著者
犀川 陽子 岡本 博樹 乾 泰地 橋本 貴美子 中田 雅也 真壁 みどり 奥野 智旦 須田 隆
出版者
天然有機化合物討論会
雑誌
天然有機化合物討論会講演要旨集
巻号頁・発行日
no.43, pp.443-448, 2001-09-01

A poisonous mushroom Podostoma cormu-damae caused two lethal poisoning in Japan in 1999 and 2000. Some of the following symptoms are observed in these poisonings: gastrointestinal disorder, erroneous perception, decrease in the number of leukocytes and thrombocytes, deciduous skin of face, loss of hair, and atrophy of the cerebellum which brings about a speech impediment and voluntary movement problems. We studied the toxic constituents of its culture broth and the fruit bodies using lethal effect on mice as an index. The extracts from the culture filtrate and the fruit bodies were injected into the abdominal cavity of a mouse. The lethal effect was observed in both extracts from the culture filtrate and the fruit bodies. The organic extracts of the culture filtrate were chromatographed on silica gel to give the major compounds 1, 2, and 3. The ^1H and ^<13>C NMR spectroscopic analyses revealed that these compounds 1〜3 are members of the macrocyclic trichothecene group. Comparison of the spectral data of 1〜3 with those in the literature revealed that 1 is roridin E, 2 is verrucarin J (muconomycin B), and 3 is satratoxin H. On the other hand, the fruit bodies were extracted with water and methanol. The water extracts were chromatographed on ODS to give satratoxin H (3), and the methanol extracts were chromatographed on silica gel to give 4〜6. The NMR and MS analyses showed that 4, 5, and 6 is the 12',13'-diacetate, 12'-acetate, and 13'-acetate of satratoxin H (3), respectively. The 4〜6 are new compounds that occur in nature. All these macrocyclic trichothecenes except for 2 had a lethal effect on mice by at least 0.5 mg per capita.
著者
田中 正泰 針ヶ谷 弘子 鎌田 樹志 氏原 一哉 橋本 勝 橋本 貴美子 松田 冬彦 柳屋 光俊 白濱 晴久 奥野 智旦
出版者
天然有機化合物討論会
雑誌
天然有機化合物討論会講演要旨集
巻号頁・発行日
no.34, pp.110-117, 1992-09-10

Ohwaraitake is Japanese name of a poisonous mushroom Gymnopilus spectabilis and means "a loud laugh mushroom". Accidental ingestion of it causes hallucinosis and abnormal behavior. A hallucinogenic mushroom contains usually psilocybin or its analogues but it is reported that any psilocybin or its congenor does not found in Japanese Ohwaraitake. The toxic symptoms suggest that any neuroexcitatory substance must be contained. The isolation was carried out monitoring depolarizing activity on the new born rat spinal cord. 1. Chromatographical fractionation and bisassay showed that the neuroexcitatory active compounds were gimnopilins (G) which were known as bitter principles of this fungus. Further fractionation revealed that G (1) was inactive and activities of G (2) increased from n=7 to n=5 and besides, G (2), which was newly isolated this time, was more active than G (2). 2. The structure of the new G was determined by the chemical degradation as formula 3. 3. The Chirality of hydroxymethylglutamic acid (HMGA) part was determined as S configuration by the acquisition of (R)-mevalonaloctone through LiBH4 reduction or G (1 and 2). 4. G (2) does not work as an ion carrier probably, since it does not particularly take metal ion from aqueous solution into an organic solvent. 5. Determination of the chirality of tert-alcohols in gymnoprenol (G'), that is, G without HMGA part, was attempted. Eight isomers of the model compounds corresponding to G' (m=2, n=4) were synthesized and were not discriminated by HPLC and NMR. Since two diastereoisomers of MTP-ethoxy-methoxy derivatives of G' (m=1, n=2) were distinguished by ^1H and ^<19>FNMR, these derivatives may be applicable to identification of the synthetic and the natural G'.
著者
松浦 正憲 加藤 優 犀川 陽子 乾 公正 橋本 貴美子 中田 雅也
出版者
天然有機化合物討論会
雑誌
天然有機化合物討論会講演要旨集
巻号頁・発行日
no.50, pp.415-420, 2008-09-01

Accidental ingestion of a toadstool, Russula subnigricans causes lethal poisoning to human. In the 1950's, the first poisoning caused by this mushroom was reported. Since then there have been no reports about lethal poisoning for 50 years, which was enough to raise doubts about its existence. However, in these three years, 2005 to 2007, the poisoning accidents were continuously happened and four people died. Although chemical studies on this fungus were reported using mushrooms distributed in Miyagi prefecture, the isolated compounds, russuphelins, russupherol, and hydroxybaikiain, have no toxicity on mouse. Accordingly, we studied the isolation of the toxic constituent of R. subnigricans. One of the reasons that such a strong toxin has not been revealed until now is the incomplete classification of this mushroom, that is, there are many resemble species distributed in Japan. We collected three species in Kyoto, Miyagi, and Saitama prefectures. The aforementioned compounds were found only in the Miyagi species. All three species show toxicity on mouse by intraperitoneal injection of the water extract; however, only the Kyoto species exhibits toxicity by oral injection. Accordingly, we estimated that the Kyoto species is the genuine R. subnigricans. During the separation steps, we found that the toxicity was remarkably decreased after concentration to dryness; therefore, all manipulations were carefully performed. The water extract was successively separated through ODS column chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, and gel filtration to give an aqueous solution of the toxic compound. The toxic compound was revealed to be unstable under concentration to dryness (polymerization occurs) and volatile, which was turned out to be the cause of decrease in toxicity after evaporation. The unstable toxin was converted to a stable derivative using diphenyldiazomethane. Taking ^1H, ^<13>C NMR and MS spectral analyses of the toxic compound and its derivative into consideration, the structure of the toxic compound was determined to be cycloprop-2-ene carboxylic acid. This compound was found only in the Kyoto species.