著者
KATSU ISHIGAKI HIROYUKI NAMBA NOBORU TAKAMURA HIROKAZU SAIWAI VLADIMIR PARSHIN TOSHINORI OHASHI TAKASHI KANEMATSU SHUNICHI YAMASHITA
出版者
The Japan Endocrine Society
雑誌
Endocrine Journal (ISSN:09188959)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.5, pp.591-595, 2001 (Released:2006-11-25)
参考文献数
13
被引用文献数
17 17

We evaluated the incidence of childhood thyroid diseases and urinary iodine levels in Nagasaki, Japan and in Gomel, Belarus, which was greatly radio-contaminated by the Chernobyl accident, in order to obtain the comparative data of thyroid diseases between iodine-rich (Japan) and -deficient (Belarus) areas. In Nagasaki, the median level of urinary iodine, measured by ammonium persulfate digestion in microplate method, was 362.9μg/L. In order to evaluate the geographical differences in Japan, other samples were collected in Hamamatsu and in South Kayabe, Hokkaido, where the median levels were 208.4μg/L and 1015.5μg/L, respectively. Furthermore, thyroid screening by ultrasound (US) in Nagasaki revealed only four cases that showed goiter (1.6%) and two cases (0.8%) that had cystic degeneration and single thyroid cyst. There was no evidence of thyroid nodule detected by US examination. In contrast, the median of urinary iodine level was 41.3μg/L in Gomel. The incidences of goiter (13.6%) and echogenic abnormality (1.74%) in Gomel were much higher than in Nagasaki, suggesting the critical involvement of iodine deficiency in increased childhood thyroid abnormality around Chernobyl. Radioactive iodine released just after the Chernobyl accident may have influenced predominantly children residing in iodine-deficient areas. Our results suggest that management of thyroid screening for schoolchildren at ordinary times may be beneficial for monitoring the adverse effects of radioactive iodine from the standpoint of future prospective study.
著者
Kei Sawada Shigehiro Karashima Mitsuhiro Kometani Rie Oka Yoshimichi Takeda Toshitaka Sawamura Aya Fujimoto Masashi Demura Ayako Wakayama Mikiya Usukura Kunimasa Yagi Yoshiyu Takeda Takashi Yoneda
出版者
The Japan Endocrine Society
雑誌
Endocrine Journal (ISSN:09188959)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.EJ17-0440, (Released:2018-02-20)

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is often associated with metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes and may contribute to cardiovascular events. A novel class of antidiabetic drugs, the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) reduce body weight (BW), although there is limited data on their impact on OSAS. We therefore evaluated the effect of SGLT2i on OSAS in patients with type 2 diabetes. The presented study was a retrospective design in 18 patients with type 2 diabetes with OSAS (4 males, age range 39–81 yr) administrated a SGLT2i. HbA1c, BW, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP) and apnea hypopnea index (AHI) were evaluated before and after SGLT2i administration. The relationships between the reduction in AHI and the other variables were examined using Pearson correlation analysis. We have got result that SGLT2i reduced AHI from 31.9 ± 18.0 to 18.8 ± 11.5 events per hr (p = 0.003). HbA1c, BW and BMI decreased significantly, whereas BP did not. The Pearson correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between the reduction in AHI and pre-administration of AHI. In conclusion, SGLT2i reduced not only HbA1c, BW and BMI but also AHI significantly and therefore has potential as an effective treatment of OSAS.
著者
Tetiana I. Bogdanova Vladimir A. Saenko Mitsuyoshi Hirokawa Masahiro Ito Liudmyla Yu. Zurnadzhy Toshitetsu Hayashi Tatiana I. Rogounovitch Akira Miyauchi Mykola D. Tronko Shunichi Yamashita
出版者
The Japan Endocrine Society
雑誌
Endocrine Journal (ISSN:09188959)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, no.10, pp.977-993, 2017 (Released:2017-10-28)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
1 1

This study set out to compare structural and invasive characteristics of sporadic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in age-matched groups of children and adolescents of Japan and Ukraine to provide detailed histopathological analysis of tumors from different geographical areas with different iodine intake. A total of 348 (160 Japanese and 188 Ukrainian) PTCs from patients without radiation history were analyzed initially as a combined pediatric group and then subdivided into childhood (aged ≤14 years) and adolescent (aged from 15 to ≤18 years) age series. On multivariate comparison, the Japanese pediatric PTC was characterized by a higher sex ratio (p=1.504E-4), and a higher frequency of microcarcinoma (p=0.039), papillary dominant growth pattern (p=0.024), focal oxyphilic cell metaplasia (p=7.644E-6), intrathyroid spread (p=0.010), lymphatic/vascular invasion (p=0.01) and regional lymph node metastases (p=3.540E-6). In the Ukrainian group, multifocal (p=0.004) and non-encapsulated tumors with the solid-trabecular growth pattern (p=0.05) were more frequent. Childhood Japanese PTCs differed from Ukrainian PTCs by more pronounced invasive properties such as lymphatic/vascular invasion and nodal disease, but did not differ by the dominant growth pattern. In adolescents, the differences were detected not only for lymph node metastases, but also for a higher frequency of the papillary dominant pattern in Japanese PTC. Overall, significantly higher frequencies of oxyphilic cell metaplasia and more pronounced invasive features observed in the Japanese PTC in both age-matched series represent the major differences between the tumors from two geographical areas.
著者
Toru Takano
出版者
The Japan Endocrine Society
雑誌
Endocrine Journal (ISSN:09188959)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, no.3, pp.237-244, 2017 (Released:2017-03-31)
参考文献数
38
被引用文献数
9 10

Thyroid cancers have long been considered to arise in middle age and, after their repeated proliferation, resulting in further damage to the genome, they progress to more aggressive and lethal cancers. However, in 2014, some studies were reported that might lead to a marked change in our understanding of the natural history of thyroid cancer. A high prevalence of papillary carcinoma in the young suggested that the first initiation of thyroid cancer is likely to occur in the infantile period. Such a conclusion was also supported by a very slow growth rate of papillary microcarcinomas (PMCs) in an observation trial. The proliferation rate of PMCs was negatively correlated with the age, and surgery to remove PMCs did not contribute to reduce mortality from thyroid cancer. These findings strongly suggested the existence of self-limiting cancers, which are truly malignant but do not progress to lethal cancers, for the first time in human history. The early detection of self-limiting cancers results in overdiagnosis. Ultrasonographic screening of the thyroid in the young should be avoided. Lethal thyroid cancers, whose origin is still unknown, appear suddenly after middle age. In the elderly, thyroid cancers are a mixture of self-limiting and lethal cancers; thus, when thyroid cancer is detected, careful follow-up with examination of its growth rate is required.
著者
MASAMI OHMORI KAZUHIRO HARADA SHUICHI TSURUOKA KOH-ICHI SUGIMOTO EIJI KOBAYASHI AKIO FUJIMURA
出版者
The Japan Endocrine Society
雑誌
Endocrine Journal (ISSN:09188959)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.4, pp.579-583, 1999 (Released:2006-11-25)
参考文献数
5
被引用文献数
3 3

Here we report a case of levothyroxine-induced liver dysfunction. T4 (levothyroxine) has been more commonly used for the treatment of hypothyroidism than T3 active hormone (triiodothyronine), because with the former drug a stabler plasma concentration is obtained after oral administration. Although there are few reports on levothyroxine-induced liver dysfunction, we treated a primary hypothyroid patient with high serum aminotransferase after administration of levothyroxine. Liver dysfunction was improved after cessation of the drug administration. Antibody to T4 was found in the serum of the patient after this event. From clinical course and laboratory data of the patient, the episode of liver damage was considered to be induced by levothyroxine. We then administrated triiodothyronine, and it did not induce liver dysfunction. Changing levothyroxine to triiodothyronine resulted in a successful clinical course in this case, as re-administration of the doubtful drug is strictly limited.
著者
Satoru Suzuki Sanae Midorikawa Toshihiko Fukushima Hiroki Shimura Tetsuya Ohira Akira Ohtsuru Masafumi Abe Yoshisada Shibata Shunichi Yamashita Shinichi Suzuki
出版者
The Japan Endocrine Society
雑誌
Endocrine Journal (ISSN:09188959)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.3, pp.261-268, 2015 (Released:2015-03-30)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
7 10

Although several reports have defined normal thyroid volume depending on either age or body surface, there are no sequential reference values on childhood thyroid volume evaluated by using ultrasonography and epidemiological analysis in Japan. The aim of the present study was to establish updated reference values for thyroid volume by ultrasound examination and epidemiological analysis in 0-19 year-old Japanese children. It is based on a cross-sectional study conducted from October 9, 2011 to March 31, 2012. The subjects were 38,063 children who were examined by ultrasonography as the initial preliminary survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey in October 9, 2011 to March 31, 2012. The width, thickness, and height of each lobe were measured and the volume of each lobe was calculated by the mean of the elliptical shape volume formula. The values of thyroid volume at the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles of age and body surface area for each gender group were obtained from 0-19 year-old children. Positive correlation was observed between thyroid volume and either age or body surface. The right lobe was significantly larger than the left lobe. The thyroid volume in females was larger than that in males after adjusting body surface area. The reference values of childhood thyroid for each age or body surface area were obtained by this extensive survey using ultrasound. These reference values may be used to define the normal size of thyroid gland by echosonography in Japanese children, although thyroid volume may be affected by dimorphic factors such as sex hormones.
著者
Ryosuke Sakai Yoshitaka Hashimoto Emi Ushigome Akane Miki Takuro Okamura Masako Matsugasumi Takuya Fukuda Saori Majima Shinobu Matsumoto Takafumi Senmaru Masahide Hamaguchi Muhei Tanaka Mai Asano Masahiro Yamazaki Yohei Oda Michiaki Fukui
出版者
The Japan Endocrine Society
雑誌
Endocrine Journal (ISSN:09188959)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.65, no.4, pp.395-402, 2017 (Released:2018-04-26)
参考文献数
48
被引用文献数
2

Skipping breakfast or irregular breakfast is associated with poor glycemic control. However, a relationship between the timing of dinner and glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes remains indefinite. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between late-night-dinner and glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes. We performed questionnaire survey for lifestyle factors in this cross-sectional study. We defined having dinner later than eight pm as late-night-dinner. We examined the differences in clinical and metabolic parameters between those who have late-night-dinner and those who do not have. We also examined the relationship between late-night-dinner and HbA1c, using multiple regression analysis. Ninety-five people (23.2%) had a late-night-dinner, among 409 people with type 2 diabetes. Metabolic parameters (mean (SD) or median (interquartile range)) of people with late-night-dinner were worse than those of without, including body mass index (BMI) (24.4 (4.0) vs. 23.2 (3.4) kg/m2, p = 0.006), triglycerides (1.5 (1.1–2.1) vs. 1.2 (0.8–1.7) mmol/L, p < 0.001), HDL-cholesterol (1.4 (0.4) vs. 1.6 (0.4) mmol/L, p = 0.004) and hemoglobin A1c (58.1 (13.3) vs. 55.2 (10.2) mmol/mol, (7.5 (1.2) vs. 7.2 (0.9) %), p = 0.023)). Late-night-dinner (standardized regression coefficient = 0.13, p = 0.028) was associated with hemoglobin A1c after adjusting for age, BMI, sex, duration of diabetes, smoking, exercise, alcohol, snacking after dinner, nighttime sleep duration, time from dinner to bedtime, skipping breakfast, and medication for diabetes. Late-night-dinner is independently associated with poor glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes.
著者
Yasuhiro ITO Akira MIYAUCHI
出版者
The Japan Endocrine Society
雑誌
Endocrine Journal (ISSN:09188959)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.56, no.2, pp.177-192, 2009 (Released:2009-04-29)
参考文献数
113
被引用文献数
67 75

Differentiated thyroid carcinoma originates from thyroid follicular cells and is the most prominent malignancy of the endocrine organs. There are two histological types of differentiated carcinoma, namely, papillary and follicular carcinoma. According to reports from Western countries, papillary carcinoma comprises 85.3% of thyroid malignancies in whites, and 72.3% in blacks [1, 2]. In Japan, a previous study showed that the prevalence of papillary carcinoma was 78.4% based on material registered between 1977 and 1986 [3], but according to recent findings reported in 2004 by Japanese Society of Thyroid Surgeons (JSTS), papillary carcinoma accounted for as much as 93% of all thyroid carcinomas. Papillary carcinoma frequently metastasizes to the regional lymph node and shows multicentricity in the thyroid gland. It usually shows a typical ultrasonographic appearance and can be rather easily diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) [4-6]. Follicular carcinoma accounts for 10.9-20.5% of the patients in the United States [1, 2]. In Japan, the prevalence of follicular carcinoma was reported to be 17.2% [3], but it decreased to 5% in a report by JSTS in 2004. This carcinoma is only occasionally diagnosed preoperatively, because it is hard to discriminate follicular carcinoma from benign adenoma on imaging studies and cytologic findings. In contrast to papillary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma more often metastasizes to distant organs than regional lymph nodes. In Japan, the prevalence of papillary carcinoma increased and that of follicular carcinoma decreased between reports from 1977 to 1986 and that in 2004, which may be because follicular variant of papillary carcinoma was classified into follicular carcinoma in the previous results. Generally, these carcinomas show an indolent character, but when the lesion dedifferentiates and becomes undifferentiated carcinoma, it displays very rapid growth with an adverse prognosis and is regarded even as the most aggressive malignancy among human solid carcinomas [7, 8]. Furthermore, cases showing certain characteristics are likely to be constantly progressive and even become life-threatening. Such cases should be regarded as "high-risk" requiring careful and extensive surgical treatment and postoperative follow-up. Indeed, it is most important for physicians to correctly distinguish high-risk cases from those with an indolent character, although how to evaluate the biological characteristics of thyroid carcinoma and how to identify high-risk cases remains highly controversial. In this review, the methods of distinguishing high-risk cases and the appropriate therapeutic strategies for papillary and follicular carcinomas predominantly based on our experience are emphasized and our proposals for therapies including surgical treatment are demonstrated.
著者
Ryosuke Sakai Yoshitaka Hashimoto Emi Ushigome Akane Miki Takuro Okamura Masako Matsugasumi Takuya Fukuda Saori Majima Shinobu Matsumoto Takafumi Senmaru Masahide Hamaguchi Muhei Tanaka Mai Asano Masahiro Yamazaki Yohei Oda Michiaki Fukui
出版者
The Japan Endocrine Society
雑誌
Endocrine Journal (ISSN:09188959)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.EJ17-0414, (Released:2018-01-27)
被引用文献数
2

Skipping breakfast or irregular breakfast is associated with poor glycemic control. However, a relationship between the timing of dinner and glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes remains indefinite. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between late-night-dinner and glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes. We performed questionnaire survey for lifestyle factors in this cross-sectional study. We defined having dinner later than eight pm as late-night-dinner. We examined the differences in clinical and metabolic parameters between those who have late-night-dinner and those who do not have. We also examined the relationship between late-night-dinner and HbA1c, using multiple regression analysis. Ninety-five people (23.2%) had a late-night-dinner, among 409 people with type 2 diabetes. Metabolic parameters (mean (SD) or median (interquartile range)) of people with late-night-dinner were worse than those of without, including body mass index (BMI) (24.4 (4.0) vs. 23.2 (3.4) kg/m2, p = 0.006), triglycerides (1.5 (1.1–2.1) vs. 1.2 (0.8–1.7) mmol/L, p < 0.001), HDL-cholesterol (1.4 (0.4) vs. 1.6 (0.4) mmol/L, p = 0.004) and hemoglobin A1c (58.1 (13.3) vs. 55.2 (10.2) mmol/mol, (7.5 (1.2) vs. 7.2 (0.9) %), p = 0.023)). Late-night-dinner (standardized regression coefficient = 0.13, p = 0.028) was associated with hemoglobin A1c after adjusting for age, BMI, sex, duration of diabetes, smoking, exercise, alcohol, snacking after dinner, nighttime sleep duration, time from dinner to bedtime, skipping breakfast, and medication for diabetes. Late-night-dinner is independently associated with poor glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes.
著者
IZAWA MASAO
出版者
The Japan Endocrine Society
雑誌
Endocrinologia Japonica (ISSN:00137219)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, no.2, pp.233-238, 1990
被引用文献数
2

When the <I>in vitro</I> translation products of mRNAs from castrated animals (48h) were compared with those from androgen-treated animals (48 h) to survey the molecular mechanism of androgen-responsive gene expressions in the rat seminal vesicles, some peptide bands which were repressed in response to androgen were observed. From these findings, we constructed a partial cDNA library of poly (A+) RNAs which had been isolated from the seminal vesicles of castrated rats (48 h) and modestly enriched with respect to the concentration of androgen-repressed mRNAs by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and screened by differential colony hybridization. One cDNA clone, pSvr-1, whose mRNA is markedly induced within 24h after castration of the animal in the seminal vesicles as well as in the ventral prostate, was isolated. pSvr-1 hybridized to a mRNA of 1, 700 nucleotides in length. Partial sequence analysis showed that this clone had highly homologous but not identical sequences to those reported for rat sulfated glycoprotein-2. This cDNA clone may provide a useful probe for the study of the negative regulation mechanism of gene expression by androgens.
著者
Yaping Liang Xiaojia Xu Mingjuan Yin Yan Zhang Lingfeng Huang Ruoling Chen Jindong Ni
出版者
The Japan Endocrine Society
雑誌
Endocrine Journal (ISSN:09188959)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.EJ18-0109, (Released:2018-11-03)

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of Berberine on glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and identify potential factors may modifying the hypoglycemic effect. We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Database to identify randomized controlled trials that investigated the effect of Berberine. We calculated weighted mean differences (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Twenty-eight studies were identified for analysis, with a total of 2,313 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. The pool data showed that Berberine treatment was associated with a better reduction on FPG (WMD = –0.54 mmol/L, 95% CI: –0.77 to –0.30), PPG (WMD = –0.94 mmol/L, 95% CI: –1.27 to –0.61), and HbA1c (WMD = –0.54 mmol/L, 95% CI: –0.93 to –‍0.15) than control groups. Subgroup-analyses indicated that effects of Berberine on blood glucose became unremarkable as the treatment lasted more than 90 days, the daily dosage more than 2 g/d and patients aged more than 60 years. The efficiency of Berberine combined with hypoglycaemics is better than either Berberine or hypoglycaemic alone. The dosage and treatment duration of Berberine and patients’ age may modify the effect.
著者
Xuan Shu Shenyou Shu Shijie Tang Lvjun Yang Dan Liu Ke Li Zejun Dong Zhongchao Ma Zhensen Zhu Jialong Din
出版者
The Japan Endocrine Society
雑誌
Endocrine Journal (ISSN:09188959)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.65, no.4, pp.403-413, 2018 (Released:2018-04-26)
参考文献数
37

Diabetic foot ulcer is a chronic, refractory, frequent complication in diabetic patient. Its treatment often requires multidisciplinary joint efforts, diverse strategies have been adopted to address this annoying issue, including stem cell-based therapy/acellular dermal matrix/negative pressure wound therapy etc. However, consensus has not been reached. To assess the current evidence regarding the efficiency and potential advantages of stem cell-based therapy compared with conventional standard treatment and/or placebo in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer. A comprehensive search in PubMed, EmBase, Cochrane Central and Web of Science databases was conducted during December 2016 and a systematic review and meta-analysis of all relevant studies were performed. A total of 7 studies that involved 224 diabetic foot patients, classified as Wagner grades 1–5, were analyzed. The pooled results confirmed the benefits of using the stem cell treatment. Partial and/or complete healing were significantly higher in the stem cell group compared with the control group (77.4% vs. 31.9%; RR: 2.22; 95% CI, 1.65–2.98). Subgroup analysis on ABI and TCP02 also confirmed the results. The present meta-analysis indicates that stem cell-based therapy can enhance the healing of diabetic foot ulcers and is associated with lesser pain, lower amputation rate and improved prognosis compared with normal treatment. Well-designed randomized controlled trials are required in the future in order to confirm and update these findings.
著者
Yinhua Ni Tao Wu Luna Yang Yang Xu Tsuguhito Ota Zhengwei Fu
出版者
The Japan Endocrine Society
雑誌
Endocrine Journal (ISSN:09188959)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.EJ17-0500, (Released:2018-03-10)

Oxidative stress caused free radical and mitochondrial damage plays a critical role in the progression of aging and age-related damage at the cellular and tissue levels. Antioxidant supplementation has received growing attention and the effects of antioxidant on aging are increasingly assessed in both animal and human studies. However, additional and more promising treatments that contribute to the expansion of anti-aging therapies are needed. Astaxanthin, a super antioxidant carotenoid and free radical scavenger, inhibits lipid peroxidation more potently than vitamin E. In the present study, we investigated the preventative effects of astaxanthin on aging using an accelerated aging model: mice chronically treated with a combination of D-galactose and jet lag. After 6 weeks of treatment, astaxanthin administration tended to protect the liver weight loss in aged mice. It is probably by upregulating the mRNA expression of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase, which contribute to the enhancement of D-galactose metabolism. Astaxanthin supplementation also improved muscle endurance of aged mice in a swimming test. These results were associated with reduced oxidative stress in serum and increased anti-oxidative enzymes activities and mRNA expression in vivo. Moreover, astaxanthin reversed the dysregulation of aging-related gene expression caused by the combination of D-galactose and jet lag in the liver and kidney of mice. In conclusion, astaxanthin prevents liver weight loss, ameliorates locomotive muscular function, exerts significant anti-aging effects by reducing oxidative stress and improving the expression of age-related genes in D-galactose and jet lag-induced aging model.
著者
Yasuhiro Ito Akira Miyauchi Mitsuyoshi Hirokawa Masatoshi Yamamoto Hitomi Oda Hiroo Masuoka Hisanori Sasai Mitsuhiro Fukushima Takuya Higashiyama Minoru Kihara Akihiro Miya
出版者
The Japan Endocrine Society
雑誌
Endocrine Journal (ISSN:09188959)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.EJ17-0524, (Released:2018-04-04)

Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), a form of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, is the second most common malignancy arising from thyroid follicular cells. Recently, the tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification for differentiated thyroid carcinoma was revised from the 7th to the 8th edition. The diagnostic criteria for poorly differentiated carcinoma (PDC) were also updated in the latest World Health Organization (WHO) classification. In this study, we investigated whether these changes are appropriate for accurately predicting prognosis. Three hundred and twenty-nine patients diagnosed with postoperative pathologically confirmed FTC, who underwent initial surgery at our hospital between 1984 and 2004, were enrolled. For this study, patients were re-evaluated and diagnosed with FTC (N = 285) or PDC (N = 44) without typical nuclear findings of papillary thyroid carcinoma. For FTC, the 8th TNM classification was a more accurate predictor of prognosis than the 7th TNM classification. In the 8th TNM classification, cause-specific survival became significantly poorer from Stage I to IVB. The cause-specific survival of PDC based on the latest WHO classification was worse than, but did not significantly differ from, that of PDC based only on the former WHO classification. For PDC, neither of the TNM classifications could accurately predict prognosis. Taken together, we conclude that (1) the 8th TNM classification more accurately reflects the prognosis of FTC than the 7th TNM classification; (2) PDC based on the former WHO classification should be retained, at least in Japan; and (3) the TNM classification may not be suitable for predicting the prognosis of PDC.
著者
Toshihiko Yanase Ikumi Yanagita Kazuo Muta Hajime Nawata
出版者
The Japan Endocrine Society
雑誌
Endocrine Journal (ISSN:09188959)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.EJ17-0390, (Released:2017-12-14)
被引用文献数
2

Frailty is a state of vulnerability and a consequence of cumulative decline in multiple physiological systems over a lifespan. The occurrence of frailty depends on deterioration in muscle and nerve function, declining cardiopulmonary reserve and loss of executive function. Diabetes mellitus (DM) often causes functional impairment in each of the above systems, thus leading to a loss of whole body homeostasis and deterioration in physical function. Inability of self-management in DM patients may also have considerable impact on the development of sarcopenia/frailty. Thus, there may be positive feedback between the progression of diabetic complications and frailty/sarcopenia. While various factors are involved in this process, insulin resistance or insulin depletion may be an important factor in the progression of frailty in diabetes patients since insulin is well known to be an anabolic hormone in muscle. Interestingly, in our study targeting elderly DM patients, low HbA1c was a significant and independent risk factor for frailty, as assessed using a broad sense frailty scale, the Clinical Frailty Scale (CSF), suggesting that reverse metabolism due to malnutrition in elderly type 2 DM patients might be involved. Therefore, an intervention that includes proper nutrition and exercise training may be essential for the prevention of frailty. The pathogenesis of frailty in DM patients is extensively discussed in this review.
著者
Masafumi Jyotaki Noriatsu Shigemura Yuzo Ninomiya
出版者
The Japan Endocrine Society
雑誌
Endocrine Journal (ISSN:09188959)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.6, pp.467-475, 2010 (Released:2010-06-22)
参考文献数
62
被引用文献数
22 28

The present study summarized recent findings on roles of leptin and endocannabinoids as modulators of the peripheral components of sweet taste. The positive effect of endocannabinoids on sweet sensitivity was opposed to that of leptin which suppresses sweet sensitivity. Leptin and endocannabinoids, therefore, not only regulate food intake via central nervous systems but also may modulate palatability of foods by altering peripheral sweet taste responses via their cognate receptors. Orexigenic and anorexigenic factors such as endocannnabinoids and leptin may affect energy homeostasis by regulating taste sensitivity.
著者
Masato Furuhashi Kazuma Mori Marenao Tanaka Takuto Maeda Megumi Matsumoto Takayo Murase Takashi Nakamura Masayuki Koyama Norihito Moniwa Hirofumi Ohnishi Shigeyuki Saitoh Kazuaki Shimamoto Tetsuji Miura
出版者
The Japan Endocrine Society
雑誌
Endocrine Journal (ISSN:09188959)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.EJ18-0127, (Released:2018-08-02)

Hypouricemia is a high-risk factor of exercise-induced acute kidney injury (EIAKI) probably through a lack of an antioxidant effect of uric acid. Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of uric acid from hypoxanthine and xanthine, leading to an increase in superoxide and reactive oxygen species. Activation of XOR has been proposed to promote oxidative stress-related tissue injury. We measured plasma XOR activity by a sensitive and accurate assay using a combination of liquid chromatography and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in subjects with relatively low levels of uric acid (≤4.0 mg/dL) who were recruited from 627 subjects (male/female: 292/335) in the Tanno-Sobetsu Study, a population-based cohort. The numbers of subjects with uric acid ≤4.0 mg/dL, ≤3.0 mg/dL and ≤2.0 mg/dL were 72 (11.5%, male/female: 5/67), 13 (2.1%, all females) and 2 (0.3%, both females), respectively. Plasma XOR activities in 5 male subjects were below the median value of the 292 male subjects. In 12 (17.9%) of the 67 female subjects with uric acid ≤4.0 mg/dL, plasma XOR activities were above the upper quartile value of the 335 female subjects. Eleven of the 12 female subjects with high plasma XOR activity and a low uric acid level had liver dysfunction and/or insulin resistance. In conclusion, unexpected high plasma XOR activities were found in some female subjects with relatively low levels of uric acid. Measurement of plasma XOR activity may help to identify hypouricemic patients with a high risk for EIAKI.
著者
Yukio IKEDA Tadashi SUEHIRO Shigeo YAMANAKA Yoshitaka KUMON Hiroshi TAKATA Shojiro INADA Naoko OGAMI Fumiaki OSAKI Mari INOUE Kaoru ARII Kozo HASHIMOTO
出版者
The Japan Endocrine Society
雑誌
Endocrine Journal (ISSN:09188959)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.5, pp.665-670, 2006 (Released:2006-10-31)
参考文献数
23
被引用文献数
6 6

The oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) plays a central role in the initiation and acceleration of atherosclerosis. Iron plays a part in the formation of highly toxic free radicals such as hydroxide and superoxide anions, which can induce lipid peroxidation. We investigated whether serum iron status was associated with circulating oxidized LDL (oxLDL) levels in type 2 diabetic patients, in whom oxidative stress and susceptibility to lipid oxidation were supposedly increased. Serum ferritin levels were significantly correlated with plasma oxLDL concentrations in both male and female patients (p<0.02 and p<0.05, respectively). No correlation was detected between ferritin and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations despite the close correlation between LDL-C and oxLDL concentrations (p<0.0001). Stepwise regression analysis showed that ferritin concentration was an independent positive determinant of oxLDL level, in addition to triglyceride concentration, body mass index and sex. This is the first report to show that serum ferritin is associated with circulating oxLDL levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Further work is required to establish a causative link between iron excess and the development of diabetic vascular complications.
著者
Akira Sugawara Akira Uruno Masataka Kudo Ken Matsuda Chul Woo Yang Sadayoshi Ito
出版者
The Japan Endocrine Society
雑誌
Endocrine Journal (ISSN:09188959)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.10, pp.847-852, 2010 (Released:2010-10-30)
参考文献数
37
被引用文献数
28 29

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ is a nuclear hormone receptor that is trans-activated by its ligands including insulin-sensitizing thiazolidinediones. PPARγ has recently been reported to demonstrate pleiotropic beneficial effects in the vasculatures, independent of its blood glucose-lowering effects. Firstly, PPARγ ligands have been shown to lower blood pressure in both animals and human. The effect may possibly be mediated via the PPARγ-mediated inhibition of the angiotensin (Ang) II type 1 receptor expression as well as Ang II-mediated signaling pathways, which may result in the suppression of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Secondly, the progression of atherosclerosis was also prevented by PPARγ ligands in both animals and human. In addition to the PPARγ-mediated suppression of the RAS and the thromboxane A2 system, protective effects of PPARγ ligands on endothelial function may also be involved. Thirdly, reno-protective effects of PPARγ ligands, especially on reducing urinary albumin, have been observed in both animals and human not only in diabetic nephropathy but also in non-diabetic renal diseases. The reno-protective effects may be mediated, at least in part, via the PPARγ ligand-induced blood pressure-lowering effects, protective effects on endothelial function, and vasodilating effects on the glomerular efferent arterioles. Additionally, anti-cancer effects of PPARγ ligands have recently been reported. Taken together, usefulness and effectiveness of PPARγ ligands on lifestyle related diseases will be increasingly appreciated.