著者
津田 拓郎
出版者
公益財団法人史学会
雑誌
史學雜誌 (ISSN:00182478)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.123, no.2, pp.205-230, 2014-02-20

The primary purpose of this article is to offer a new perspective on the use of the written word by the government of the Carolingian through an examination of the "capitularies". The capitularies are traditionally recognized as "the edicts of the kings"; and it is widely accepted that their "Golden Age" occurred during the reign of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious. The research to date has concentrated mainly on manuscripts, but this method is not appropriate for an analysis of the governmental system of the Carolingian age, because manuscripts were composed some time after the initial authoring of any given text and show us only information about their later phases. In order to clarify the earliest phase, the author explores references to the use of documents in narrative sources. His results show that with some exceptions, there are only two categories of information about the use of the written word which emerge in the narrative sources; namely lex (or "texts that should be added to lex") and "texts on behalf of the church". In view of the quantity of such cases, there is little diversity during the Carolingian age, a fact that would belie the alleged "Golden Age"; moreover, references to texts for the church can also be found in the east Frankish kingdom, which historians have considered as a land where no capitulary was issued. The reason for the discrepancy between the author's conclusions and the conventional view concerning a "Golden Age" lies in the fact that many "capitularies" of Charlemagne and Louis were texts which had only subordinate functions for the communication, for in the later Carolingian age the communication system had been transformed into a face-to-face system via assemblies; and rulers had not as much need for such texts as before. There are also indications that in the west Frankish kingdom fundamental changes appeared to have occurred in the use of the written word by the government. The age of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious can be called the "Golden Age" of those texts that had only subordinate functions in communicating the wishes of the kings ; that is to say Charlemagne and Louis the Pious should be not regarded as "great legislators who issued many written edicts". Therefore, we should reexamine the use of the written word in each kingdom without considering the text category of "capitulary".
著者
岡崎 倫江 那須 千鶴 吉村 和代 曽田 武史 津田 拓郎 高畑 哲郎 矢倉 千昭
出版者
理学療法科学学会
雑誌
理学療法科学 (ISSN:13411667)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.4, pp.509-513, 2008 (Released:2008-10-09)
参考文献数
28
被引用文献数
3 2

[目的]女性の前十字靭帯損傷のリスクは,ホルモン変動による筋緊張の低下と関連している可能性がある。本研究は,月経周期中における大腿筋群の筋硬度および筋短縮度の変動について調査することを目的とした。[対象と方法]対象者は正常月経周期を有する若年女性9名(測定:18脚),平均年齢25.9±2.1歳で,月経周期の月経期,排卵期,黄体前期,黄体後期に測定を行った。筋硬度は筋硬度計を用いて大腿直筋と大腿二頭筋について測定し,筋短縮度は関節角度計を用いて大腿直筋とハムストリングスについて測定した。[結果]筋短縮度は有意な変化がなかったが,大腿直筋および大腿二頭筋の筋腹の筋硬度は他の周期に比べて黄体前期において有意に高くなった(p<0.05)。[結語]本研究の結果,大腿筋群の筋硬度は月経周期中に変動していることが示唆された。
著者
岡崎 倫江 那須 千鶴 吉村 和代 曽田 武史 津田 拓郎 高畑 哲郎 大石 賢 中川 浩 矢倉 千昭
出版者
公益社団法人 日本理学療法士協会
雑誌
理学療法学Supplement Vol.34 Suppl. No.2 (第42回日本理学療法学術大会 抄録集)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.C0305, 2007 (Released:2007-05-09)

【目的】女性競技者の前十字靭帯(以下ACL)損傷は,男性より高い確率で発生し,特に非接触型損傷が多いことが知られている。その要因のひとつとして性ホルモンの影響が指摘されており,先行研究では月経周期中の性ホルモンの変動とACLとの関係について検討されている。一方,Eiling ら(2006)は,片脚飛びの着地時における制動から筋硬度を測定し,下肢の筋硬度が月経周期に影響されることを報告している。この報告から女性におけるACL損傷と月経周期の関係は,ACLよりも膝関節周囲筋の筋硬度の変化による膝関節へのストレスが関与している可能性がある。そこで,本研究は月経周期中の膝関節周囲筋の筋硬度および短縮度の変化について調査し,性ホルモンが筋硬度に及ぼす影響について検討することを目的とした。【方法】対象者は月経周期の安定した(28日±1~2日)健常成人女性9名(測定18脚),平均年齢25.9±2.1歳であった。全ての対象者に内容を説明し,同意を得た上で測定を行った。月経周期を28日とし,最終月経日より逆算し,月経期(7日目)・排卵期(14日目)・黄体前期(21日目)・黄体後期(28日目)の4期間に分け,それぞれの期間で測定を行った。月経周期の把握と測定日の設定は,測定者以外の者が行い,測定者には対象者の月経周期を知らせなかった。筋硬度は大腿直筋および大腿二頭筋の停止部から25%部位と50%部位を,筋硬度計(NEUTONE,TRY‐ALL社)を用いて測定した。筋短縮度はElyテストとSLRテストの最大伸張時の関節角度を測定した。すべての測定は3回行い,その平均値を代表値とした。統計解析は一元配置分散分析を用いて分析し,危険率5%未満をもって有意とした。【結果】筋硬度は大腿直筋及び大腿二頭筋の50%部位において,他の周期と比較し黄体前期が有意に高値を示した(p<0.05)。筋短縮度は月経周期中における有意な変化はみられなかった。【考察】黄体前期は,エストロゲンが急減し,プロゲステロンが急増する時期であり,これらの変動が膝関節周囲筋の筋硬度に関与していると考えられる。プロゲステロンには,コラーゲン合成を促進させる(蛋白同化)作用があり,この作用によって筋硬度が増加している可能性がある。ACL損傷は,排卵期と月経期に多く,黄体期に少ないといわれている。しかし,膝関節周囲筋の筋硬度とACL損傷との関係については明らかにはなっていない。今後は,月経周期中における性ホルモンの変動と筋硬度,ACL損傷との関連について検討する必要がある。
著者
津田 拓郎
出版者
公益財団法人史学会
雑誌
史學雜誌 (ISSN:00182478)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.123, no.2, pp.205-230, 2014-02-20

The primary purpose of this article is to offer a new perspective on the use of the written word by the government of the Carolingian through an examination of the "capitularies". The capitularies are traditionally recognized as "the edicts of the kings"; and it is widely accepted that their "Golden Age" occurred during the reign of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious. The research to date has concentrated mainly on manuscripts, but this method is not appropriate for an analysis of the governmental system of the Carolingian age, because manuscripts were composed some time after the initial authoring of any given text and show us only information about their later phases. In order to clarify the earliest phase, the author explores references to the use of documents in narrative sources. His results show that with some exceptions, there are only two categories of information about the use of the written word which emerge in the narrative sources; namely lex (or "texts that should be added to lex") and "texts on behalf of the church". In view of the quantity of such cases, there is little diversity during the Carolingian age, a fact that would belie the alleged "Golden Age"; moreover, references to texts for the church can also be found in the east Frankish kingdom, which historians have considered as a land where no capitulary was issued. The reason for the discrepancy between the author's conclusions and the conventional view concerning a "Golden Age" lies in the fact that many "capitularies" of Charlemagne and Louis were texts which had only subordinate functions for the communication, for in the later Carolingian age the communication system had been transformed into a face-to-face system via assemblies; and rulers had not as much need for such texts as before. There are also indications that in the west Frankish kingdom fundamental changes appeared to have occurred in the use of the written word by the government. The age of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious can be called the "Golden Age" of those texts that had only subordinate functions in communicating the wishes of the kings ; that is to say Charlemagne and Louis the Pious should be not regarded as "great legislators who issued many written edicts". Therefore, we should reexamine the use of the written word in each kingdom without considering the text category of "capitulary".