著者
Noritomo Kawaji Yasuhiro Yamaguchi Yukihiro Yano
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
Journal of the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.1, pp.80-88, 2002-10-25 (Released:2008-11-10)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
1 1

栃木県において,野外個体群の回復のために放鳥されたヤマドリ養殖個体の運命について,狩猟者からの足環の回収報告結果およびラジオトラッキング調査から調べた。1989年から1997年にかけて放鳥されたオスのヤマドリのうち,放鳥時に装着された足環が狩猟者により回収されたのは1.3%であった。また,回収された個体のうちのほとんどが,放鳥されたのと同じ狩猟期に得られたものであり,2年以上生存した個体は,わずか0.3%に過ぎなかった。栃木県県民の森で行った放鳥ヤマドリに対するラジオトラッキング調査の結果,短い寿命(平均11.4日)であることがわかった。栃木県で放鳥した場所と足環が回収された場所との間の直線距離を算出したところ,それほど大きな値は得られなかったが(平均で14.6km),40km以上移動したと思われる個体が複数個体存在し,最高で87km移動した個体もあった。今回の結果から,現在の放鳥方法では放鳥の所期の目的を達成することは困難と思われる。そこで,オスの放鳥場所をこれまでの鳥獣保護区から可猟区にすることやメスを繁殖期直前に放鳥するなどの改善策を提言する。
著者
今村 知子 杉森 文夫
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.2, pp.247-252, 1989-09-30 (Released:2008-11-10)
参考文献数
8

1.羽色などの外部形態に基づく繁殖期のカルガモの雌雄判別を試みるため,栃木県内で得られた80個体を材料に,雌雄による外部形態の違いを観察した。2.上尾筒,下尾羽及び腹に雌雄の差異が認められた。中央尾翼,翼鏡,三列風切及びみずかきの色にも変異が認められたが,雌雄の違いによるものであるとは判断できなかった。3.カルガモの雌雄判別を行う場合,上尾筒,下尾筒及び腹が有効な部位であるといえる。4.野外においてカルガモを観察する場合,至近距離であれば雌雄を判別することは可能であると思われる。
著者
長 雄一 綿貫 豊
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.2, pp.107-141, 2002-03-20 (Released:2008-11-10)
参考文献数
102
被引用文献数
26 26

北海道の海鳥類の保護及び研究を進めるために,既存の調査報告書を収集して,飛来数あるいは繁殖つがい数といった繁殖地サイズの動向と海鳥類の繁殖に対する人為的攪乱及び自然界での攪乱について分析を行った。北海道では少なくとも12種の海鳥類が繁殖している。繁殖規模の概数は,ウミガラス(Uriaaalge),10つがい以下;エトピリカ(Lunda cirrhata),15つがい;ケイマフリ(Cepphus carbo),100つがい;ウミスズメ(Synthliboramphus antiquus),20つがい以下;ウトウ(Cerorhinca monocerata),300,000つがい;オオセグロカモメ(Larus schistisagus),10,000つがい;ウミネコ(Larus crassirostris),30,000つがい;チシマウガラス(Phalacrocorax urile),25つがい;ウミウ(Phalacrocorax capillatus),3,000つがい;ヒメウ(Phalacrocorax pelagicus),10つがい;オオミズナギドリ(Calonectris leucomelas),120つがい;コシジロウミツバメ(Oceanodroma leucorhoa),900,000つがいであった。その他にマダラウミスズメ(Brachyramphus perdix)の繁殖については不明である。天売島のウミガラス繁殖地にいた成鳥数は,1938年から1980年の間に年平均で12.2%ずつ減少しており,1981年から1994年の間には年平均で26.6%ずつ減少し,1998年には7つがいが確認されたに過ぎない。モユルリ島のウミガラスについて,その繁殖地にいた成鳥数は1965年から1985年までに年平均で24.8%ずつ減少したが,1985年以来飛来個体が確認されておらず,繁殖地が消失したと考える。さらにモユルリ島エトピリカ繁殖地周辺にいた成鳥数は1960年から1995年の間に年平均で10.0%ずつ減少しており,現在ではユルリ•モユルリ島を中心に15つがい前後が繁殖していると考えられる。ケイマフリでは,天売島において年平均8.8%ずつ,ユルリ島においては14.4%ずつ減少しており,北海道全体の生息数も100つがい程度と考えられることから,この減少傾向が続くと繁殖地の消失も考えられる。その一方で,モユルリ島のウトウ繁殖地サイズは1960年から1996年の間で年平均14.2%ずつ増加していた。過去30年間の間にオオセグロカモメは増加傾向にあると考えられたが,モユルリ島の繁殖地サイズは1982年から減少に転じ,1996年までで年平均7.0%ずつ減少していた。天売島のウミネコは,1980年代には3万つがいが営巣していたが,ネコ等の捕食により1990年代に半減した。その一方で利尻島のウミネコは1987年に新たな繁殖地が形成されて以来,年平均19.5%ずつ増加し,現在では1万つがい以上が営巣するに至っている。調査報告書に攪乱の記述のある繁殖地は14箇所であった。カモメ類あるいはカラス類による攪乱の記述があったのは12箇所,死因が漁網への混獲との記述があったのは8箇所,人為導入されたドブネズミ類あるいはネコによる攪乱の記述があったのは5箇所であった。日本の海鳥類繁殖地の多くは,鳥獣保護及狩猟ニ関スル法律等によって保護されている。しかしながら,繁殖地周辺の採餌域あるいは越冬域といった場所は保護の対象となっていない。そのため,海鳥が混獲しにくい漁具を開発することや,繁殖地周辺での漁業活動を見直すこと,あるいは石油流出事故に対応するたあの体制構築の必要があろう。また,人間によって繁殖地に導入された,あるいは人間の出すゴミによって増加したドブネズミ,ネコ,カモメ類,カラス類等の影響について考える必要があろう。
著者
黒田 長久
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.4, pp.321-355, 1971-12-30 (Released:2008-11-10)
参考文献数
11

The myological illustrations here presented are based on more than ten examples of Columba livia (Carrier Pigeons killed by cats), studied during 1945-46. The illustrations have been so devised as the origin and insertion of each muscle could be shown not hidden by other muscles, by restricting the number of muscles in one illustration. The originals were prepared with different colors by muscle belly, tendon and bone, but here they are reproduced by ordinal drawings.Appendicular (wing and leg) and caudal muscles only are illustrated (partly cited in author's previous works) and listed, according to Berger's (George & Berger, 1966) nomenclature, and the names used by the author in his previous works are added to the list when different from Berger's. Minute muscles, one in the wing (on radiale) and three of caudal region, are additions to Berger's list, though their further confirmation is necessary. Illustrations of muscles of Columba livia other than figured here are to be found in the literature given in this paper.
著者
星子 廉彰
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.2, pp.108-110, 1997-10-30 (Released:2008-11-10)
参考文献数
3

An individual of subspecies of Snow Goose, Anser caerulescens atlanticus, was first observed in March and April 1994, and continued to be observed in November 1995, March and November 1996, and March 1997 in central and eastern Hokkaido, Japan. This bird moved with flocks of Whitefronted Goose Anser albifrons or Middendorf's Bean Goose Anser fabalis middendorffii.
著者
石本 あゆみ
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.1, pp.1-12, 1992-03-30 (Released:2008-11-10)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
1 1

1.1987~1989年の9月下旬から11月初旬に,北海道風蓮湖と新潟県福島潟で標識調査中,アオジの翼長,頭頂羽の羽色及び,風切羽の換羽について調査した。2.北海道と新潟県をあわせて99個体の成鳥のデータを得たが,地域による翼長•羽色•換羽の違いは認められなかった。3.成鳥の頭頂羽の羽色は性の識別に有効であり,羽色が緑系は雄,茶系は雌となった。性差は自然翼長において顕著に現れ,雄の方が雌よりも翼長が大きかったが,若干の重複を認めた。また,初列風切は換羽を完了していた。4.幼鳥544個体を調査した結果,頭頂羽の羽色は緑系と茶系に大別でき,翼長は緑系の個体の方が茶系の個体よりも大きかった。しかし,その測定値は重複が非常に大きく,ばらつきも大きかった。5.幼鳥の Post Juvenile Molt は Complete Molt, Partial Molt 及び No Molt であった。頭頂羽の羽色に関係なく,最長風切羽が換羽完了している個体は,未換羽の個体より翼長が大きかった。6.幼鳥の翼長のばらつきの原因は換羽状態であり,翼長の長短から性を論じる場合には最長初列風切の換羽状態を考慮する必要がある。7.死亡鳥132個体の各部の測定,頭頂羽の羽色及び風切羽の換羽について調査し,生殖器の確認によって性別を判定した。この結果は生体で得られた推論を裏付けた。
著者
三島 冬嗣
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, no.4, pp.397-410, 1968-12-30 (Released:2008-11-10)

Distributional and breeding records by specimen or photographic evidences, additional to the 1958 edition of the handlist of Japanes birds are given of 69 species and one hybrid Lanius cristatus cristatus ×lucionensis. Many records from Riu Kiu Is. are included. Three notes are added: 1. Subspecies of Passer montanus many be devided into kaibatoi (Sakhalin to Yakushima), saturatus (Amami-Oshima to Ishigaki I.) and taivanensis (Iriomote to Formosa). 2. Iriomote I. should be omitted from the distributional localities of Rallina eurizonoides sepiaria and Gallicrex cinerea.
著者
高島 春雄 篠原 圭三郎
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.11, pp.450-457, 1957-12-25 (Released:2008-11-10)
参考文献数
7

While there are a few reports on myriapod fauna of Tôhoku District (the Northern Part of Honshû), there seems to be no report on myriapods of Towada District. Towada District here, is meant by the area around the big lake, Towada which measures 48km. round, spreading over Aomori and Akita Prefectures. The junior author, Shinohara, had a chance to visit the Lake and, although he could collect only five species of Diplopods and four species of Chilopods, he was lucky in founding among them two new species. Descriptions on them is stated herebelow. What is learnt as a result of consideration on generic diagnoses of Genus Kopidoiulus and Genus Ikahoiulus is also stated. We also added remarks on myriapods found in Irimizu Limestone Cave, Fukushima Prefecture.Epanerchodus towadaensis Shinohara sp. nov.Body length about 18-28mm, width of postcephalic somites 2.5-3.5mm. General color of dorsum darkish brown but legs and somites are yellowish brown. Collum semicircular.Carinae are more or less narrow and produced at caudal end in a short after about the sixth postcephalic plate, and more strongly produced in posterior segments.Tibiotarsus of gonopods of male clubbed with distal portion of it divide in two blades. Distal end of main blade is a little inflated and short bifurcated, but shorter blade rolled outside. Femuroprocess large, and horn long and slender.Holotype: a male (body length 25mm) obtained at Towada, Aomori Prefecture on Oct. 9, 1955. Allotype: a female (body length 28mm). Data same as above. Type specimens were collected by Shinohara and are preserved in his collection.Fusiulus komatsui Shinohara sp. nov.Body length about 17mm. Body width about 1.0mm. General colour brownish black and legs are yellow with darkish brown spots. Number of segments 48 in male. Repugnatorial pores light yellow, fixed the position behind the suture of segments.Setae of the first pair of legs are (1)+(3-4)+(3+5). Inner base and distal end of the second joint of the first pair of legs are areolate, and process of the knee is projected slightly. Penis bifurcate and projects over the anterior margin of coxae of the second pair of legs.Pregonopod of male resembles to that of F. quadratus, but inner angle of distal margin more or less like a protuberance. Postgonopod with thin blades on distal end, and outside of it with two uncertain processes but without cilia on the whole surface of gonopods.Holotype: a male obtained at Towada on Oct. 9, 1955 by Shinohara. The type is preserved in Shinohara's collection.
著者
黒田 長禮
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.3, pp.282-283, 1976-11-30 (Released:2008-11-10)
参考文献数
4

A presumed old female pintail Anas acuta with masculinized plumage pattern is here reported with its photo taken by Mr. Akio Sasagawa at Shinobazu pond, Ueno Zoo, Tokyo, early February, 1974. It has rough flank markings and elongated central tail feathess.Another example of different plumage pattern also found at the same pond, photographed a 10 February 1976, by Mr. Kazue Nakamura is added.Kuroda (1929, '39) had reported another old record of the pintail and a female Mandarin duck Aix galericulata was masculinized when molted after long kept in author's aviary.
著者
鈴木 昭夫
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.3, pp.125-126, 1953-12-25 (Released:2008-11-10)
参考文献数
5

1.私は駒井博士の行われた猫の毛色のセンサスと同じ方法で埼玉県所沢附近でセンサスを行い毛色の遺伝関係を調べた。このセンサスで集計された猫の数は276匹(雄140,雌136)である。2.集計された猫について計算した性比は100:100で人為的選択の要因はみられなかつた。3.毛色特に茶の因子が伴性因子によるとの仮説のもとに計算すると駒井博士の結果とよく一致する。又茶の因子頻度は24.56でかなり少い。4.この猫の毛色のセンサスの結果は茶の伴性因子であるという推定によく合うものになつたが,同時に黒と雉とでは雌雄の数に大差なく,その常染色体性のものであることを示している。
著者
Satoshi Yamagishi
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.2-3, pp.96-102, 1982-12-20 (Released:2008-11-10)
参考文献数
4
被引用文献数
5 6

A total of 197 Bull-headed Shrikes Lanius bucephalus were examined for this study. Out of 756 nestlings banded for a population study, 38 were re-captured more than once and examined. Their plumage was checked for the presence of buff-tipped greater primary upper coverts (BTGPUCs), and the process of replacement of the buff-tipped coverts was followed. Similar examinations of BTGPUCs were also made on 6 juveniles and on 153 other captured birds whose age could not be established. At least some proximal juvenal BTGPUCs, almost without exception, were retained until the second fall molt. Thus, the presence of these juvenal feathers in the greater primary upper covert (GPUC) series is a reliable criterion for designating first-year birds in this species.
著者
柿澤 亮三 菅原 浩
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.2, pp.326-339, 1989-09-30 (Released:2008-11-10)
参考文献数
14

Tadorna cristata (Kuroda) is known only from three extant specimens. The first, a female, was taken near Vladivostok in 1877, and preserved in the Copenhagen Museum. The second specimen, also a female, and the third specimen, a male, were taken from near Fusan, Korea in 1916, and 1913 or 1914, and preserved in the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology. The first specimen was described in 1890 by Sclater, and it was then considered to be a hybrid between the Ruddy Shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea) and the Falcated Duck (Anas falcata). In 1917, Dr. Nagamichi Kuroda described the second specimen and gave it the name Pseudotadorna cristata. The inconsistency between Sclater's hybrid view and Kuroda's new species view was solved in favor of the latter, when Kuroda obtained the third, male specimen, and described it, along with the discovery of four sketches of the Crested Shelduck from the Edo period. This species has been extremely rare, and close to extinction evre since its discovery in 1887. Recently three other old sketches of the Crested Shelduck have been reported, two of them by the present authors. In this paper twelve published sketches of the species from the Edo period have been introduced, and all twenty known sketches are arranged in order based on their characteristics and descriptions, and the status of it's occurrence during the Edo period is disccussed. In conclusion, we presumed that a few Crested Shelducks were imported from Kyohou period (1716-1735) and it actually migrated once or twice to Hokkaido (northern Japan), and was captured to be illustrated as a living bird.
著者
佐藤 文男 鶴見 みや古
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.2, pp.325-330, 2003-03-20 (Released:2008-11-10)
参考文献数
6

The Madeiran Storm-petrel Oceanodroma castro is a threatened seabird breeding on the Hide-shima (39°40'N, 142°00'E), Iwate Prefecture, in northern Japan. This small island is the only known large colony in Japan for this species. In the latter half of 1980s, nesting burrows of Madeiran Storm-petrels were confirmed to have been decreasing owing to the interspecific competition for nesting burrows between larger Streaked Shearwaters Calonectris leucomeras and this smaller species. We used small wire mesh nets at the nesting ground in order to exclude larger species from Madeiran storm petrel burrows in 1990. Results suggest that nest numbers of Madeiran Petrels have been gradually increasing in the experimental area.
著者
黒田 長久
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.1, pp.1-59, 1981
被引用文献数
1

This paper was first planned in 1971 and was written in 1975 (marking the author's age of 60th) to compare avian and mammalian "societies", based on socio-ecological and -ethological analyses, independently of Wilson's "Sociobiology" (1975); with the following contents:<br>I "Animal sociology"<br>1. Animal societies: its two viewpoints<br>a. Phenotypic sociology b. Functional sociology<br>2. Animal societies: its functional analysis<br>3. Animal societies: its evolution<br>a. Origin and functional evolution b. Phenotypic evolution<br>II. Avian and mammalian societies<br>1. Comparative characteristics<br>2. Evolutionary retrospects<br>3. Distributional property<br>4. Life diversification<br>a. Mammalian b. Avian<br>5. Behavioral diversification<br>a. Brain structure b. Brain function c. Instincts and intelligence b. Instinctive grades: 1) Physiological (individual or maintenance) behaviors 2) Social behaviors (a) Instinctive reflex beh. (= IRM) (Primary inst. beh.) b) Instinctive responding beh. (Secondary inst. beh.) c) Mental instinct-controlling beh. (Tertiary inst. beh.) d) Psychological reflex beh. (Spiritual shock beh.) e) Mental instinct-suppressing beh. (reductive inst. beh.) f) Learning g) Imprinting h) Tool-using i) Coopreative behavior<br>III. Social development<br>1. Flock-vs family-base life<br>2. Dominance and leadership<br>3. Individual and population (groups)<br>4. Group-making property<br>a. Avian group life: 1) Family group 2) Areal group 3) Group territory 4) Colony<br>b. Mammalian group life c. Human group life<br>5. On group selection<br>IV. Postscript<br>The avian and mammalian societies, despite common general physiology, have evolved toward basically "aerial-diurnal" and "terrestrial-nocturnal" contrasted lives.<br>The avian society is aberrantly specialized and could be neglected from the quadrupedal evolutionary line leading to mammalian society, but the avian flock-based, monogamous social structure with sexual cooperative division of work and the mammalian mother-filial family-based, polygynous, despotic and graded social structure, are compounded in the human society, which, beside this biological social base, is put under artificial restraint and constraint of laws, religions, ideologies of nations (or races). With this contradictions, the world human societies inevitably contiune their cooperative efforts, but with endless competition.
著者
上田 恵介
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.1-46, 1994-03-30 (Released:2008-11-10)
参考文献数
296

Sperm competition is the competition between sperm from two or more males to fertilize the egges of a single female during one reproductive cycle. Recently many ornithologists have focused on this theme, and are studying many bird species by using biochemical methods (e. g. DNA fingerprinting). I review almost all of the important literature on avian sperm competition of the last decade, and discuss the evolution of social behaviour of both sexes through sperm competition. Sperm competition is an essential process of intrasexual selection which influences not only the characteristics of reproductive organ and mating behaviour, but also the mating system, social organization and life history strategy of birds. It is a co-evolutionary process between both sexes.
著者
河野 裕美 安部 直哉 真野 徹
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.1, pp.1-27, 1986-03-30 (Released:2008-11-10)
参考文献数
34
被引用文献数
4 4

Nakanokami-shima was designated a national monument in 1972 because of its important for breeding seabirds, though the seabirds of the island were very poorly known. In this paper we present the information on the breeding species and their current status. Observations were made over a ten years period from 1975 to 1984.Seven species of seabirds were found to breed on the island. All were summer visitors, except for the Brown Booby which may be a resident.1. Bulwer's Petrel, Bulweria bulwerii. Bulwer's Petrel was not known to breed on the island until we captured and ringed 2 adults on 2 July, 1981, both of which had fully grown brood patches, and 2 more adults on 4 July, 1982, both of which were incubating. In 1982, 1983, and 1984 the petrels bred at the same locations shown in Fig. 1. The petrels bred gathering in small numbers and laid under rock, Sixty-six adults were ringed from 1981 to 1984 and it seems that the breeding population is fewer than 100 birds.2. White-faced (or Streaked) Shearwater, Calonectris leucomelas. Many nest holes of the White-faced Shearwaters were widely distributed on gentle slopes in grassplateau in the centre of the island. Some birds incubated on bare ground under dwarf 'Gajumaru', Ficus retusa, and others incubated under large rocks. We could not estimate their population.3. Brown Booby, Sula leucogaster. The main colonies, which were used by almost all the birds, were found annually at areas A, B, C, and D shown in Fig. 2. On Nakanokami-shima Brown Boobies nested on ridges and on steep cliffs. Few birds nested in the rocky zone near the shore. Before noon on 3 July, 1981, a Maritime Safety Agency Helicopter flew over the eastern part of the island, surprising the settled birds and causing them to take flight one after another. It was possible at that time to make a total count and 250 birds were counted. Since the breeding pairs were taking care of chicks at that day, some parents were probably absent offshore. Clearly the population was larger than 250. A chick ringed on 29 June, 1980, at the main colony was recaptured at the same place on 21 August, 1983. The bird was in adult plumage, but was not breeding. This recovery record indicates that non-breeding immatures are also included among those attending the main colonies. Table 1 shows the results of an intensive search for nests during the breeding season of 1984. Nests on inaccessible cliffs in areas A-D were of course omitted. The annual breeding population was estimated approximately as about 200 to 500 birds.4. Red-footed Booby, Sula sula. This species was not known to breed in Japan before 1975, when we discovered a breeding pair on 27 August, 1975. The parent incubated one egg and its nest was builted on the canopy of dwarf 'Gajumaru' bush in area A in Fig. 2. On 24 June, 1976, 3 adults and 2 chicks were ringed at the same place, and on 30 June, 1977, one downy chick and parent were found again at the same place as in 1975. On 13 July, 1982, two fledglings and one adult were seen on the cliff in area E in Fig. 2.5. Bridled Tern, Sterna anaethetus. This, species was not known to breed in Japan until we found its breeding at the island on June, 1980. The Bridled Tern settled rocky zone near the shore, placing their eggs in the shelter of rocks. The locations of colonies in 1983, and 1984 are shown in Fig. 3. This tern is apparently an inshore feeder, remaining usually close to the colony. The estimated numbers were 120 birds in area A, and 40 in area B on June 30, 1980, about 1000 in area A, and 100 in area B on 2 July, 1981, and about 650 in area, A, and 50 in area B on 2 July, 1982. Since 1981 the numbers have increased markedly. The birds in attendance at these areas were in adult plumage, however considerable numbers of non-breeding, presumably immature, birds may make up part of these totals.
著者
小沢 敬次郎
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, no.4, pp.411-413, 1968-12-30 (Released:2008-11-10)
参考文献数
7

アシナガコシジロウミツバメ(Oceanites oceanicus)の日本近海の発見例は犬吠崎における1例(清棲,1932)があるのみであった。1967年7月,東京大学海洋研究所の本田座氏は同所淡青丸で三陸沖調査中1羽捕獲し,写真を撮り,これを著者に提示された。著者は帯黄色の蹼と〓蹠の長さから本種と同定した。また海鷹丸で著者は11月,鳥島の東50海里の海上で1例を得て測定し,南極大陸産の亜種Oceanites oceanicus exasperatusであろうとした。北太平洋における既知例は日本近海の1例,カリフォルニヤ沖の2例であったが,これらに2例を加えた。
著者
江口 和洋 久保 浩洋
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.1, pp.32-39, 1992-03-30 (Released:2008-11-10)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
4 3

1.史料に基づき,日本におけるカササギの生息の起源について検討した。2.16世紀以前の史料にはカササギに関した具体的な記述はほとんどなく,17世紀以降の史料にはカササギの生息地,生息地域における呼称,習性などの記述が見られる。3.17世紀以降の江戸時代には,カササギは福岡,佐賀両県の有明海沿岸(旧柳川,佐嘉藩領内)で多く目撃されている。4.17世紀前半には,カササギが朝鮮半島より人為的に渡来したとの認識が広まっていた。5.佐嘉藩ではカササギをもたらした人物の名が記録されている。6.佐嘉藩ではカササギは捕獲禁止の対象となり,17世紀に禁止令が何度か発令された。7.史料検討の結果,カササギは17世紀以降に朝鮮半島より旧柳川,佐嘉藩領内へ移植され,藩主の保護策により個体数を増加させたと,推測される。
著者
Kazue Nakamura
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
Journal of the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.1, pp.64-66, 1979-01-30 (Released:2008-11-10)
参考文献数
9
被引用文献数
1

1976年9月4日,岩手県岩手郡滝沢村の篠木小学校附近の水田で生きて拾われ,翌日死亡したというシロハラミズナギドリ一種はオオシロハラミズナギドリ(Pterodroma externa)と同定されて報告された(岩手の鳥獣,岩手県環境保健部,1978)。これは単にnominal recordであり,オオシロハラミズナギドリとした根拠が示されていないことから筆者はその同定に疑問を持った。中村茂氏から送付された標本写真をみてこの鳥がPt.externaではなく,Pt.phaeopygiaであろうと考え,宮古国民休暇村のビジターセンターを訪れ保管されている標本を実検したところ,この鳥が本種であることを確かめることができた。大きさと脇羽が暗褐色であることからハワイ産のPt.p.sandwichensisに含まれるものであると思われる。本種の体上面は前額を除いて暗褐色で,とくに頭頂で黒く,体下面が白色の中型のシロハラミズナギドリである。英名をDark-rumped(Gadfly)Petrelと呼び,Pt.externa(2亜種)に近縁であるが,体上面がほぼ一様に暗褐色でM斑がでないこと,翼下面の縁どりが太く顕著である点でこの種との区別は容易である。また太西洋産のPt.hasitata(Black-capped Petrel)にも似るが,上尾筒が白くない点でこの種とも容易に区別できる。これらの特徴は野外識別の際にも重要な区別点になるであろう。和名は原産地でUauと呼ばれ,ハワイ特産であることからハワイシロハラミズナギドリと命名した。日本初記録である。基亜種はガラパゴス産で,ハワイ産亜種より大型である。本種の非繁殖期における渡りについてはほとんど知られていないが,1862年4月17日,インドネシアのモルッカ海で1羽採集されている(Bourne1967)。この1例と今回の記録は本種に北太平洋の西または北西部海域に達する長距離の渡りがあることを示唆するものであろう(cf.King1967)。基亜種の北方への渡りでは少なくとも北緯10度に達し,メキシコ西海岸からの記録もある(Murphy1936)。この鳥が得られたのは,大雨を伴った低気圧が東北地方の太平洋岸を北東進した後である。
著者
内田 康夫
出版者
Yamashina Institute for Ornitology
雑誌
山階鳥類研究所研究報告 (ISSN:00440183)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.1-2, pp.54-72, 1970-12-30 (Released:2008-11-10)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
3 5

Although white and grey forms had long been known in Japanese Crested Ibis Nipponia nippon, its scarcity prevented detailed research. Contrary to a former opinion that these were color phases, Mr. H. Sato (1957) considered them as seasonal forms and later suggested (1968) that the grey form is caused by cosmetic coloration toward breeding season.This paper presents a detailed analysis on the mechanism of this type of color change based on numerous feather samples offered to Yamashina Institute by Mr. Y. Muramoto who collected them in its natural habitat in Ishikawa for many years. Supplemental observations were made with live birds in Sado I. with valuable assistance of Messrs. K. Chikatsuji and T. Takano of Ibis protection Center. Histological studies were made by the author at Department of Zoology, Tokyo University.Some important points clarified in this paper are as follows:1. The feather samples suggested neither of the known types of color change: 1) molting, 2) abrasion, 3) cosmetic staining with color substance in preen oil, 4) photo chemical change of biochrome in the feather, and 5) external staining (e. g. iron in water birds).2. Under the feathers surrounding the naked face of Japanese Crested Ibis, a particular area of the skin was found producing 'black substance.' (Fig. 12).3. A few tiny samples of this black substance fell on the snow when a captive ibis scratched that region of the head (Fig. 13, 14). These could be collected and used for chemical analysis (to be published elsewhere).4. Prior to the breeding season, in late January through February, a characteristic behavior of rubbing the side of its head to the shoulder region was observed after bathing. This was named 'daubing behavior' (Fig. 16) and it lasted 20-30 minutes followed by normal preening.5. The grey, or rather blackish, tint of the neck to shoulder region got deeper as the 'daubing behavior' was repeated.6. Histologically, it was proved that the grey tint was caused by external adherance of 'black substance' to the proximal (not distal) barbules of the normal white feathers (Fig. 4-10).7. The black substance on the feathers and those picked up after head scsatching were identical microscopically and chemically. These are supposed to come out along feather pores of the skin, since the feathers of the black substance producing area had black ring near the root of the rachis (Fig. 2, 9, 10).8. The change from grey to white form occurred by normal post-nuptial molting (Fig. 17) and neither 'daubing behavior' nor dropping of black substance was observed after bathing in this period.9. The 'daubing behavior' was so important in this new type of plumage color change that even during the critical period of change from white to grey form, the white plumage remained untinted unless this behavior was performed, which always occurred after bathing. Five to six bathing-'daubing behavior' sequences completed a typical grey form. The first bathing of the season was observed on a fine day in late January.10. Physio-ethological mechanisms and the hormonal control involved were analysed (Fig. 20) and significance of the grey form was discussed eco-evolutionarily.