith Theorem, but their models are based uponimperfections. In this paper, I show what parts of their theories do anddo not reconcile with Adam Smith's theory of economic growth basedon the division of labor in the industries, and whether or not Smith'stheory contradicts the neoclassical paradigm.
著者
大谷 禎之介
出版者
法政大学
雑誌
経済志林 (ISSN:00229741)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.72, no.4, pp.1-66, 2005-03-07

Since 1982 I have intermittently published in this Journal a series of articles, a consistent aim of which should be clear and extremely specific: that is to put Marx's manuscript for Ch. 5 of Book III of "Capital" under scrutiny. To start with, I translated the manuscript into Japanese, deciphering its complex structures. In order for my decipherment of it to be scientifically verifiable I added to the translation my own comments and annotations based on my analytical exploration of the manuscript as well as the third Volume of Engels' edition of "Capital". Marx's manuscript was published as vol. II/4.2. of the MEGA in 1993. Since then, I exploited the published version of MEGA-volume as the basis of my translation and also carried the translation of its scientific commentary. This series completed in 2002. In this article I would recapitulate the main knowledge and observations acquired through my own examinations of the construction of Ch. 5 and the contents of its respective components which nevertheless could hardly be grasped from Engels' edition. Following point, amongst many, is essential and therefore to be emphasized: By even now some researchers, almost all of who are relying on Engels' edition, think that the theoretical development in Ch. 5 except for the last historical observation consists of the first part which deals with the theory of interest-bearing capital and the second part which inquires into the credit and banking system if not comprehensively provided. But readers, if going through Marx's manuscript, could and should have become aware that the subject of the whole Ch. 5 is entirely tied to the interest-bearing capital. In the first four sections of this chapter Marx conceptually grasps the interest-bearing capital and then, having based himself on his conceptual examinations established in the previous four sections, he, in the section five, investigates the interest-bearing capital under the credit and banking system, i.e. "monied capital". Therefore the analysis of the credit and banking system itself should be interpreted as remaining totally outside "Capital", as Marx himself said at the beginning of the latter section of the manuscript: "An analysis of the credit and banking system... lies beyond our plan."