著者
Azusa Takahashi Hisae Shimizu Yukako Okazaki Hirohide Sakaguchi Toshio Taira Takashi Suzuki Hideyuki Chiji
出版者
Japan Oil Chemists' Society
雑誌
Journal of Oleo Science (ISSN:13458957)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, no.12, pp.1243-1250, 2015 (Released:2015-12-01)
参考文献数
34
被引用文献数
5 17

Aronia fruits (chokeberry: Aronia melanocarpa E.) containing phenolic phytochemicals, such as cyanidin 3-glycosides and chlorogenic acid, have attracted considerable attention because of their potential human health benefits in humans including antioxidant activities and ability to improved vision. In the present study, the effects of anthocyanin-rich phytochemicals from aronia fruits (aronia phytochemicals) on visceral fat accumulation and fasting hyperglycemia were examined in rats fed a high-fat diet (Experiment 1). Total visceral fat mass was significantly lower in rats fed aronia phytochemicals than that in both the control group and bilberry phytochemicals-supplemented rats (p < 0.05). Moreover, perirenal and epididymal adipose tissue mass in rats fed aronia phytochemicals was significantly lower than that in both the control and bilberry phytochemicals group. Additionally, the mesenteric adipose tissue mass in aronia phytochemicals-fed rats was significantly low (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the fasting blood glucose levels significantly decreased in rats fed aronia phytochemicals for 4 weeks compared to that in the control rats (p < 0.05). Therefore, we investigated the effects of phytochemicals on postprandial hyperlipidemia after corn oil loading in rats, pancreatic lipase activity in vitro, and the plasma glycemic response after sucrose loading in order to elucidate the preventive factor of aronia phytochemical on visceral fat accumulation. In the oral corn oil tolerance tests (Experiment 2), aronia phytochemicals significantly inhibited the increases in plasma triglyceride levels, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.50 mg/mL. However, the inhibitory activity was similar to that of bilberry and tea catechins. In the sucrose tolerance tests (Experiment 3), aronia phytochemicals also significantly inhibited the increases in blood glucose levels that were observed in the control animals (p < 0.05). These results suggest that anthocyanin-rich phytochemicals in aronia fruits suppress visceral fat accumulation and hyperglycemia by inhibiting pancreatic lipase activity and/or intestinal lipid absorption.
著者
佐藤 進;Susumu SATO 鈴木 貴士;Takashi SUZUKI 川尻 達也;Tatsuya KAWASHIRI 山口 真史;Masafumi YAMAGUCHI
出版者
金沢工業大学
雑誌
工学教育研究;KIT progress (ISSN:13421662)
巻号頁・発行日
no.24, pp.53-62, 2016

新入生に対し、大学に対する不本意感および学業へのつまずき感に関する調査を2回(入学当初および1年終了時)実施し、追跡が可能であった1,411 名を対象に、その特徴を検討した。1年次春の時点で大学への不本意感は約1割、学業へのつまずき感は約2割の学生が有していた。これらの割合は冬の調査時点でも同等であったが、構成している学生の約半数は入れ替わっていた。大学への不本意感が春から冬にかけて生じた学生は、受験の失敗に対する思いが再燃し、自身の理想とする大学像とのギャップや授業内容・カリキュラムに対する不満が高まっていた。同様に、学業へのつまずき感が春から冬にかけて生じた学生は、課題遂行の困難さや学業への不向きさを自覚しながら、単位取得・留年・卒業への不安が高まる傾向にあった。;This study researched the characteristics of the university freshmen who are unwilling to join the university and who feel anxiety about academic learning for 1,411 university freshmen. A biannual survey on the unwillingness to join the university community and anxiety about academic learning was conducted in spring (the end of May) and winter (December to February). About 10 % of the freshmen were unwilling to join the university, and about 20% of them had anxiety about academic learning in the spring. Although these percentages did not change in the winter, half of the persons with the unwillingness or anxiety was replaced by another persons. The students, who were unwilling to join the university during the spring and winter months, reignite a sense offailing to enter university, and more dissatisfied with academic curriculum or lesson contents. Similarly, the students, who feel anxiety about academic learning during the spring and winter months, realized difficulty to class assignments and unfit for academic learning, and increased anxiety about acquisition of academic credit, graduation, and staying back a year.
著者
Tomoo Maeda Ayumi Watanabe Wambrauw Daniel Zadrak Sachiyo Osanai Kazushige Honda Satoshi Oku Hanako Shimura Takashi Suzuki Atsushi Yamasaki Yosuke Okabe Keiji Ueno Shuichi Onodera
出版者
一般社団法人 園芸学会
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.OKD-068, (Released:2017-03-29)
被引用文献数
5

Onions (Allium cepa L.) accumulate fructo-oligosaccharides (FOSs) as storage carbohydrates. FOSs exist in various chemical forms with different degrees of polymerization (DP) and chemical bonding states. Therefore, it is difficult to determine the precise FOS composition and quantity of each type of FOS. The objective of this study was to analyze the varietal differences in FOS composition and relative quantities among onion cultivars grown by spring-sown cultivation in Hirosaki City, Japan, using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system equipped with an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD). FOS compositions of a number of varieties, as determined by HPLC/ELSD, were confirmed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight -mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Sugar and FOS analyses revealed distinct patterns of sugar and FOS accumulation, which led to categorization of the tested varieties into three types: (1) those with a relatively high overall quantity of FOSs and with a higher DP (DP3 to over DP9); (2) those containing mainly monosaccharides (fructose and glucose), disaccharide (sucrose), and low amounts of FOSs; and (3) those with a carbohydrate content that was intermediate compared to that of the other two types. Measurements of enzyme activities suggested that varietal differences in FOS composition are the result of differences in enzyme activities associated with the FOS biosynthetic and biodegradation pathways.
著者
Tomohiro Araki Jiro Osaka Yuya Kato Mai Shimozono Hinata Kawamura Riku Iwanaga Satoko Hakeda-Suzuki Takashi Suzuki
出版者
The Genetics Society of Japan
雑誌
Genes & Genetic Systems (ISSN:13417568)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.19-00066, (Released:2020-06-04)
参考文献数
25

In many animals, neural activity contributes to the adaptive refinement of synaptic properties, such as firing frequency and the number of synapses, for learning, memorizing and adapting for survival. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such activity-dependent synaptic remodeling remain largely unknown. In the synapses of Drosophila melanogaster, the presynaptic active zone (AZ) forms a T-shaped presynaptic density comprising AZ proteins, including Bruchpilot (Brp). In a previous study, we found that the signal from a fusion protein molecular marker consisting of Brp and mCherry becomes diffuse under continuous light over three days (LL), reflecting disassembly of the AZ, while remaining punctate under continuous darkness. To identify the molecular players controlling this synaptic remodeling, we used the fusion protein molecular marker and performed RNAi screening against 208 neuron-related transmembrane genes that are highly expressed in the Drosophila visual system. Second analyses using the STaR (synaptic tagging with recombination) technique, which showed a decrease in synapse number under the LL condition, and subsequent mutant and overexpression analysis confirmed that five genes are involved in the activity-dependent AZ disassembly. This work demonstrates the feasibility of identifying genes involved in activity-dependent synaptic remodeling in Drosophila, and also provides unexpected insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in cholesterol metabolism and biosynthesis of the insect molting hormone ecdysone.
著者
Tadanobu Takahashi Takashi Suzuki
出版者
The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
雑誌
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (ISSN:09186158)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.6, pp.817-826, 2015-06-01 (Released:2015-06-01)
参考文献数
69
被引用文献数
3 3

The spike glycoprotein neuraminidase (NA) of influenza A virus (IAV) has sialidase activity that cleaves the terminal sialic acids (viral receptors) from oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates. A new antigenicity of viral surface glycoproteins for humans has pandemic potential. We found “low-pH stability of sialidase activity” in NA. The low-pH stability can maintain sialidase activity under acidic conditions of pH 4–5. For human IAVs, NAs of all pandemic viruses were low-pH-stable, whereas those of almost all human seasonal viruses were not. The low-pH stability was dependent on amino acid residues near the active site, the calcium ion-binding site, and the subunit interfaces of the NA homotetramer, suggesting effects of the active site and the homotetramer on structural stability. IAVs with the low-pH-stable NA showed much higher virus replication rates than those of IAVs with low-pH-unstable NA, which was correlated with maintenance of sialidase activity under an endocytic pathway of the viral cell entry mechanism, indicating contribution of low-pH stability to high replication rates of pandemic viruses. The low-pH-stable NA of the 1968 H3N2 pandemic virus was derived from the low-pH-stable NA of H2N2 human seasonal virus, one of two types classified by both low-pH stability in N2 NA and a phylogenetic tree of N2 NA genes. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus acquired low-pH-stable NA by two amino acid substitutions at the early stage of the 2009 pandemic. It is thought that low-pH stability contributes to infection spread in a pandemic through enhancement of virus replication.
著者
Yutaka Jitsuyama Ayane Ichiki Ryosuke Ide Hanako Shimura Takashi Suzuki
出版者
The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.UTD-008, (Released:2018-12-26)

An excess or lack of soil moisture are significant abiotic stresses that reduce the average yield for vegetable crops worldwide. The responses of ‘Natsunoshun’, a processing tomato cultivar, to water stress at three growth stages, first flower differentiation, first flowering, and fruit development, were investigated over a two-year period. The year effect on yield was not significant; however, the growth stage and the type of water stress at a particular growth stage affected yield significantly. Either an excess or lack of soil moisture after the first flowering stage were significant in reducing yield. The decrease was related to the average weight of the fruit rather than the number per plant. Under dry conditions, fruit number was the same as control plants, but there was a decrease in the reddish mature fruit ratio. On the other hand, under wet conditions plant biomass decreased, especially in the roots, even if there was a transition from wet to dry conditions. We conclude that excessive soil moisture during the first flowering stage produces slower CGR and decreased biomass in the roots, which we believe is the reason for the yield decline.
著者
Takashi SUZUKI Narumi YAMAMOTO Hirotaka KONDO Hisashi SHIBUYA
出版者
JAPANESE SOCIETY OF VETERINARY SCIENCE
雑誌
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science (ISSN:09167250)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.18-0382, (Released:2018-09-19)

The neoplastic mass developed in the left flank of a Border Collie dog. The tumor was resected surgically and evaluated histologically and immunohistochemically. Histologically a moderate number of spindle cells were proliferated with staghorn, placentoid, and myxoid growth patterns and a lack of perivascular whirling. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive to vimentin, laminin, S-100 protein, CD34 and CD117 antibodies. They were negative to cytokeratin AE1/3, desmin, α-SMA and calponin antibodies. Endothelial cells of the staghorn channels were positive for vWF antibody. The present case was diagnosed as spindle cell tumor, but it was similar to human classical hemangiopericytoma (HEP) and canine HEP classified by Avallon and others.
著者
Takahisa YAMAMOTO Koshi MITACHI Takashi SUZUKI
出版者
社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
JSME International Journal Series B Fluids and Thermal Engineering (ISSN:13408054)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.3, pp.610-617, 2005 (Released:2006-02-15)
参考文献数
13
被引用文献数
16 20

The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a thermal neutron reactor with graphite moderation and operates on the thorium-uranium fuel cycle. The feature of the MSR is that fuel salt flows inside the reactor during the nuclear fission reaction. In the previous study, the authors developed numerical model with which to simulate the effects of fuel salt flow on the reactor characteristics. In this study, we apply the model to the steady-state analysis of a small MSR system and estimate the effects of fuel flow. The model consists of two-group neutron diffusion equations for fast and thermal neutron fluxes, transport equations for six-group delayed neutron precursors and energy conservation equations for fuel salt and the graphite moderator. The following results are obtained: (1) in the rated operation condition, the peaks of the neutron fluxes slightly move toward the bottom from the center of the reactor and the delayed neutron precursors are significantly carried by the fuel salt flow, and (2) the extension of residence time in the external-loop system and the rise of the fuel inflow temperature show weak negative reactivity effects, which decrease the neutron multiplication factor of the small MSR system.
著者
Kana Nikaido Tatsuru Jishi Tomoo Maeda Takashi Suzuki Hajime Araki
出版者
園芸学会
雑誌
Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science (ISSN:18823351)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.CH-113, (Released:2014-09-02)
被引用文献数
2

Asparagus has a short shelf life. A temperature of 0–2°C with a relative humidity of 95–100% is well known as the ideal storage environment for asparagus spears. The quality of spears stored in a snow vault and snow mount (Snow) was compared with those stored in an electric refrigerator (Refrigerator). Asparagus spears of ‘Grande’ and ‘Gijnlim’ were stored in Snow and Refrigerator for 0, 2, 5, 10, and 20 days; then, 1) physical and external appearance characteristics such as hardness, weight, and surface color, and 2) features of internal quality such as Brix, sugar, ascorbic acid, and rutin content in the spears were investigated. Although temperature and relative humidity fluctuated largely in the ranges of 3–6°C and 65–85% in Refrigerator, those in Snow were almost completely stable at 0–1°C and 100%. In ‘Grande’, the weight of the spears stored in Refrigerator decreased dramatically compared with that of spears stored in Snow. The external appearance of ‘Gijnlim’ spears was preserved until the 10th day, but loose tips were observed on the spears in both Snow and Refrigerator on the 20th day. ‘Grande’ spears stored in Refrigerator turned slightly brown and wilted at the surface of the basal part compared with Snow-stored spears. No loose tips were observed on ‘Grande’ spears. There was also no significant difference in the internal quality of spears between those stored in Snow and Refrigerator, in both varieties. CO2 emissions in snow storage were reduced to half of those in refrigerator storage in LCA analysis and no CO2 emissions were identified during the storage period in Snow. From the perspectives of energy utilization and quality preservation, snow appears to be one of the better alternatives for spear preservation than use of a refrigerator.