著者
森岡 次郎
出版者
The Japanese Society for the Philosophy of Education
雑誌
教育哲学研究 (ISSN:03873153)
巻号頁・発行日
no.93, pp.102-121, 2006
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this paper is to examine new eugenics and education.<BR>For the last several years, such ideas as "Designers Baby" and "Perfect Baby" have been discussed in terms of "New Eugenics". This idea means the artificial production of babies by genetic technology according to the desire of parents. If educational values can be realized to some extent by genetic technology, new eugenics will necessitate our views on education to change. From this perspective, this paper examines the implications of new eugenics for education.<BR>First of all, the history of eugenics is surveyed and new eugenics is positioned historically. Here, new eugenics can be positioned in an eugenical trend after the 1970s. Next, the theoretical features of new eugenics are clarified in its contrast to old eugenics. This makes it clear that new eugenics is based on the principle of selfdetermination and on the principle of scientific validity. (2) <BR>Then, the criticisms of new eugenics are reviewed. Here, by considering Glen McGee's and others' arguments, it becomes clear that any fatal criticism of new eugenics does not exist yet. However, in the argument by Jürgen Habermas, education and new eugenics are distinguished in view of the existence of "others." It enables us to find out a positive value to the conditions of "others" in education that cannot be fully satisfied. (3) <BR>Finally, it is clarified from the standpoint of the system theory of Niklas Luhmann that children as "others" are indispensable as the media in an educational system. Based on Emmanuel Levinas' concept of "désir", I present the point of view of "the desire for others", one that gives a positive value to the "existence of others". (4) <BR>"New eugenics" and education have affinity in terms of operational intervention in children. However, from the point of view of "the desire for others", it becomes clear that both are fundamentally in conflict.
著者
岡谷 英明
出版者
教育哲学会
雑誌
教育哲学研究 (ISSN:03873153)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1995, no.72, pp.16-30, 1995-11-10 (Released:2009-09-04)
参考文献数
28

Stehen 'Institutionen' im Gegensatz zu Freiheit oder nicht? Zweck dieser Arbeit ist es, 'Institutionen' und die ober die Entfremdung durch 'Institutionen' sich entfaltende menschliche Freiheit zu diskutieren.Zunächst soil das Ploblembewußtsein in Arnold Gehlen's “Philosophie der 'Institution-en” ins Blickfeld gerUckt werden urn damit zu einem besseren Verständnis des Begriffs der Institution zu gelangen. Sodann wird der Inhalt von Gehlen's 'Institution' mit Hegel's 'objektivem Geist' verglichen. Dadurch soli eine Klärung des Begriffs 'Institution' erreicht werden. Endlich wird versucht, den Prozeß aufzuhellen, wie in der 'Institution' der Mensch zum Menschen wird.
著者
中沢 哲
出版者
教育哲学会
雑誌
教育哲学研究 (ISSN:03873153)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2001, no.83, pp.60-75, 2001-05-10 (Released:2010-05-07)
参考文献数
39

Der Zweck dieses Aufsatzes ist Kants Methodenlehre der moralischen Erziehung zurekonstruieren, indem der Vf. Kants Denkart einer Methode der moralischen Erziehung im Zusammenhang mit der Denkart der Beziehung zwischen “dem naturlichen gesunden Verstande” und dem Begriff des guten Willens in der Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten betrachtet, urn dadurch Kants Absicht in der Methodenlehre zu klären.Die moralische Erkenntniskraft des Schülers ist die “gemeine Menschenvernunft”. Kant schlagt ein “Bruchstiick eines moralischen Katechismus” als Methode der moralischen Erziehung vor (Metaphysik der Sitten). Dieser sokratische Katechismus wird aus der gemeinen Menschenvernunft im Kind entwickelt. Der Schiüler antwortet mit seinem guten Verstand. Dadurch wird der Schiüler sich “eines solchen guten und tätigen Willens” bewußt.Die gemeine Menschenvernunft ist der Ausgangspunkt der Entwicklung der Moralphilosophie in der GMS. Kant behauptet, daß der Begriff des guten Willens dem natürlichen gesunden Verstand (der gemeinen Menschenvernuft) beiwohne. Dieser Begriff ist aber bei ihm nicht klar. Kant hat ihn in der GMS geklärt. Das Urteil der gemeinen Menschenvernuft hat seinen Ursprung im Wollen des guten Willens.Das moralische Prinzip für den Lehrer, der in der moralischen Erziehung “sokratisch zu katechisieren versucht”, ist die “dunkel gedachte Metaphysik”, d. h. der Begriff des guten Willens. Der Schüer wird durch die moralische Erkenntnistatätigkeit sich des eigenen Wollens des guten Willens klar bewußt. Die Denkart der Beziehung zwischen “dem natürlichen gesunden Verstande” und dem Begriff des guten Willens in der GMS entspricht Kants Denkart in der Methodenlehre der moralischen Erziehung. Das moralische Urteil des Kindes hat seinen Ursprung im eigenen moralischen Wollen. Es ist der erste Schritt zu einer “Revolution in der Gesinnung”, sich dieses Wollens bewußt zu sein.
著者
原田 茂
出版者
教育哲学会
雑誌
教育哲学研究 (ISSN:03873153)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1965, no.12, pp.15-27, 1965 (Released:2009-09-04)
参考文献数
23

“Nature” is the central concept in the education of the Enlightenment and the task of education is to foster the nature with which man is endowed according as children grow up. Here is seen a strong trust of the nature of man, while Kant, who draws a strict line between the empirical world of phenomena and the transcendental world of ideas, takes a different standpoint from that of the Enlightenment. In Kantian philosophy the pure forms of reason and pure laws of will are enthroned with the result that the task of education is not to develop natural endowments but to discipline them through education and lead them into the transcendental world. Man, a personality provided with reason and autonomous will, is an existence which stands on a completely different level from that on which other animals crawl, and it is incumbent on man to realize this dignity of his personality. On the other hand, however, Kant is strongly influenced by Rousseau as far as his view of education is concerned, and his belief in the goodness of human natnre forms the keynote of his view of education. Moreover, his concept of human liberty and equality are to be clearly traced back to Rousseau. The present writer tries to consider Kant's view of education as the consequence of his philosophy and at the same time in reference to Rousseau.
著者
北詰 裕子
出版者
教育哲学会
雑誌
教育哲学研究 (ISSN:03873153)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2007, no.96, pp.22-41, 2007-11-10 (Released:2009-09-04)
参考文献数
68

This paper examined J. A. Comenius' The Way of Light as a theory of language in the metaphor of light, one that is crucially related of cognition of things.In The Way of Light, Comenius expresses the world and human beings in a metaphor of light. External light illuminates all things and clarifies every thing. It overcomes every darkness in the world. On the other hand, Internal light means intellectual light in particular. This light overcomes darkness of ignorance in soul, and intellect has an opaque characteristic. Opaque intellect receives light, blocks its further penetration, keeps the truth of things within itself, and reflects and scatters it around the world again. It can be said that working of this intellect is a function of the language. From the point of view of human history, Comenius said that the scatter of light spreads through cognition, conversation, a meeting of a church, books, printing and the art of navigation. Furthermore, this process is expansion of education to give light for human mind.Comenius considers the cognition of things from the perspective of light because he has an assumption that every visible thing in the world has truth of God. And ideal universal language is designed as a medium to represent the truth of things.In other words, what is considered as the language in Comenius has triplex meanings : a language that articulates the light as opaque intellect, a language as the world itself has, and a transparent language that represents the world. These triplex meanings of language are deeply related to the educational thought of Comenius.