著者
後藤 嘉宏
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
新聞学評論 (ISSN:04886550)
巻号頁・発行日
no.36, pp.1-13,195-196, 1987-04-30

Voltaire has been generally regarded as an absolute defender of freedom of expression. But Peter Gay in his work "Voltaire's Politics"opposes this legendary image of Voltaire. I agree fundamentally with Gay's point of view bacause in "Traite sur la tolerance" Voltaire repeatedly insisted "Pas de tolerance pour les ennemies de tolerance (Never tolerate the enemies of toleration.)" In this context Voltaire can be seen as a situational defender of freedom of expression. Based on that suggestion of Gay's, I discussed Where Voltaire attempted to estabish the boundary between issues worthy of pubic discussion and those not worthy of public discussion. Further, I examined the tactical significance of Voltaire's relative idea of freedom of expression relating it to the historical situation in his day.'The enemies of toleration' in his "Traite sur la tolerance" were Catholics in authority. But French Catholics in those days were divided.The two most dominant sects were Jesuits and Jansenists. The former exerted influence on 'roi' (the court) and the latter on 'parlement'(court of justice). The court was further divided into two factions-the progressives who were on intimate terms with 'philosophes', and the conservatives who were influenced by Catholic authority. In other words, the political situation in France in the 18th cerltunry was char-acterized by critical divisions within the 'establishment'. Voltaire managed to avoid censorship by his use of rhetoric, which revealed and deepend such divisions within the establishment. I described his tactics, drawing on an example from "Traife sur la tolerance". What was intolerance for Voltaire? According to him, intolerance was caused by an insistence on a particular view of the world, specifically, the clergy regarding their particular or private view of the world as general imposed it on many people who did not have a chance to develop their own judgment. The clergy wasted their time on religious disputes, libels etc., issues not worthy of being discussed. So, Voltaire insisted that one should nerer tolerate the enemies of toleration. It is obvious from the above that Voltaire's idea of freedom of expression was not one of absolute freedom in as much as it denied freedom to libel or to conduct religious debates. But in the context of the censorship situation at the time, this idea of incomplete freedom of expression was extremely effective tactically because, according to the censorship policy of those days, which was more tolerant to books than to newspapers or pamphlets, Catholics in authority should, at least in a nominal sense, be punished more frequenthy than "philosophes".
著者
天野 祐吉
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
新聞学評論 (ISSN:04886550)
巻号頁・発行日
no.35, pp.166-172, 285-284, 1986-04-30

Advertisements are, so to speak, "sketches of the unconscious" of people's everyday lives. And because of being "unconscious", they sometimes have more reality than intentional sketches. If we regard advertisements as "diaries of the age", then we see them not only as sourses of news information about commodities but also as sketches of ordinary people's everyday lives in ordinary words and seen through the goods they advertise. Advertisers order adpersons to sell goods, and adpersons always have to take advantage of ordinary people's ordinary desires. These pressures make advertisements sketches of ordinary people's everyday lives. If advertisements fail to grasp the "new", then at that very moment they lose all value. Japanese poet Junzaburo Nishiwaki said that "Life is a concept created by literature." We may rightly say that what we refer to as "the masses" is an image created by advertisements. Of course, the vital image of the masses appears not only in advertisements, but it is in them that the masses present their most journalistic form. It seems almost impossible to capture the masses without advertisements which depict ordinary people's lives along with their feelings and make them visible. Nevertheless, it is far from an easy matter to capture the vital image of the masses without debasing them by superficial interpretations because what appear only in expressions often lose their vividness when discussed by words. If we are to capture "the masses merely in the advertisements", then we may have to create some methods of expression which are free from the already established academic ones.
著者
石川 弘義
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
新聞学評論 (ISSN:04886550)
巻号頁・発行日
no.35, pp.142-155, 288-286, 1986-04-30

Japanese radio programs have long been in a trial and error situation in their struggle to compete with TV programs. In this process the "midnight broadcasting" programs are one of the most radio-like in nature and nowadays a set format has been established for them. Nevertheless, various experiments still are being tried by each of the radio stations concerning what content should be broadcast at night and during the midnight hours. For example, the audience rating chart shows us that JOJF(Nippon Hoso) is widely listened to by the so-called "young" generation, and that JOKRS(Tokyo Hoso) focuses on the "young adult" generation. These experiments, however, have not necessarily offered a steady barometer for success. Among the current hot programs is "Young Paradise, " a talk show broadcast at midnight during the week whose DJ (called 'personality' in Japan) is actor Yuji Miyake. This program presently is receiving a high audience rating. According to Mr.Akinori Inaba, the organizing director of Nippon Hoso, the secret of "Young Paradise's" success is "to permit the DJ to talk freely and 'play' in the program and to show various points of view about the kind of information that young listeners wanted to know." In short, an all-out playful spirit seems to make "Young Paradise" successful. But in fact, it's success is due to the elaborated efforts in planning by the professionals of radio program organization and production. Here we can find the characteristics of modern radio journalism for young listeners. About ten years or so ago the style of radio programs was quite different from what it is today. A good example is JOKR's "Puck in Music." This too was a talk show featuring DJ's, but many of the topics treated on the program were serious ones such as, "war experience", "worries about school life and exams", "love" and "lust", and so on. But programs of this nature ended with the new way of life which began around 1982 and which shows a preference for keihaku-tansho, the "not heavy, the light." And the older type of program was taken over by omoshiro-syugi, the "happy-go-lucky" orientation outlined above. In order to consider the characteristics of modern radio journalism it is unrealistic to deny this "happy-go-lucky" line. But in the author's opinion, it also may be a chance to show the ability of radio journalism to produce some programs that treat in some way the young listener's views of the world, their dissatisfactions and hopes, etc., which can be found in the depth of their minds or their social psychology.