著者
黒田 長久
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.4, pp.321-355, 1971-12-30 (Released:2008-11-10)
参考文献数
11
被引用文献数
1

The myological illustrations here presented are based on more than ten examples of Columba livia (Carrier Pigeons killed by cats), studied during 1945-46. The illustrations have been so devised as the origin and insertion of each muscle could be shown not hidden by other muscles, by restricting the number of muscles in one illustration. The originals were prepared with different colors by muscle belly, tendon and bone, but here they are reproduced by ordinal drawings.Appendicular (wing and leg) and caudal muscles only are illustrated (partly cited in author's previous works) and listed, according to Berger's (George & Berger, 1966) nomenclature, and the names used by the author in his previous works are added to the list when different from Berger's. Minute muscles, one in the wing (on radiale) and three of caudal region, are additions to Berger's list, though their further confirmation is necessary. Illustrations of muscles of Columba livia other than figured here are to be found in the literature given in this paper.
著者
黒田 長久
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2, no.14, pp.50-59, 1960-06-20 (Released:2008-11-10)
参考文献数
5
被引用文献数
4 7

M. pectoralis major of birds in general consists of M. pect. m. proprius and lateralis (Kuroda, '60) and in soaring birds such as some hawks and the Tubinares a distinct deep-seated layer, M. pect. m. profundus (white muscle in the Tubinares) (Kuroda, 1. c.), is differentiated. The M. p. m. lateralis, generally ignored, is an important part in flight in pulling backward the wing (humerus) struck down by M. p. m. proprius, thus giving the propelling effect to the wing. Comparison of this part of the pectoral muscles in various groups of birds is shown in Plate 1. The comparative weight of M. p. m. profundus (Fig. 3, H, I, L, N) in some species of the Tubinares is listed; it is best developed in the albatross in which the M. p. minor (M. supracoracoideus) is the smallest. The relative weight of entire pectoral muscles to the body weight and that of small pectoral muscle to large pectoral are listed by Orders of birds. As a rule smaller species of a group of birds generally have more developed small pectoral relative to large pectoral. The former muscle is least developed in some hawks and the Tubinares which are soarers and best developed in the wing-diving sea-birds, the Alcidae. Their relative development is heighly adaptive to the way of flight. In the herons, an anterior superficial layer of the M. p. m. proprius can be distinguished, and this was named, the M. pect. major antero-superficialis.
著者
黒田 長久
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.5, pp.397-402, 1966-06-30 (Released:2008-11-10)

1. A total of 5, 789 Tree Sparrow Passer montanus were banded in Japan during 1924-'43 with 157 recoveries (2.71%), of which 121 (77.07%) were those banded during August and October at Kuzutsuka, Niigata, a heavy snow area.2. In total, 60.5% of recoveries were made within 5km and 80% within 23km from banded places, and out of 110 recoveries within 23km, 91.8% were within 5km. These results represent resident populations.3. There were no recoveries between 24-100km. But, 45 (29%) recoveries were made again between 100-600km from S-SW directions (except one from E and one N). These data represent emigrating populations and since the birds were banded during August and October and were recovered in winter months, their movements suggest the wintering dispersal. However, whether this is a mere dispersal or a true migration is not clear, and it is suggested that the emigrating population would be young groups of the year.4. Kuzutsuka population consisted of 67.23% resident (within 23km, of which 90% within 5km) and 39% emigrating populations. The latter dispersed distances of 105-406km, while out of only 23 recoveries from birds banded at Nagaura, only 4km from Kuzutsuka, 6 recoveries were made from Okayama at 600km of distance. These 6 birds had been banded in the same period (October to November 2, 1940) and all were recovered after 4 months at Okayama (only one other bird came from Kuzutsuka). This is an evidence of group movement of a local population.5. The periods from banding to recoveries were: within 6 months 77.37% (101), 12 months 13.14% (18), 13-17 months 6.57% (9) and 19-35 months 2.9% (one each for 19, 24, 26, and 35 months) (total 137 cases).
著者
黒田 長久
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
(ISSN:00409480)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.2-3, pp.41-61, 1983-10-25 (Released:2007-09-28)
参考文献数
17

筆者のミズナギドリ目の骨学の研究(1953-59)で欠除していた数属の骨格標本が,W.R.P.BOURNE 博士博士のご好意でBritish Museumから提供されたので,比較検討した.この論文では,その主な点について述べた. Procellaria と Adamastor は縁が近く,後者はより潜水適応を示すが,ともに Calonectris に連る. Bulweria は, Pterodroma その他の属と上膊骨が細く長い点で異なり,特異であるが (飛翔法を反映),腰骨,頭骨などの類似度から小型の Pterodroma(Cookialia) に近い. Pterodroma は涙骨の癒合,上膊骨その他の点でフルマカモメ群に連る. Halobaena と Pachyptila はすべての点で同一型を示し, Pagodroma (これは Fulmarus により近い)と共にフルマカモメ群に属する. Oceanodroma も腰骨,上膊骨,(頭骨)などからフルマカモメ群に連る. Hydrobates はその小型に関連して Oceanodroma と多少頭骨に違いを認めた.
著者
黒田 長久
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.1, pp.1-59, 1981
被引用文献数
1

This paper was first planned in 1971 and was written in 1975 (marking the author's age of 60th) to compare avian and mammalian "societies", based on socio-ecological and -ethological analyses, independently of Wilson's "Sociobiology" (1975); with the following contents:<br>I "Animal sociology"<br>1. Animal societies: its two viewpoints<br>a. Phenotypic sociology b. Functional sociology<br>2. Animal societies: its functional analysis<br>3. Animal societies: its evolution<br>a. Origin and functional evolution b. Phenotypic evolution<br>II. Avian and mammalian societies<br>1. Comparative characteristics<br>2. Evolutionary retrospects<br>3. Distributional property<br>4. Life diversification<br>a. Mammalian b. Avian<br>5. Behavioral diversification<br>a. Brain structure b. Brain function c. Instincts and intelligence b. Instinctive grades: 1) Physiological (individual or maintenance) behaviors 2) Social behaviors (a) Instinctive reflex beh. (= IRM) (Primary inst. beh.) b) Instinctive responding beh. (Secondary inst. beh.) c) Mental instinct-controlling beh. (Tertiary inst. beh.) d) Psychological reflex beh. (Spiritual shock beh.) e) Mental instinct-suppressing beh. (reductive inst. beh.) f) Learning g) Imprinting h) Tool-using i) Coopreative behavior<br>III. Social development<br>1. Flock-vs family-base life<br>2. Dominance and leadership<br>3. Individual and population (groups)<br>4. Group-making property<br>a. Avian group life: 1) Family group 2) Areal group 3) Group territory 4) Colony<br>b. Mammalian group life c. Human group life<br>5. On group selection<br>IV. Postscript<br>The avian and mammalian societies, despite common general physiology, have evolved toward basically "aerial-diurnal" and "terrestrial-nocturnal" contrasted lives.<br>The avian society is aberrantly specialized and could be neglected from the quadrupedal evolutionary line leading to mammalian society, but the avian flock-based, monogamous social structure with sexual cooperative division of work and the mammalian mother-filial family-based, polygynous, despotic and graded social structure, are compounded in the human society, which, beside this biological social base, is put under artificial restraint and constraint of laws, religions, ideologies of nations (or races). With this contradictions, the world human societies inevitably contiune their cooperative efforts, but with endless competition.
著者
黒田 長久 柿澤 亮三 堀 浩 大阪 豊 臼田 奈々子 内田 清一郎
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.1, pp.1-15, 1982-03-31 (Released:2008-11-10)
参考文献数
26
被引用文献数
3 5

22目57科185種の鳥類の血球(一部胸筋)を試料として,澱粉ゲル竜気泳動法(pH7)により,ミトコンドリア内リンゴ酸脱水素酵素(M-MDH)の陰極側への移動度を測定した。移動度の表現は,マガモ血球のM-MDH移動度を100と定めたときのこれに対する相対値である。鳥類M-MDHの移動度は各種組織間に差がなく,またこれまで種内,属内での変異は見られなかった。さらに科内,目内での変異も比較的少なく,他の酵素(アイソザイム)にくらべて極めて均一性の高い酵素である。ダチョウ目,ミズナギドリ目,ペンギン目,カイツブリ目,ペリカン目(ウ科),コウノトリ目(トキ科),フラミンゴ目,ガンカモ目,キジ日(ツカツクリ科•キジ科),ツル目,チドリ目(チドリ科•カモメ科)に属する鳥類は何れも移動度100を示した。これらの目は比較的に原始的とされる地上•水生鳥類の大部分を含んでいる。しかし,ペリカン目のペリカン科(130),コウノトリ目のコウノトリ科(130)•サギ科(150),キジ目のホウカンチョウ科(140),チドリ目のシギ科(250)•ウミスズメ科(190)では100以上の移動度が見られた。また,地上性のシギダチョウ目は例外的に160の,コウノトリ目に比較的近いとされるワシタカ目(ワシタカ科)は140の値を示した。一方,いわゆる樹上性の鳥類では140から360までの移動値が得られ,ハト目からスズメ目へと次第に高い値を示す傾向が見られた。すなわちハト目(140,190),ホトトギス目(200),フクロウ目(200),ヨタカ目(200),アマツバメ目(220),ブッポウソウ目(220,250),キツツキ目(230,300),スズメ目(360)である。ハト目に近いとされるオウム目では,300から360のスズメ目に近い値が得られた。以上の結果から,電気泳動法によるM-MDHの移動度は,科•目を含む高いレベルでの進化を反映しているように思われる。
著者
黒田 長久
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.5-6, pp.551-568_1, 1972-12-30 (Released:2008-11-10)

Winter (Kuroda 1969) and autumn (1970) bird censuses of the Ryu Kyu Is. have already been reported. The present paper is the result of the survey planned by the Ornithological Society of Japan, principally for analysis of the status of Sapheopipo noguchii of Okinawa I. This will be reported elsewhere.The bird census was made on Okinawa I. 24-28 May in the northern mountain zone, on Ishigaki I. 31 May and 5 June and on Iriomote I. 1-4 June. The weather was fine except on 5 June.In total, 51 species, 30 land, 16 water or waterside, and 5 sea birds, were recorded. The land bird species were 24 on Okinawa, 15 on each of Ishigaki and Iriomote. These land birds are residents and show the reduced number of breeding species in these subtropical islands where palearctic species (such as thrushes, flycatchers, warblers and tits, etc.) decrease or disappear and tropical elements are represented only by few species. The number of individuals is also generally low, especially in the montane zone in spite of the excellent and extensive forests. This may be due to the distributional periphery for both palearctic and tropical species.The most generally abundant species was Hypsipetes amaurotis with the dominance of 21% in totalized avifauna, followed by Streptopelia orientalis of 18% of dominance. This species was particularly abundant on Iriomote where it gathered on a few small coastal islets (Hatopanare, Usagi (newly named islet), etc.) for breeding (and roosting). They nested on the ground under dense grass and all had laid two eggs, with the density of a true colony, and flew out to perch on rocks or dead shrubs by small flocks. The environmental safety and potential habit of oversea dispersion of the pigeons and doves may, among others, be attributed to this peculiar island concentration. Three birds were seen flying low over the sea surface from the main island to the offshore island of Hatomajima, km apart.The next was Zosterops palpebrosa of the general dominance of 8%, but more may have been missed in the census. Cettia diphone was even more abundant with the dominance of 22% than Hypsipetes on Okinawa, but was not recorded on the other two islands. Next were dominant Passer montanus (common on Ishigaki but absent from Iriomote), Corvus macrorhynchos and Parus major and the subtropical nature of the avifauna of Ryu Kyu Is. was well characterized by such species with medium dominance, as Terpsiphone atrocaudata, Pericrocotus roseus, Parus varius (not encountered on Ishigaki and Iriomote this time), Cisticola juncidis, Halcyon coromanda, Otus scops, Sphenurus sieboldii and Turnix suscitator, etc.Coastal and marsh birds were not plentiful, egrets and waders having already passed north, and only a few remained. On extensive saltflats small flocks of Tringa brevipes, Tringa nebularia and one Tringa totanus were recorded. An Ardea purpurea and Sterna hybrida were found on Iriomote at the same places where they were seen in 1970. Ixobrychus cinnamoneus was common on rice fields with Gallinula chloropus. Alcedo atthis is said to have decreased due to the recent use of insecticides, and only one was seen in a mangrobe of Iriomote.Sea birds recorded were five species, Sterna sumatrana was arriving north to Okinawa and was seen in pairs. Its breeding places on small coastal rocky islets, Hatopanare off the north coast and other two islets off the western coast of Iriomote were first confirmed, but they were not laying eggs yet. Some flocks of Sterna fuscata were seen north of Iriomote, probably with the seasonal migration of the bonito to this sea area where schools of small fish were seen chased to the surface and a flying fish was observed.
著者
黒田 長久
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.3, pp.260-285_1, 1971-06-30 (Released:2008-11-10)
被引用文献数
1 1

During Oct. 6-23, 1970, bird survey was made by line transect-, car- and boat censuses in the Ryu Kyu Is. The party was sent by the Ministry of Wellfare of Japan and included botanical and coral reef surveys particularly of Iriomote I. Bird census was made 11 days on Iriomote I., 4 days on Ishigaki I. and 2 days on Okinawa I. and results are presented by 14 tables classified by habitat and categories such as resident land or winter water birds, etc. In all 81 species were recorded.Among resident land birds, the bulbul Hypsipetes amaurotis was most abundant (No. recorded 258 birds), followed by the white-eye Zosterops palpebrosa (105 bds), the turtle dove Streptopelia orientalis (98 bds), the great tit Parus major (87 bds), the jungle crow Corvus macrorhynchos (85 bds), the tree sparrow Passer montanus (44 bds., very scarce on Iriomote), the varied tit Parus varius (38 bds), the minivet Pericrocotus roseus (36 bds), the fantail warbler Cisticola juncidis (27 bds), the green pigeon Sphenurus sieboldi, the rock thrush Monticola solitaria (13 bds) and the wood pigeon Columba janthina (9 bds), ect. (25 species in all). Thus the bulbul occupied 30% (the next white-eye 12%) of resident land birds counted.The migration of northern land birds was still in early stage, only 9 species having been recorded, among which the swallow Hirundo rustica was most abundant (741 bds). Other marked species was the buzzard hawk Butastur indicus (199 bds) which was observed in scattered soaring flocks steadily migrating southward over Iriomote and Ishigaki Is. and a few tired birds were seen landed on the islands. The next was the red-cheeked myna Sturnus philippensis (145 bds) which is also a regular passage migrant along the Ryukyus and rare Chinese myna St. sinensis (16 bds) was found mixed in its flock. Muscicapa griseisticta (20 bds) and single dirds of Urosphena squameiceps, Eophona migratoria and Cuculus saturatus, etc. were recorded.Some early land winter visitors were just on their arrival, 7 species in all, of which the grey wagtail Motacilla cinerea (90 bds) outnumbered others, which were pipits Anthus (10 bds), the white wagtail M. alba (8 bds), the Philippine red-tailed shrike Lanius cristatus lucionensis (7 bds), single birds of yellow wagtail M. flava subsp., Siberian bluetail Erithacus cyanurus and the ksestrel Falco tinnunculus.Resident water, water-side and wading birds were following ten species: Charadrius alexandrinus (81 bds), Egretta sacra (62 bds., with 64.5% white phase), Gallinula chloropus (48 bds., mainly Ishigaki), Anas poecilorhyncha (39 bds), Ardea purpurea (12 bds., Iriomote), Alcedo atthis (7 bds), Ixobrychus cinnamomeus (6 bds), Pandion haliaetus (4 bds), Porzana fusca (2 bds) and Gorsakius goisagi (1 dbs., Okinawa).Winter and migrant waders were 20 species (4 species as winter visitor), with 5 species of herons. Pluvialis dominicus (131 bds), Tringa incana (71 bds), Numenius phaeopus (64 bds), Tringa hypoleuca (59 bds), Tringa glareola (43 bds), Tringa nebularia (30 bds), Tringa ocrophus (17 bds) were chief species and one Calidris bairdii was observed as a rare straggler. Five herons were Egretta alba, E. intermedia, Bubulcus ibis, Butorides striatus and Ardea cinerea.Sea birds were very scarce. A few Sterna bergii (19 in all) and one Calonectris leucomelas were seen between Ishigaki and Iriomote. A frigatebird is said to have occurted over Ishigaki and the presence of breeding colonies (said to breed in May) of Sterna sumatrana along west coast of Iriomote was reported to the author.
著者
黒田 長久
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.3, pp.224-268_3, 1965

In May and June, 1965, the author made five bird surveys in less known parts of Hokkaido. These are reported here under the headings: 1. Notes on birds along Shiretoko Peninsula (May), 2. Sea-bird survey of Kojima I., off Matsumae (May), 3. Observations of birds of Rishiri I. (June), 4. Bird survey of Cape Esan (May, June) and 5. Birds of Soya area and Rishiri. They are sea bird observations (pelagic census and breeding colonies) and notes on land birds.<br>1. Along Shiretoko peninsula, sea bird colonies were observed from ship at some distance. The main colony was on the west-side cliffs at Iwaobetsu chiefly consisting of some hundreds of <i>Larus schistisagus</i> and <i>Phalacrocorax capillatus</i> with <i>Ph. pelagicus</i> and <i>Cepphus carbo</i>, etc. There were a few other smaller ones but they could not be observed at close range. According to local observer, Mr. Yoshida, there appears to be some colonies of <i>Uria aalge, Lunda cirrhata, Cerorhinca monocerata</i>, and breeding of <i>Fratercula</i> and <i>Brachyramphus marmoratus</i>, possibly also <i>Phalacrocorax urile</i> is suggestive. Summer records so far known for <i>Brachyramphus</i> are listed and two birds were encountered this time. A flock of scores of <i>Larus crassirostris</i> were observed near the tip of the peninsula but the breeding was not confirmed. According to Yoshida, he saw chicks of <i>Histrionicus</i> with an adult bird in June, 1963. A White-tailed Sea Eagle was seen on a pack ice with some <i>Larus schistisagus</i>; it breeds at several places of the peninsula. Two Japanese Robins, <i>Erithacus akahige</i>, were unexpectedly found at rocky tip of the peninsula where there were no vegetations and some snow was remaining. Offshore census of sea birds is given in tables.<br>2. Kojima I. is situated in 139°50'E, 41°20'N, 20km. WSW of Matsumae, the southwesternmost tip of Hokkaido. It is a small volcanic island with a coastal line of about 7km., surrounded by steep cliffs and inhabited only by lighthouse keeper family. The breeding species consisted of <i>Larus crassirostris, Uria aalge, Cerorhinca monocerata, Cepphus carbo</i> and <i>Phalacrocorax capillatus</i>, as on Teuri I. (Kuroda, 1963). Many nest burrows of <i>Cerorhinca</i> were found excavated (by a dog of the lighthouse) and this puffin was apparently decreasing (but increasing at Teuri I.) judging from remains of nests on which grasses were already growing. Gull eggs were still being taken by fishermen and thus protection of the whole island is hoped. The time (May 14) was too early (the season was 10-14 days in retard this year) for <i>Uria aalge</i> which we saw only a few, but on May 31 some hundreds were seen by Mr. Saito. On the island some passerines on migration (both leaving winter bird such as <i>Turdus naumanni</i> and arriving summer birds such as <i>Muscicapa narcissina</i> were found). Scattered <i>Cerorhinca</i> and some flocks of <i>Puffinus griseus</i> and <i>P. carneipes</i> were seen in this sea area and a huge migrating flock of about 3, 000 birds (probably of the latter species) were flying northwestward off Cape Shirakami in an endless line. A flock of 300 birds of this species (definitely identified) had been observed on May 7 all making west the Tsugaru Strait.<br>3. Rishiri and Rebun Is. (See also 5.) situated at a little north of 45N°, west of Wakkanai, northern end of Hokkaido, were visited June 7-9, staying on Rishiri. <i>Cerorhinca</i> was found scattered on the sea between Wakkanai and the islands and many were non-breeding birds without the bill-nob. A small number of <i>Puffinus tenuirostris</i> was seen confined off Wakkanai, a great flock of about 1, 500 of <i>P. griseus</i> consisting of numerous small groups was making a circular movements over the sea area between Rishiri and Rebun,
著者
黒田 長久
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.5, pp.384-387, 1966-06-30 (Released:2008-11-10)
被引用文献数
1

筆者は1965年度生態学会総会でカッコウ類のタカ斑擬態の意義について考察を述べた(動物学集報3月1966)。その際,タカ斑自体に相手を威圧する効果があることに言及した。この短報では,それをさらにほり下げてみたい。白地に黒の太い帯をなす猛禽斑は,猛禽類の翼や尾の下面で著しい。猛禽が獲物を捕える瞬間はこの翼尾の下面の斑を最大限に展開するので獲物をすくませ,捕えてからも翼を拡げるので(体のバランスをとるため),ますます相手を威圧して捕獲を容易にするだろう。タカ斑が困難な獲物を捕える種類でより著しく発達していることは,この想定を支持する。例えば,Falco, Accipiter, Spizaetus,とくに最強のStephanoetusやハーピーイーグルHarpiaに至り斑は最も大胆であり,ノスリ,トビなどネズミを主食とするものや魚食のウミワシ類や屍食のハゲワシなどでは斑は著しくない。但しイヌワシは例外だが,このグループは比較的弱いものを捕えるアシナガワシなどの小型種から進化したものと考えられる。この仮説は,タカ斑とそうでない模型で鳥類の反応を試せば実験的に証明ができよう。筆者が簡単な実験を行なったところでは,明らかではなかったが,組織的な実験を試みる必要がある。ハチクマはヂバチを食べる弱い種でありながら,タカ斑を示す(とくに尾)例外といえるが,これは他の猛禽とくに人型のクマタカの攻撃に対する予防的擬態であると考えうる。この両種は共に熱帯系の森林の鳥で,セレベスのクマタカSpizaetus lanceolatusとハチクマPernis celebensisは,幼鳥は幼鳥,成鳥は成鳥に極めて類似している。この鳥では,後者はその擬態によって種を維持できたとさえ考えられる(幼鳥と幼鳥,成鳥と成鳥の類似は,タカ類に多い幼鳥の白の多い型が両者にあり,擬態淘汰を経たのであろう)。猛禽がより弱い猛禽を他の鳥と同様に獲物として扱うことは,ワシミミズクやオオタカの食餌物に多くのタカやフクロウの類が含まれている例で明らかである。また,カッコウ類でもタカ斑はやはり翼や尾の下面にのみみられ,地上の仮親の巣を発見するのに威脅飛行を行なって親鳥を追い出す習性や産卵中仮親の攻撃を受けた時など翼尾を開き,その裏のタカ斑を展開する習性があり,籠鳥が人に対してこの動作をなしたことは昨年報じた。かようにみると,猛禽やカッコウ類のタカ斑は,共に相手を威圧する効果があり,それにより,前者では獲物の捕殺を容易にし,カッコウ類では仮親の巣に寄生産卵の成功率を高め,共に生存に有利なため淘汰進化したものと考えられる。そこで,機能的には捕食と寄生産卵の違いがあるが,その起原は鳥類の羽斑の一つの遺伝因子(タカ斑因子)が選択強化されたものに過ぎない。そして,それに似た斑は,例えば,キジ類の翼にもみられるが,この場合は保護色効果として発達した(山階鳥類研究所)。
著者
黒田 長久
出版者
公益財団法人 山階鳥類研究所
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.3, pp.221-223, 1965
被引用文献数
1

筆者は1965年6月,コマドリの調査を主目的として利尻島に2泊した。礼文島は船便と日程の関係で泊れなかった。両島は全島保護区であるので,北海道庁生物保護指導監斎藤春雄氏のお計らいと現地の方々の御好意により,島での飼育鳥から2羽の標本を得ることができた(1羽は偶然前日死亡のもの),また多くの籠鳥をみた。これらは何れも同一型の羽色(多少顔の濃淡はあるが)であった。この標本を山階鳥研の本州産標本及び飼育生鳥とも比較して,次のような点で明らかに区別できたので,和名リシリコマドリ,学名<i>Erithacus akahige rishiriensis</i>を与えることにした。<br>1.頭頂から上面,翼にかけ一様にオリーブ(緑色味)を帯び,本州産より赤味が弱い(オリーブ味は古い標本で多少失われるかもしれないが)。<br>2.従って上面の色は本州産より顔部の橙赤色とはっきり境され,額から顔部も本州産ほど濃赤色でなく,とくに上胸に至り明るい橙色となる。<br>3.この上胸の橙色は以下の青黒色とはっきり境し,この色も濃く鮮かである。<br>4.尾も本州産より多少薄く,脇も淡くオリーブを帯ぶ。<br>5.測定では差はない。<br>なお,1932年12月の利尻標本は上面はより赤味があるが,本州産に比すれば少しオリーブを帯び淡い(季節的な変化や古い標本でオリーブ色が失われる傾向があるかもしれないが)。また一般に胸の青黒色の羽は羽縁が淡灰色で,春はこれがすれて一様な青黒色となるらしい。しかし本州産標本からみて,個体(または年令)により羽毛全体に青黒色の少ないものもある。全般として,利尻のコマドリは羽色の対照が鮮かで,全体に赤色味の強い本州のコマドリよりも美しく,声も高く美しいように思った。なお,北海道の個体について今後調査する必要がある。<br>ここに,斎藤春雄氏をはじめ,御協力を得た東利尻町長小松為五郎氏,同主事山田重男氏,利尻町長小田桐清実氏,同建設課安田美樹穂氏,沓形愛鳥保護会の兼田広氏,田尻忠司氏ほかに感謝の意を表し,併せて,礼文島で飼育コマドリを拝見し得た礼文町長向瀬貫三郎氏にも同様御礼申し上げる。<br>リシリコマドリの生態,羽色,渡りについては,さらに将来調査したいと思っており,重ねて御援助を乞う次第である。
著者
黒田 長久
出版者
公益財団法人 山階鳥類研究所
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.2, pp.83-112_2, 1961

Two, and four supplementary, chicks of the Grey Staring, <i>Sturnus cineraceus</i>, were handraised under close observation. The occurrence and development of their behaviours were carefully noted and over 50 kinds of behaviour and vocalization were recorded as classified in the introduction, and 34 of which were listed in Fig. 8, showing the days of occurrence after hatching. The ontogenetic analysis by behaviour system was made based on Kortlandt's method as shown in Figs. 3-7. Each behaviour was named and described in the text which are summarized as follows:<br>Without external stimulation, the gaping of early chicks (5-7 days) was gradually induced by hunger, 20 minutes after being fed 1g. of food, and advanced from: bill up-pointing &rarr; yawning &rarr; neck-stretching to gaping. Any sound, the door-closing, dog-bark, badgerigers' voice, became the stimulus for gaping. Touching the nest caused freezing but also gaping in hungry condition. The strong bursting sound caused freezing. Rising temperature induced, and decreasing one suppressed the gaping impulse.<br>At least by 12th day, the chicks had been imprinted by the author's voice and not reacted to high-pitch sounds. This was confirmed also after they were fledged.<br>Eyes opened on the 10th day but directed gaping was first noticed on the 13th day. The sight was best at 1-60cm., reacting also at 1m. and weakly at 2.5m. However, the lateral sight did not developed until the 15th day, when the hostile behaviours became developed.<br>The pecking action first appeared on the 13th day as a weak impulse with the upward-pointed bill in the absence of real object to peck, but they also pecked the tip of forcets 1cm. before the bill. Eating of food after such a peck and the mutual pecking of the bill were noticed from 13-15th days.<br>After the 20th day, the tongue-tip tasting particularly of small black particles became frequent. They liked to taste the sugar but hated the salt. The fledged young did not eat by themselves the pasted food in the container until at least 35th and 37th days, two weeks after leaving the nest.<br>Vomitting the stones of fruits (and hard objects) given by parents is an important physiology in the chicks. The cherry stones are vomitted about 1.20h. (once 50min.) after intake. Also in fledged young which may often eat inedible substance, the vomitting is of survival value (observed). The food-refusing was observed on the 13th day and the humility behaviour with False begging was noticed on the 17th day.<br>The Bill-opening, characteristic to the starlings, occurred on the 18th day as a weak innate impulse in the absence of definite object (there was a little cotton). From about the 20th day, various use of bill became developed (see list in the text) and the Bill-rubbing (or cleaning) behaviour was first noticed.<br>The foraging of fledged young is very inefficient, being much interested in shaking the feather, string or fallen leaves (a long string was half swallowed!) and could find little real food.<br>When the water was given on the 22nd day, they first pecked at it and then real drinking followed. Beside scooping the water, they also can suck it, with the vertically inserted bill (from the perch above the water).<br>Bathing was willingly done on the 26th and 22nd, but not 21st (same bird), day when they were first given water.<br>Panting in both naked chicks and fledged young was induced at 30&deg;C (or 29&deg;C) by heating them with electric light or in natural summer temperature, and the breathing increased to 26times/15sec. in 15 day solds, which breathed 14times/15sec. at 26&deg;C.<br>The Lateral heat (or Sun) bathing could be at once induced in 22 days olds by 60 wat electric light, but after a while panting occurred (perhaps at over 30&deg;C). The Back heat-bathing was reflectively performed when the bird was brought out to the sunshine.
著者
黒田 長久
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類学雑誌 (ISSN:13485032)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.2, pp.110-119, 2007

カツオドリ <i>Sula leucogaster</i> に比してアオアシカツオドリ <i>S. nebouxii</i> の剥皮体は胸筋が円筒状で肩の張りもない点で異なる。これは後者が前者より高空から深海突入する突入度の違いを反映している。アオアシカツオドリは全く水しぶきをあげずに突入し,カツオドリは多量の白泡を立てる。また,トビウオを空中捕捉する。最も熱帯性のアカアシカツオドリ <i>S. sula</i> は突入体型の度が低い。カツオドリ類はその突入とその前の空中バランス浮揚に関連して大胸筋主部の下に筋肉の盛り上がりのある点が特徴である。アオアシカツオドリは胸筋長/腹長比が1.5でカツオドリの0.9より長いことも深海突入に適応して翼力の強化を示す(強い翼搏には長い胸筋が必要)。胸筋全量 117.2 g, 脚筋量 51.0 g であった。肩部に未記載と思われる三筋,<i>m. biceps subaccessorius</i>(下副二頭膊筋),<i>m. deltoideus major inferior</i>(下大三角筋)と <i>m. deltoideus medius</i>(中三角筋)を認め命名した。
著者
黒田 長久
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, no.2, pp.111-137, 1967-12-31 (Released:2008-11-10)
参考文献数
9
被引用文献数
2 9

モグリウミツバメ(Pelecanoides)は翼の長い飛翔型のミズナギドリ目のなかで,外形上は小型ウミスズメに極めて似た翼の小さい潜水型に進化した。ウミスズメ(Synthliboramphus)と外部形態,翼型,翼面積など比較すると一般的類似のなかで,やはり飛翔型由来を反映する測定比例がみられる。一方翼で潜水する適応として初列部の自由な回転(プロペラ効果)など平行的適応がある。剥皮した体型では一次的潜水適応型としてのウミスズメと飛翔型由来の二次的潜水適応型のモグリウミツバメの間に一般体格とその各部(a…zのアルファベット測定)の測定比例の差がみられ,とくに胸郭が太く胸部の短かい点はそれが著しく長いウミスズメと非常に異なる違いである(これは両者の採食法への適応を反映する-後述)。骨学的にもモグリウミツバメは腰骨,肋骨,胸骨などにミズナギドリ目中のウミツバメ科や小形ミズナギドリ科の特徴を保有し,一方潜水適応としての翼骨や脚骨の長さの比例はウミスズメと極めて類似している。ただしモグリウミツバメの腰骨はミズナギドリのなかの潜水性のものほど特化(細長く)していない。また,鎖骨の著しい発達(その形はややウミツバメに近い)は独特の特徴で,これは潜水に必要な胸筋量を前方に増大(後方は腹を圧迫しないように短かい)する効果(適応)があり,飛翔能力も低下させないという補償適応である。この状態はウミスズメ目でもコウミスズメ,エトピリカなど飛翔性の高いものにも平行してみられる傾向である。胸筋ではモグリウミツバメは大胸筋深部をもち(退化しているが),これは他のミズナギドリ目に共通な滑空飛行への適応を保有していることを示す。前胃に多量の食物を貯えるのもモグリウミツバメにみられるミズナギドリ目の特徴で,常時潜水して少しつつ食物をとるウミスズメ目の細い前胃と異なる(この目でもコウミスズメなど飛翔性の高いもので小さい〓のうをみる)。さらに腸の回転型も,恐らく食習性の違いに適応して異なっている。なお,モグリウミツバメはミズナギドリ目特有の体嗅より強い「カモ嗅」を含む嗅いをもつ。
著者
黒田 長久
出版者
日本鳥学会
雑誌
(ISSN:00409480)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.84, pp.Plate1-Plate2, 1968-03-20 (Released:2008-12-24)
著者
黒田 長久
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.1, pp.222-227, 2002-10-25 (Released:2008-11-10)
参考文献数
4

ハゴロモヅルAnthropoides paradisea(上野動物園で落鳥)の筋肉写生図(1976)を整理,分析した。大胸筋には深部(profundus)(帆翔鳥類に見る)はなかった。闊背筋(latissimus dorsi)は板状で白色筋の前部と赤色筋の後部からなり,中間の膜状帯で連なる。肩先と頸基部を結ぶ小筋を肩頸筋m. collumiscapularisと名付けた(これは文献に見当たらない。前報(2002)では闊背筋前部としたので訂正しておく)。また,大腿骨基端と腰骨を結ぶ小筋を大腿転子筋m.fermor-otrochantericusと名付けた(これはハトでは膜状である)。脚筋では半膜筋m.semimembranosusと半腱筋m.semitendinosusの複雑な連繁と宇回筋m.ambiensの腱の第II,III,IV趾屈筋群への連結を図示した。なお前頸筋m.tibialis anteriorの腱は骨化している。
著者
黒田 長久
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.3, pp.222-224, 1962
被引用文献数
1

この鳥は1962年7月29日,名古屋市鶴舞公園附近の道路で生きて拾われ,東山動物園に寄贈されたが,餌を摂らず10日ほどで死亡した。この報告は標本と共に同動物園の安藤洋一氏から山階研の高野伸二氏宛送にられて来たもので,12月21日筆者に同定を依頼され,<i>Pterodroma externa cervicalis</i>(Salvin)(Kermadec島産)なることが判明した。和名は大型であることから高野氏提案のオオシロハラミヅナギドリと命名した。<br>本種は頭頂黒く,白頸輪で背の灰色と分離することが特徴で,英名をWhite-necked(Gadfly)Petrelと呼び,この点で一見大西洋の<i>P.hasitata</i>(Black-capped Petrel)に似るが上尾筒が白くない点でこの種と区別容易である。基亜種はチリ沿岸産である。北半球従って日本からは初記録である。この鳥が得られたのは台風7号が名古屋地方を27~28にかけ通過した翌日であったという。
著者
黒田 長久
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.1, pp.12-27, 1993-03-30 (Released:2008-11-10)
参考文献数
10
被引用文献数
5

1992年7月8日沖縄島東村北部新川ダムサイトで犬の咬傷で死亡し,同村教育委員会で冷凍保存され,その後我孫子市鳥の博物館に送られたヤンバルクイナ雄幼鳥についてその形態測定と解剖を行った。この標本と1992年11月石垣市ダム下流道路で拾われたオオクイナ,筆者所有の断片的記録資科(クイナ,ヒクイナ,ツルクイナ,ムナジロクイナ,バン,タスマニアバン(無飛力),オオバン)を用い,外形態の翼開型や剥皮体の各部測定(黒田1961),胸骨,腰骨,胸筋量,脚節量,臓器重量などを調べた。ヤンバルクイナは胸骨,胸筋が縮小し,無飛力化が進んでおり,脚筋は発達し,胸筋の約4倍の量があった。上膊骨は短細化し,大腿骨は太く上膊骨より長かった。脚も長く地上走行から樹上塒への登攀にも十分適応を示していた.