著者
和泉 浩
出版者
東北社会学会
雑誌
社会学年報 (ISSN:02873133)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, pp.127-147, 2007-07-20 (Released:2013-10-23)
参考文献数
15

本稿の目的は,ウェーバーの『音楽社会学』における西洋近代音楽についての分析の特徴と含意を,合理化のパラドクスという点から明らかにするとともに,『音楽社会学』の潜在的テーマである「音楽的聴覚」の問題の重要性を示すことにある. ウェーバーの音楽社会学の課題は,なぜ西洋近代に合理的和声音楽が誕生したのかを明らかにすることにある.ウェーバーは,都市についての研究と同様に,この課題を古代ギリシアと中世・ルネサンスの音楽の比較から探求した.そして『音楽社会学』では,古代ギリシアと異なるかたちでルネサンス以降進展した近代音楽の合理化が,結果的に古代ギリシア的なものの復活に至る合理化のパラドキシカルな展開が描き出されている. 『音楽社会学』では,『プロテスタンティズムの倫理と資本主義の精神』での合理化についての考察とは異なり,複数の合理化の方向の関係により生じる合理化のパラドクスが問題になっている.また合理化にアプローチする方法も異なっており,『音楽社会学』では,音楽についての理念や生活態度ではなく,音楽の「技術」に焦点があてられている.この結果,ウェーバーの音楽社会学では,音楽と社会の関係よりむしろ,音楽の合理化の自律的な過程が描き出される.しかし,音楽の技術と表裏一体をなす,社会的に形成される「音楽的聴覚」の問題が,『音楽社会学』の潜在的テーマをなしている.
著者
和泉 浩 IZUMI Hiroshi
出版者
秋田大学教育文化学部
雑誌
秋田大学教育文化学部研究紀要 人文科学・社会科学 = MEMOIRS OF FACULTY OF EDUCATION AND HUMAN STUDIES AKITA UNIVERSITY HUMANITIES & SOCIAL SCIENCES (ISSN:24334979)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.74, pp.13-25, 2019-03-01

This article reconsiders relatively recent critical arguments about Raymond Murray Schafer's concept of 'soundscape', especially the arguments of two articles: Ari Y. Kelman (2010) 'Rethinking the Soundscape: A Critical Genealogy of a Key Term in Sound Studies' and Stefan Helmreich (2010) 'Listening against Soundscapes', in order to re-explore 'rich vein of scholarship of sound' (Kelman) in the concept of soundscape.Attending 'to the invention of Schafer's idea in order to wrestle with its redefinition', Kelman criticizes Schafer's bias against noise and his confusion of sound and listening, but Kelman does not consider deeply the definition of soundscape. This article reconsiders the definition of soundscape through rethinking Schafer's explanation in The Tuning the World, Helmreich's discussions of 'soundscape', 'immersion' and 'transduction', Steven Feld's 'acoustemology', Tim Ingold's 'against soundscape', and Paul Rodaway's 'aural geography', in that it situates the concept of soundscape in developments of studies on sound. This article also makes clear the concept of soundscape is not in conflicts with 'transduction', 'acoustemology' and 'immersion', and it needs to be connected with a central and traditional problem of social theories: the relationships between the individual and the social, and depending on how to make this connection, there are possibilities to develop various conceptions of soundscapes.
著者
和泉 浩 IZUMI Hiroshi
出版者
秋田大学教育文化学部
雑誌
秋田大学教育文化学部研究紀要. 人文科学・社会科学自然科学 (ISSN:1348527X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.70, pp.9-20, 2015-03-01

Despite the power of social capital and community resilience after disasters has been recognized, the postdisasterrecoveries and disaster mitigations after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami have still continuedto focus resources on physical infrastructures, based almost exclusively on data and knowledge of natural sciences.Against this backdrop or below the surface many sociological and ethnological studies on the Great East JapanEarthquake and Tsunami shed light on effective functioning of local communities and their social capital, or socialnetworks for the post-disaster recoveries and disaster mitigations; local community enhances individual andcommunity resilience. Some literatures point out the importance of local cultures and their traditional rituals orbuild environments and spaces of the rituals, and argue for the need for the “archive” of their memories because ofthe literally devastating effects of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami on local communities and theirmembers, but they mainly select the cultural masterpieces of local community – macro-memory or Memory ofcommunity, like museums and galleries select and collect the masterpieces of humankind. This paper theoreticallyexplores the relationships among social, collective memories, traditional rituals of local communities and socialcapital, and unveils the important functions of collective micro-memories of everyday life and social networks,which are too familiar to speak about, intentionally memorize – unspoken and pre-conscious, but one of the keyfactors for social capital and community resilience.
著者
和泉 浩 IZUMI Hiroshi
出版者
秋田大学教育文化学部
雑誌
秋田大学教育文化学部研究紀要 人文科学・社会科学 = MEMOIRS OF FACULTY OF EDUCATION AND HUMAN STUDIES AKITA UNIVERSITY HUMANITIES & SOCIAL SCIENCES (ISSN:24334979)
巻号頁・発行日
no.74, pp.13-25, 2019-03-01

This article reconsiders relatively recent critical arguments about Raymond Murray Schafer's concept of 'soundscape', especially the arguments of two articles: Ari Y. Kelman (2010) 'Rethinking the Soundscape: A Critical Genealogy of a Key Term in Sound Studies' and Stefan Helmreich (2010) 'Listening against Soundscapes', in order to re-explore 'rich vein of scholarship of sound' (Kelman) in the concept of soundscape.Attending 'to the invention of Schafer's idea in order to wrestle with its redefinition', Kelman criticizes Schafer's bias against noise and his confusion of sound and listening, but Kelman does not consider deeply the definition of soundscape. This article reconsiders the definition of soundscape through rethinking Schafer's explanation in The Tuning the World, Helmreich's discussions of 'soundscape', 'immersion' and 'transduction', Steven Feld's 'acoustemology', Tim Ingold's 'against soundscape', and Paul Rodaway's 'aural geography', in that it situates the concept of soundscape in developments of studies on sound. This article also makes clear the concept of soundscape is not in conflicts with 'transduction', 'acoustemology' and 'immersion', and it needs to be connected with a central and traditional problem of social theories: the relationships between the individual and the social, and depending on how to make this connection, there are possibilities to develop various conceptions of soundscapes.
著者
和泉 浩
出版者
秋田大学
雑誌
秋田大学教育文化学部研究紀要. 人文科学・社会科学 (ISSN:1348527X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, pp.31-60, 2013-03-31

The purpose of this paper is to consider the relations between the reproduction of modern rationalized social system and its resistant, differentiating or dissimilating components through two famous authors' two famous works of the same period. Michel de Certeau's L'invention du quotidian: Arts de faire (published in 1980, English title: "the Practice of Everyday Life") and Paul Willis's Learning to Labour: How Working Class Kids get Working Class Jobs (published in 1977). In L'invention du quotidian de Certeau tries to delineate the 'creativity' of 'users' or consumers in everyday practice, who are 'commonly assumed to be passive and guided by established rules.' According to de Certeau, 'users' not only consume various products – from commodity to urban space – of modern rationalized and expansionistic technocracy and capitalism, but also bricolent(bricolage) those products in their practices of everyday life where users dissimilate or transgress the control, 'discipline' and plans of producers and technocrats, in which de Certeau finds out the 'creativity' of 'users' and the resistant moments with in the existing systems of dominance relationships of 'elite' and 'popular culture.' In Learning to Labour , Willis tries to identify the resistant moments in working class culture, especially 'failed' working class kids and their counter-school culture which oppose to authorities of school, teachers and academic carrier-based pseudo egalitarian institutions and society. He expounds on the reproductive processes of 'working class kids get working class jobs, because of various 'limitations' which distort the 'penetrations' of working class culture which are, he thinks, 'potential materials…for a thoroughly critical analysis of society and political action for the creation of alternatives.' Willis situates 'creativity' of working class culture in their collective level of the 'penetrations' which exist like Freudian 'unconsciousness' and cannot be seized in utterance or conscious level of working class people, while de Certeau finds the creativity of resistance in everyday surface level practices like speaking, walking, cooking. This paper has scrutinized the differences between de Certeau,'s and Willis's ideas of resistant alternative 'creativity' in everyday practices and popular culture, and their positions within the 'reproduction' of modern capitalist class society.
著者
和泉 浩 IZUMI Hiroshi
出版者
秋田大学教育文化学部
雑誌
秋田大学教育文化学部研究紀要. 人文科学・社会科学自然科学 (ISSN:1348527X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.71, pp.25-36, 2016-03-01

There has been a flurry of studies on senses, sound, hearing and listening, alongside of studies on body, inhumanities and social sciences since the early 1990s. These studies reconsider the modern visualist paradigm,hegemony of vision and modernity through excavating other senses ― hearing, touch, taste, smell ― in varioussocial, historical and cultural contexts, therefore they share aims, concepts and theoretical frameworks with postmodernism,post-structuralism, gender studies, queer studies, post-colonialism, spatial-turn. This paper outlines thesociological perspective on relationships between senses and society, sees viewpoints of recent studies on senses,especially sound studies in a sociological light, and sheds light on the problems relating to ‘alternative’ ways ofthinking and ‘reflexivity’ ― positioning and accounting for own positions and questions ― which is insisted as animportant point of sensuous scholarship and sound studies. Including this abstract, studies on senses are obsessedwith visualist concepts and metaphors, and ‘alternative’ ways of thinking and ‘reflexivity’ should confront thisthorny problem which might not be solved by constructivism, contextualism and thought of ‘in-betweenness’which apparently deny dualisms. This paper also points out that sound studies must take seriously Judith Butler’sassertion: ‘It would make no sense to define gender as the cultural interpretation of sex, if sex itself is a genderedcategory’, in order to reconsider dualisms; nature and society, sound and auditory culture, body (matter) andsociety, and sound studies should reflect its naturalistic name.
著者
和泉 浩 IZUMI Hiroshi
出版者
秋田大学教育文化学部
雑誌
秋田大学教育文化学部研究紀要 人文科学・社会科学 = Memoirs of Faculty of Education and Human Studies, Akita University. The humanities & the social sciences (ISSN:24334979)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.73, pp.11-21, 2018-02-23

The purpose of this paper is to consider Tim Ingold’s four objections to the concept of The purpose of this paper is to consider Tim Ingold’s four objections to the concept of soundscape, in order to reconsider the concept of soundscape in relation to the concepts of light, sound, landscape, related to sound studies, study of visual culture and auditory culture. Ingold thinks ‘the concept of sound scape would be better abandoned’ based on the four reasons. This paper points out six problems with Ingold’s objections. (1) Ingold defines sound as ‘I can hear’ depending on Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenology and he also situates sound as ‘medium’, but he does not explain the relationship between Merleau-Ponty’s ‘il y a’ and James Gibson’s ‘medium’. ‘il y a’ and ‘medium’ are different. (2) Phenomenological existential conditions are fundamental in a sense, but cultural, social and historical contexts or conditions of sound, light and ontology should be considered. (3) Sound and light have different aspects. (4) His strong nostalgia for nature and past causes narrowing experiences of sound and soundscape. (5) Although he criticizes the confusion of ‘scape’ with ‘scope’, he confuses them in his argument. (6) One can explain nothing in the pure fluxes of medium, distinctions must be made to say something.oundscape, in order to reconsider the concept of soundscape in relation to the concepts of light, sound, landscape, related to sound studies, study of visual culture and auditory culture. Ingold thinks ‘the concept of sound scape would be better abandoned’ based on the four reasons. This paper points out six problems with Ingold’s objections. (1) Ingold defines sound as ‘I can hear’ depending on Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenology and he also situates sound as ‘medium’, but he does not explain the relationship between Merleau-Ponty’s ‘il y a’ and James Gibson’s ‘medium’. ‘il y a’ and ‘medium’ are different. (2) Phenomenological existential conditions are fundamental in a sense, but cultural, social and historical contexts or conditions of sound, light and ontology should be considered. (3) Sound and light have different aspects. (4) His strong nostalgia for nature and past causes narrowing experiences of sound and soundscape. (5) Although he criticizes the confusion of ‘scape’ with ‘scope’, he confuses them in his argument. (6) One can explain nothing in the pure fluxes of medium, distinctions must be made to say something.

1 0 0 0 OA 音楽の合理化

著者
和泉 浩
出版者
日本社会学会
雑誌
社会学評論 (ISSN:00215414)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.1, pp.54-69, 2002-06-30 (Released:2009-10-19)
参考文献数
21

音楽という芸術を, 合理化の視点からとらえることはできるのであろうか.もしそれが可能であるとすれば, 音楽の合理化の西欧近代における固有の特性とはいったいどのようなものなのであろうか.未完の草稿として残された『音楽社会学』においてマックス・ウェーバーが探求しようとした, この西欧近代音楽の合理化の過程を, 西欧音楽における二重の合理化という視点から読み解くことが本稿の試みである.ウェーバーが音楽を社会学の対象にしたのは, 音楽に用いられる音組織が歴史的に構築されるなかで, 理性がきわめて重要な役割をはたしてきたことを見出したためである.ウェーバーは, この音組織を歴史的に構築してきた原理を, 間隔原理と和声的分割原理という2つの原理に区別する.この2つの原理にもとづき, 音組織は間隔的に, あるいは和声的に合理化されてきたのである.この2つの合理化は互いに対立するものであり, 他方のものに非合理, 制約, 矛盾をもたらす.ウェーバーの議論は一見, 近代の西欧音楽を和声的合理化においてとらえ, それ以外の音楽を間隔的合理化において特徴づけているようにみえる.しかし, 西欧近代の音楽の合理化の特性は, この対立する2つの合理化の交錯においてかたち作られているのである.この西欧近代音楽の合理化の矛盾した関係を明らかにすることこそ, ウェーバーの音楽社会学の試みである.