著者
Hyun-Kyung Chang Mal-Soon Shin Hye-Young Yang Jin-Woo Lee Young-Sick Kim Myoung-Hwa Lee Jullia Kim Khae-Hawn Kim Chang-Ju Kim
出版者
The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
雑誌
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (ISSN:09186158)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.8, pp.1597-1602, 2006 (Released:2006-08-01)
参考文献数
41
被引用文献数
83 85

Prostate cancer is one of the most common non-skin cancers in men. Amygdalin is one of the nitrilosides, natural cyanide-containing substances abundant in the seeds of plants of the prunasin family that have been used to treat cancers and relieve pain. In particular, D-amygdalin (D-mandelonitrile-β-D-gentiobioside) is known to exhibit selective killing effect on cancer cells. Apoptosis, programmed cell death, is an important mechanism in cancer treatment. In the present study, we prepared the aqueous extract of the amygdalin from Armeniacae semen and investigated whether this extract induces apoptotic cell death in human DU145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. In the present results, DU145 and LNCaP cells treated with amygdalin exhibited several morphological characteristics of apoptosis. Treatment with amygdalin increased expression of Bax, a pro-apoptotic protein, decreased expression of Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein, and increased caspase-3 enzyme activity in DU145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Here, we have shown that amygdalin induces apoptotic cell death in human DU145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells by caspase-3 activation through down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax. The present study reveals that amygdalin may offer a valuable option for the treatment of prostate cancers.
著者
Satoshi Yamaori Yoshimi Okushima Kazufumi Masuda Mika Kushihara Takashi Katsu Shizuo Narimatsu Ikuo Yamamoto Kazuhito Watanabe
出版者
公益社団法人日本薬学会
雑誌
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (ISSN:09186158)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.7, pp.1197-1203, 2013-07-01 (Released:2013-07-01)
参考文献数
39
被引用文献数
2 6

Our recent work has shown that cannabidiol (CBD) exhibits the most potent direct inhibition of human cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) among the CYP enzymes examined. However, the mechanism underlying this CBD inhibition remains to be clarified. Thus, to elucidate the structural requirements for the potent inhibition by CBD, the effects of CBD and its structurally related compounds on CYP1A1 activity were investigated with recombinant human CYP1A1. Olivetol, which corresponds to the pentylresorcinol moiety of CBD, inhibited the 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity of CYP1A1; its inhibitory effect (IC50=13.8 µM) was less potent than that of CBD (IC50=0.355 µM). In contrast, d-limonene, which corresponds to the terpene moiety of CBD, only slightly inhibited CYP1A1 activity. CBD-2′-monomethyl ether (CBDM) and CBD-2′,6′-dimethyl ether inhibited CYP1A1 activity with IC50 values of 4.07 and 23.0 µM, respectively, indicating that their inhibitory effects attenuated depending on the level of methylation on the free phenolic hydroxyl groups in the pentylresorcinol moiety of CBD. Cannabidivarin inhibited CYP1A1 activity, although its inhibitory potency (IC50=1.85 µM) was lower than that of CBD. The inhibitory effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabielsoin (IC50s ≈10 µM), which contain a free phenolic hydroxyl group and are structurally constrained, were less potent than that of CBDM, which contains a free phenolic hydroxyl group and is rotatable between pentylresorcinol and terpene moieties. These results suggest that the pentylresorcinol structure in CBD may have structurally important roles in direct CYP1A1 inhibition, although the whole structure of CBD is required for overall inhibition.
著者
Tomoharu Kuboyama Chihiro Tohda Katsuko Komatsu
出版者
The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
雑誌
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (ISSN:09186158)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, no.6, pp.892-897, 2014-06-01 (Released:2014-06-01)
参考文献数
60
被引用文献数
16 41

Neurodegenerative diseases commonly induce irreversible destruction of central nervous system (CNS) neuronal networks, resulting in permanent functional impairments. Effective medications against neurodegenerative diseases are currently lacking. Ashwagandha (roots of Withania somnifera Dunal) is used in traditional Indian medicine (Ayurveda) for general debility, consumption, nervous exhaustion, insomnia, and loss of memory. In this review, we summarize various effects and mechanisms of Ashwagandha extracts and related compounds on in vitro and in vivo models of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and spinal cord injury.
著者
Kiyoko Kaneko Yasuo Aoyagi Tomoko Fukuuchi Katsunori Inazawa Noriko Yamaoka
出版者
The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
雑誌
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (ISSN:09186158)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, no.5, pp.709-721, 2014-05-01 (Released:2014-05-01)
参考文献数
42
被引用文献数
11 47

Purines are natural substances found in all of the body’s cells and in virtually all foods. In humans, purines are metabolized to uric acid, which serves as an antioxidant and helps to prevent damage caused by active oxygen species. A continuous supply of uric acid is important for protecting human blood vessels. However, frequent and high intake of purine-rich foods reportedly enhances serum uric acid levels, which results in gout and could be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and metabolic syndrome. In Japan, the daily intake of dietary purines is recommended to be less than 400 mg to prevent gout and hyperuricemia. We have established an HPLC method for purine analysis and determined purines in a total of 270 foodstuffs. A relatively small number of foods contained concentrated amounts of purines. For the most part, purine-rich foods are also energy-rich foods, and include animal meats, fish meats, organs such as the liver and fish milt, and yeast. When the ratio of the four purine bases (adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine) was compared, two groups of foods were identified: one that contained mainly adenine and guanine and one that contained mainly hypoxanthine. For patients with gout and hyperuricemia, the amount of total purines and the types of purines consumed, particularly hypoxanthine, are important considerations. In this context, the data from our analysis provide a purine content reference, and thereby clinicians and patients could utilize that reference in nutritional therapy for gout and hyperuricemia.
著者
Eriko Uchida Yoshitaka Kondo Akiko Amano Shingo Aizawa Takayuki Hanamura Hitoshi Aoki Kenichi Nagamine Takeshi Koizumi Naoki Maruyama Akihito Ishigami
出版者
The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
雑誌
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (ISSN:09186158)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.11, pp.1744-1747, 2011-11-01 (Released:2011-11-01)
参考文献数
20
被引用文献数
7 11

It has been suggested that some food components, such as bioflavonoids, affect the bioavailability of ascorbic acid in humans. Since little is known in Japan about the effective intake of this dietary requirement, we tested young Japanese males after the ingestion of commercial ascorbic acid or acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) juice to compare the quantities absorbed and excreted. Healthy Japanese subjects received a single oral dose of ascorbic acid solution (50, 100, 200 or 500 mg) and received distilled water as a reference at intervals of 14 d or longer. All subjects were collected blood and urine until 6 h after ingestion and evaluated for time-dependent changes in plasma and urinary ascorbic acid levels. Predictably, the area under the curve (AUC) values in plasma and urine after ingestion increased dose-dependently. Next, each subject received diluted acerola juice containing 50 mg ascorbic acid. Likewise, their plasma and urinary ascorbic acid concentrations were measured. In plasma, the AUC value of ascorbic acid after ingestion of acerola juice tended to be higher than that from ascorbic acid alone. In contrast, the urinary excretion of ascorbic acid at 1, 2 and 5 h after ingestion of acerola juice were significantly less than that of ascorbic acid. These results indicate that some component of acerola juice favorably affected the absorption and excretion of ascorbic acid.
著者
Yağız Anıl Çiçek David C. Luther Jessica A. Kretzmann Vincent M. Rotello
出版者
The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
雑誌
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (ISSN:09186158)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.3, pp.304-311, 2019-03-01 (Released:2019-03-01)
参考文献数
83

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) technology has revolutionized therapeutic gene editing by providing researchers with a new method to study and cure diseases previously considered untreatable. While the full range and power of CRISPR technology for therapeutics is being elucidated through in vitro studies, translation to in vivo studies is slow. To date there is no totally effective delivery strategy to carry CRISPR components to the target site in vivo. The complexity of in vivo delivery is furthered by the number of potential delivery methods, the different forms in which CRISPR can be delivered as a therapeutic, and the disease target and tissue type in question. There are major challenges and limitations to delivery strategies, and it is imperative that future directions are guided by well-conducted studies that consider the full effect these variables have on the eventual outcome. In this review we will discuss the advances of the latest in vivo CRISPR/Cas9 delivery strategies and highlight the challenges yet to be overcome.
著者
Daisuke Furushima Hiroshi Yamada Michiko Kido Yuko Ohno
出版者
The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
雑誌
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (ISSN:09186158)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.3, pp.409-418, 2018-03-01 (Released:2018-03-01)
参考文献数
40

Improvement in patient waiting time in dispensing pharmacies is an important element for patient and pharmacists. The One-Dose Package (ODP) of medicines was implemented in Japan to support medicine adherence among elderly patients; however, it also contributed to increase in patient waiting times. Given the projected increase in ODP patients in the near future owing to rapid population aging, development of improved strategies is a key imperative. We conducted a cross-sectional survey at a single dispensing pharmacy to clarify the impact of ODP on patient waiting time. Further, we propose an improvement strategy developed with use of a discrete event simulation (DES) model. A total of 673 patients received pharmacy services during the study period. A two-fold difference in mean waiting time was observed between ODP and non-ODP patients (22.6 and 11.2 min, respectively). The DES model was constructed with input parameters estimated from observed data. Introduction of fully automated ODP (A-ODP) system was projected to reduce the waiting time for ODP patient by 0.5 times (from 23.1 to 11.5 min). Furthermore, assuming that 40% of non-ODP patients would transfer to ODP, the waiting time was predicted to increase to 56.8 min; however, introduction of the A-ODP system decreased the waiting time to 20.4 min. Our findings indicate that ODP is one of the elements that increases the waiting time and that it might become longer in the future. Introduction of the A-ODP system may be an effective strategy to improve waiting time.
著者
Lucia Renee Ruhaak Jenny Felth Pernilla Christina Karlsson Joseph James Rafter Robert Verpoorte Lars Bohlin
出版者
The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
雑誌
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (ISSN:09186158)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.5, pp.774-778, 2011-05-01 (Released:2011-05-01)
参考文献数
35
被引用文献数
23 40

Cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and COX-2) catalyse the production of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid. Prostaglandins are important mediators in the inflammatory process and their production can be reduced by COX-inhibitors. Endocannabinoids, endogenous analogues of the plant derived cannabinoids, occur normally in the human body. The Endocannabinoids are structurally similar to arachidonic acid and have been suggested to interfere with the inflammatory process. They have also been shown to inhibit cancer cell proliferation. Anti-inflammatory effects of cannabinoids and endocannabinoids have been observed, however the mode of action is not yet clarified. Anti-inflammatory activity (i.e., inhibition of COX-2) is proposed to play an important role in the development of colon cancer, which makes this subject interesting to study further. In the present work, the six cannabinoids tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (Δ9-THC-A), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), isolated from Cannabis sativa, were evaluated for their effects on prostaglandin production. For this purpose an in vitro enzyme based COX-1/COX-2 inhibition assay and a cell based prostaglandin production radioimmunoassay were used. Cannabinoids inhibited cyclooxygenase enzyme activity with IC50 values ranging from 1.7·10−3 to 2.0·10−4 M.
著者
JaeHo Lee SeungJun Lee ByungMan Lee KyungBaeg Roh DeokHoon Park EunSun Jung
出版者
公益社団法人日本薬学会
雑誌
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (ISSN:09186158)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.b15-00305, (Released:2015-07-15)
参考文献数
14
被引用文献数
3

For screening of skin-whitening ingredients that modulate inhibition of melanogenesis, tyrosinase promoter-based assay using a 3D spheroid culture technique is a beneficial tool to improve the accuracy of raw material screening in cosmetics through mimicking of the in vivo microenvironment. Although the advantages of high-throughput screening (HTS) are widely known, there has been little focus on specific cell-based promoter assays for HTS in identifying skin-whitening ingredients that inhibit accumulation of melanin. The aim of this study was therefore to develop a large-scale compatible assay through pTyr-EGFP, an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-based tyrosinase-specific promoter, to seek potential melanogenesis inhibitors for cosmetic use. Herein, a stably transfected human melanoma cell line expressing EGFP under the control of a 2.2-kb fragment derived from the tyrosinase gene was generated. Spontaneous induction of the tyrosinase promoter by 3D spheroid culture resulted in increased expression of EGFP, providing a significant correlation with the tyrosinase mRNA level, and subsequent inhibition of tyrosinase activity. Importantly, the pTyr-EGFP system provided successful tracking of the changes in the live image and real-time monitoring. Thus tyrosinase promoter-based fluorescent assay using a 3D spheroid culture can be useful as a screening system for exploring the efficiency of anti-melanogenesis ingredients.
著者
Kazuo Yamada Atsushi Watanabe Haruo Takeshita Atsushi Fujita Noriko Miyake Naomichi Matsumoto Ken-ichi Matsumoto
出版者
The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
雑誌
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (ISSN:09186158)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.9, pp.1596-1599, 2019-09-01 (Released:2019-09-01)
参考文献数
15
被引用文献数
1 3

Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) (also termed hypermobility type Ehlers–Danlos syndrome, hEDS) is a heritable connective tissue disorder that is characterized by generalized joint hypermobility, chronic pain, fatigue, and minor skin changes. Initially, it was reported that there is a small subset of patients with JHS/hEDS who have haploinsufficiency of tenascin-X (TNX). However, the relationship between TNXB and JHS/hEDS has not been reported at all afterwards. EDS was reclassified into thirteen types in 2017, and the causative gene of JHS/hEDS remained to be identified. Therefore, in this study in order to determine whether JHS/hEDS can be diagnosed by the concentrations of serum form of TNX (sTNX), we measured the concentrations of sTNX in 17 JHS/hEDS patients. The sTNX concentrations in half of the JHS/hEDS patients were significantly lower than those in healthy individuals. No mutations, insertions or deletions were detected in the TNX exon sequence of the JHS/hEDS patients except for one in patient. That patient has a heterozygous mutation. A correlation between sTNX concentration and mutation of the TNXB genomic sequence was not found in the JHS/hEDS patients. These results indicate that the decrease in sTNX concentration could be used as a risk factor for JHS/hEDS.
著者
Annie Shirwaikar Arun Shirwaikar Kuppusamy Rajendran Isaac Sam Raj Punitha
出版者
公益社団法人日本薬学会
雑誌
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (ISSN:09186158)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.9, pp.1906-1910, 2006 (Released:2006-09-01)
参考文献数
39
被引用文献数
85 144

Berberine is a benzyl tetra isoquinoline alkaloid which is widely used as an antimicrobial and an antidiarrhoeal. As berberine containing plants are virtually used in all forms of traditional medicine, our study aimed to examine the antioxidant activity of berberine using 2,2-diphenyl 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, lipid peroxidation, superoxide scavenging, iron chelating activity and 2,2-azino bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) radical scavenging methods. The IC50 values for all the models were calculated by regression analysis. In all the models tested, berberine showed its ability to scavenge the free radicals in a concentration dependent manner. The present study thereby justifies the therapeutic potential of berberine.
著者
Hiroaki Takemoto Jun Takahashi Sumiko Hyuga Hiroshi Odaguchi Nahoko Uchiyama Takuro Maruyama Tadatoshi Yamashita Masashi Hyuga Naohiro Oshima Yoshiaki Amakura Takashi Hakamatsuka Yukihiro Goda Toshihiko Hanawa Yoshinori Kobayashi
出版者
The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
雑誌
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (ISSN:09186158)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.2, pp.247-253, 2018-02-01 (Released:2018-02-01)
参考文献数
33
被引用文献数
6

Ephedrine alkaloids-free Ephedra Herb extract (EFE) has been developed to eliminate the adverse effects caused by ephedrine alkaloid-induced sympathetic hyperactivation. Previously, we reported that EFE possesses analgesic, anti-influenza, and cancer metastatic inhibitory effects at comparable levels to that of Ephedra Herb extract (EHE). However, it has not yet been demonstrated that EFE is free from the known side effects of EHE, such as excitation, insomnia, and arrhythmias. In this study, the incidence of these adverse effects was compared between mice administered EHE and those administered EFE. Increased locomotor activity in an open-field test, reduced immobility times in a forced swim test, and reduced sleep times in a pentobarbital-induced sleep test were observed in EHE-treated mice, when compared to the corresponding values in vehicle-treated mice. In contrast, EFE had no obvious effects in these tests. In electrocardiograms, atrial fibrillation (i.e., irregular heart rhythm, absence of P waves, and appearance of f waves) was observed in the EHE-treated mice. It was suggested that this atrial fibrillation was induced by stimulation of adrenaline β1 receptors, but not by hypokalemia. However, EFE did not affect cardiac electrophysiology. These results suggest that the abovementioned side effects are caused by ephedrine alkaloids in EHE, and that EFE is free from these adverse effects, such as excitation, insomnia, and arrhythmias. Thus, EFE is a promising new botanical drug with few adverse effects.
著者
Yusuke Watanabe Yuji Ikegaya
出版者
公益社団法人日本薬学会
雑誌
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (ISSN:09186158)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.7, pp.1111-1115, 2017-07-01 (Released:2017-07-01)
参考文献数
28
被引用文献数
1

Caffeine promotes memory consolidation. Memory consolidation is thought to depend at least in part on hippocampal sharp waves (SWs). In the present study, we investigated the effect of bath-application of caffeine in spontaneously occurring SWs in mouse acute hippocampal slices. Caffeine induced an about 100% increase in the event frequency of SWs at concentrations of 60 and 200 µM. The effect of caffeine was reversible after washout of caffeine and was mimicked by an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, but not by an A2A receptor antagonist. Caffeine increased SWs even in dentate-CA3 mini-slices without the CA2 regions, in which adenosine A1 receptors are abundantly expressed in the hippocampus. Thus, caffeine facilitates SWs by inhibiting adenosine A1 receptors in the hippocampal CA3 region or the dentate gyrus.
著者
Kazuma Higashisaka Kazuya Nagano Yasuo Yoshioka Yasuo Tsutsumi
出版者
公益社団法人日本薬学会
雑誌
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (ISSN:09186158)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.3, pp.243-248, 2017-03-01 (Released:2017-03-01)
参考文献数
61
被引用文献数
14

In the past decade, nanotechnology has advanced rapidly, and many products containing nanoparticles are now an important part of our daily lives. Despite our increasing exposure to nanoparticles, however, information regarding the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity of nanoparticles remains limited. In this review, we introduce our group’s ongoing research into the biological effects and toxicities of nanoparticles, which we broadly refer to as “nano-safety research.” In addition to determining the biological effects of nanoparticles and elucidating the underlying mechanisms of those effects, we are also exploring the associations among the physicochemical properties and kinetics of nanoparticles. Furthermore, we are currently developing a battery of biomarkers that we hope will be used to predict the biological effects of nanoparticles during the early stages of development. Our research provides valuable basic information on the safety of nanoparticles. We hope that this information will be used for the development of better assessments of nanoparticles safety and for the creation of more appropriate regulations to ensure not only the safety but also the sustainability of nanotechnology.
著者
Hideharu Maruta Naoyuki Okita Ryoko Takasawa Fumiaki Uchiumi Tsutomu Hatano Sei-ichi Tanuma
出版者
公益社団法人日本薬学会
雑誌
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (ISSN:09186158)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.3, pp.447-450, 2007 (Released:2007-03-01)
参考文献数
34
被引用文献数
9 18

The formation of ATP produced from poly(ADP-ribose) [(ADP-R)n] has been suggested to be required to repair damaged DNA. Here we investigate whether this ATP is involved in DNA replication processes during DNA repair. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated mid-S phase cell nuclei, which were isolated from synchronized HeLa S3 cells followed by the treatment with a DNA damaging agent, N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), were revealed to retain DNA replication synthesizing activity during preincubation for de-poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation only in the presence of pyrophosphate (PPi) before DNA synthesis was started by adding 3 mM ATP. This DNA replication activity was not maintained in the presence of a potent and specific inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), Oenothein B (Oen B) during the preincubation with PPi. In the preincubation with PPi, μM orders of ATP was produced from (ADP-R)n. These results point to an important function of ATP generated from (ADP-R)n in nuclei for the maintenance of replication apparatus during DNA repair.
著者
Sat Byul Park Kyu-Nam Kim Eunju Sung Suk Young Lee Ho Cheol Shin
出版者
公益社団法人日本薬学会
雑誌
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (ISSN:09186158)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.b15-00623, (Released:2016-02-25)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
5

Chronic Fatigue (CF) is a common reason for consulting a physician due to affecting quality of life, but only a few effective treatments are available. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of subcutaneous injection of the human placental extract (HPE) on medically indescribable cases of CF and safety in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. A total of seventy eight subjects with CF were randomly assigned to either a HPE group or a placebo group. Subjects in the HPE group were treated with HPE three times a week subcutaneously for 6 weeks, whereas those in the placebo group with normal saline. Then, the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) were measured in both CF group and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and idiopathic chronic fatigue (ICF) subgroup. The FSS, VAS and MFI score at baseline were not different between the HPE and placebo group in total subjects with CF. In CFS group, the FSS (p= 0.0242), VAS (p =0.0009) and MFI (p= 0.0159) scores measured at the end of the study period decreased more in the HPE group than in the placebo group when compared with those at the baseline. There were no significant differences between the HPE group and placebo group in the mean change from baseline in FSS, VAS, and MFI in subjects with ICF during the study period. The subcutaneous injection of HPE was effective in the improvement of CFS.
著者
Takumi Matsuzaki Masao Nakamura Takehide Nogita Atsushi Sato
出版者
The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
雑誌
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (ISSN:09186158)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.6, pp.989-995, 2019-06-01 (Released:2019-06-01)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
2

An Intact form of lactoferrin (LF) is known to be absorbed from the small intestine and transported into the blood circulation. We reevaluated the cellular uptake and release of LF using an enterocyte model of human small intestinal cells derived from the Caco-2 cell line. In contrast to a previous report, we observed that intact bovine LF was taken up into seven and 21 d-cultured Caco-2 cells and successfully released back into the culture medium, even though the human intestinal LF receptor, intelectin-1, was not immunochemically detectable. Similar observations were made for human LF and its derivatives (the N-terminal half of LF designated N-lobe and Fc fusions). These observations regarding the uptake and release of intact LF in Caco-2 cells were consistent with in vivo observations. Therefore, we propose that the uptake and release of intact LF by Caco-2 cells should be assessed as a potential in vitro model of in vivo LF absorption in human intestines.
著者
Toshiro Niwa Toshifumi Shiraga Akira Takagi
出版者
公益社団法人日本薬学会
雑誌
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (ISSN:09186158)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.9, pp.1805-1808, 2005 (Released:2005-09-01)
参考文献数
50
被引用文献数
82 145

The effects of five antifungal drugs, fluconazole, itraconazole, micafungin, miconazole, and voriconazole, on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9-mediated tolbutamide hydroxylation, CYP2C19-mediated S-mephenytoin 4′-hydroxylation, and CYP3A4-mediated nifedipine oxidation activities in human liver microsomes were compared. In addition, the effects of preincubation were estimated to investigate the mechanism-based inhibition. The IC50 value against tolbutamide hydroxylation was the lowest for miconazole (2.0 μM), followed by voriconazole (8.4 μM) and fluconazole (30.3 μM). Similarly, the IC50 value against S-mephenytoin 4′-hydroxylation was the lowest for miconazole (0.33 μM), followed by voriconazole (8.7 μM) and fluconazole (12.3 μM). On the other hand, micafungin at a concentration of 10 or 25 μM neither inhibited nor stimulated tolbutamide hydroxylation and S-mephenytoin 4′-hydroxylation, and the IC50 values for itraconazole against these were greater than 10 μM. These results suggest that miconazole is the strongest inhibitor of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19, followed by voriconazole and fluconazole, whereas micafungin would not cause clinically significant interactions with other drugs that are metabolized by CYP2C9 or CYP2C19 via the inhibition of metabolism. The IC50 value of voriconazole against nifedipine oxidation was comparable with that of fluconazole and micafungin and higher than that of itraconazole and miconazole. The stimulation of the inhibition of CYP2C9-, CYP2C19-, or CYP3A4-mediated reactions by 15-min preincubation was not observed for any of the antifungal drugs, suggesting that these drugs are not mechanism-based inhibitors.
著者
Jong-Ho Koh Kyung-Mi Kim Jin-Man Kim Jae-Chul Song Hyung-Joo Suh
出版者
公益社団法人日本薬学会
雑誌
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (ISSN:09186158)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.5, pp.691-694, 2003 (Released:2003-05-01)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
29 47

This study was conducted to investigate the chemical component of the hot water (HW) fraction of mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis and its antifatigue and antistress effect against a stimulus in vivo using rats and mice. The growth of mycelia reached a maximum level of 31.6 g/l after 120 h of incubation. The main chemical composition of the HW fraction of mycelia of C. sinensis was found to be carbohydrate (78.9%) with 5% moisture. The swimming endurance capacity of mice orally administered with the HW fraction (150 and 300 mg/kg/d, respectively) was significantly prolonged from 75 to 90 min with a lessening of fatigue. When the HW fraction (150 mg/kg/d) was given to rats for 8 d including a 48 h stress period, the weight changes of the adrenal gland, spleen, thymus, and thyroid, which is an index of stress, were suppressed. The HW fraction also significantly inhibited the increase in total cholesterol and the decrease in alkaline phosphatase levels as biochemical parameters of immobilization stress in rats.
著者
Ghazi Mohamed Eisa Hussein Hisashi Matsuda Seikou Nakamura Makoto Hamao Toshihito Akiyama Kouhei Tamura Masayuki Yoshikawa
出版者
公益社団法人日本薬学会
雑誌
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (ISSN:09186158)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.12, pp.1849-1855, 2011-12-01 (Released:2011-12-01)
参考文献数
26
被引用文献数
23 39

We previously investigated the effects of an aqueous extract of maté (mate) tea, made from the leaves of Ilex paraguariensis, on the diabesity and metabolic syndrome features in a mouse model. Mate induced significant decreases in body weight (BW), body mass index, and food intake (FI). In this study, to verify the mode of action of mate on FI and consequently on BW, we examined the anorexic effects of mate on the appetite and satiety markers glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and leptin in high-fat diet-fed ddY mice. GLP-1 is a peptide signal generated by the gastrointestinal tract, which regulates appetite and influences BW, whereas leptin is an afferent signal from the periphery to the brain in a homeostatic feedback loop that regulates adipose tissue mass, thus leading to decreased appetite and FI and increased energy expenditure. Chronic administration of mate (50, 100 mg/kg) for 3 weeks significantly reduced FI, BW, and ameliorated blood fats, liver fats, and adipose tissue. Mate induced significant increases in GLP-1 levels and leptin levels compared with the control. Acute administration of major constituents of mate showed significant increases in GLP-1 levels by dicaffeoyl quinic acids and matesaponins, and significant induction of satiety by caffeoyl quinic acids and caffeine in ddY mice. These findings suggest that mate may induce anorexic effects by direct induction of satiety and by stimulation of GLP-1 secretion and modulation of serum leptin levels.