著者
江原 由美子
出版者
日本法哲学会
雑誌
法哲学年報 (ISSN:03872890)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2003, pp.56-67,233, 2004-10-20 (Released:2008-11-17)
参考文献数
4

Following the end of the Cold War, the collapse of the communist regimes of the Eastern Bloc led to large changes in social theories. One of the changes was a revival of liberalism. Although liberalism was expected to solve social inequalities, it was also criticized because of its justification of social inequalities. This paper argues how liberalism could possibly justify gender-related inequalities. Firstly, I argue that the characteristic logic of liberalism could be described as universalism. Next, I make two arguments which explain how liberalism has excluded women; firstly, for historic sociopolitical reasons, and secondly, because of its universalist character.
著者
江原 由美子
出版者
日本社会学会
雑誌
社会学評論 (ISSN:00215414)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, no.4, pp.553-571, 2013 (Released:2015-03-31)
参考文献数
18

本稿の主題は, 現代フェミニズムと家族との関連性を考察することである. まず, 第1に, 現代フェミニズムの家族に関する主要な論点を明らかにする. それは「家族の否定」ではなく, 「性別分業家族」批判であった. 「性別分業家族」においては, 女性の過重な家庭内役割のゆえに, 女性の経済的自立が困難だったからである. 次に, 現代フェミニズムの家族批判の根底にある公私分離規範に関する論点を, 「家族領域」を社会から切り離す公私分離規範批判と, 女性の「身体の自由」権を認めない公私分離規範批判の, 2点で把握し, それらがいずれも, いわゆる「近代家族」への批判につながることを示す. この観点から「近代家族」類型を位置づけると, 「近代家族」とは, 女性の人権を認めない前近代的要素を含んでいる家族類型と位置づけることができる. 最後に, 現代フェミニズムの公私分離規範批判から導かれた論点に関連する家族変動要因を, ハビトゥスの水準と, 社会制度的水準において把握し, 「ジェンダー秩序論」の視点から, 「これからの家族」を考える.
著者
江原 由美子
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
新聞学評論 (ISSN:04886550)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, pp.51-65,322-321, 1988

The audience "interprets" messages from mass media. Would this fact be inconsistent with an emphasis on the strong impact of mass media ? Phenomenological sociology and ethnomethodology been analyzing conversations in "every day", face-to-face interactions. This article is an attempt to apply this face-to-face, interactive communication model to the analysis of communication between mass meida and the audience. The audience does not "passively" receive the massage from mass media as expressed, but "actively" makes out the meaning by interpreting it. In these interpretative-practices, however, the audience is strongly influenced by mass media. In this article, we take up the complaint of the women's movement against a TV commercial as an example. Hearing a news report on the complaint against the commercial, some of the audience took exception to the act of complaning and expressed various opinions about it. These opinions reval the audience's interpretative-practices clearly. The audience imaginatively categorized the complanants according to certain personality types and expessed a sense that the complaint was not relevant to the audience. Acoording to this analysis, we can build up a model for the interpretative -practice on TV commercials of the audience. The audience, (1) interprets cemmercial messages in terms of the primary interest in an advertisement for the goods. (2) distinguishs "serious" messages from "joking" ones, and restrains the interpretation which confuses the difference between them. (3) makes up for "tacit" messages, which are not directly expressed in the commercial messages, by interpreting them. As analyzed above, it is obvious that the audience is actively engaged in interpretative-practices of making sense out of both TV commercials and news reports. The interpretative-practice, however, should not deny the great influence of mass media. The audience is under the strong influence of the "tacit messages" of mass media in terms of interpretative-practices.
著者
江原 由美子
出版者
関東社会学会
雑誌
年報社会学論集 (ISSN:09194363)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2007, no.20, pp.13-24, 2007-07-31 (Released:2010-04-21)
参考文献数
22
被引用文献数
1

The subject of this paper is to consider the influence of Gender Free Bashing (GFB) on present-day Japanese society. GFB means that there are certain political groups which oppose a gender-equal policy in Japan. Those who advocate GFB think that people who use words such as ‘gender’ or ‘gender-free’ are extremists who deny the existence of natural sex difference and family. Past researches has shown that GFB had influenced many young men who had supported nationalistic view. In this paper, I try to show the influence of GFB from the viewpoint of various people in connection with GFB. And I also try to show that the main aim of GFB is to achieve a invisible change in gender-equal policy through a supply of voluntary alignment of a member of administrative occupation.
著者
江原 由美子
出版者
日本女性学会
雑誌
女性学 (ISSN:1343697X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, pp.10-22, 2020-04-15 (Released:2021-10-22)
参考文献数
15

The purpose of this paper is to explore both the problems and possibilities of men's studies from the perspective of gender equality. The recent discussions in men's studies are apt to focus on the harshness of men's burden and their multiple responsibilities, which this paper names “Otoko ha Trurai-yo Gata Danseigaku (men's studies based on the discourse of the burden of men's multiple responsibilities).” Indeed this approach to men's studies recently has played a vital role in social education and employee education and helps middle-aged men have a new perspective into gender issues. However, there are also many criticisms that this approach hinders the realization of gender equality. This paper surveys the points of discussion using the theory of positionality and presents the limitations of “Otoko ha Trurai-yo Gata Danseigaku.” This paper analyses that the male sense of burden is the result of globalism and that it is likely to cause conservative attitudes and minority exclusion. It is necessary to propose an alternative direction of men's studies for gender equality and men's liberation
著者
江原 由美子
出版者
The Japanese Association of Sociology of Law
雑誌
法社会学 (ISSN:04376161)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2002, no.56, pp.150-165,278, 2002-03-30 (Released:2009-01-15)
参考文献数
16

Until 1980s', the argument that women have rights to control their own fertility-so called women's rights to choose-had been what many feminists can be agreeable to, which is not necessarily true in some cases today. These cases are relevant to the fact that the developments of Assisted Reproductive Technology after IVFs, or in vitro fertilization, caused different problems since the anxiety that the argument for women's rights to choose might have an effect on encouraging Assisted Reproductive Technology after IVFs in its development and pervasion is spreading over feminists.This article aims to analyze the reasons why the argument for women's rights to choose has an effect on encouraging Assisted Reproductive Technology after IVFs in its development and pervasion if it really has. And I'd like to prove that one of the reasons consists in a concept of a body which attributes reproduction to women's responsibility.
著者
江原 由美子
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
新聞学評論 (ISSN:04886550)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, pp.51-65,322-321, 1988-04-30 (Released:2017-10-06)

The audience "interprets" messages from mass media. Would this fact be inconsistent with an emphasis on the strong impact of mass media ? Phenomenological sociology and ethnomethodology been analyzing conversations in "every day", face-to-face interactions. This article is an attempt to apply this face-to-face, interactive communication model to the analysis of communication between mass meida and the audience. The audience does not "passively" receive the massage from mass media as expressed, but "actively" makes out the meaning by interpreting it. In these interpretative-practices, however, the audience is strongly influenced by mass media. In this article, we take up the complaint of the women's movement against a TV commercial as an example. Hearing a news report on the complaint against the commercial, some of the audience took exception to the act of complaning and expressed various opinions about it. These opinions reval the audience's interpretative-practices clearly. The audience imaginatively categorized the complanants according to certain personality types and expessed a sense that the complaint was not relevant to the audience. Acoording to this analysis, we can build up a model for the interpretative -practice on TV commercials of the audience. The audience, (1) interprets cemmercial messages in terms of the primary interest in an advertisement for the goods. (2) distinguishs "serious" messages from "joking" ones, and restrains the interpretation which confuses the difference between them. (3) makes up for "tacit" messages, which are not directly expressed in the commercial messages, by interpreting them. As analyzed above, it is obvious that the audience is actively engaged in interpretative-practices of making sense out of both TV commercials and news reports. The interpretative-practice, however, should not deny the great influence of mass media. The audience is under the strong influence of the "tacit messages" of mass media in terms of interpretative-practices.
著者
江原 由美子
出版者
日本法社会学会
雑誌
法社会学 (ISSN:04376161)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2002, no.56, pp.150-165,278, 2002

Until 1980s', the argument that women have rights to control their own fertility-so called women's rights to choose-had been what many feminists can be agreeable to, which is not necessarily true in some cases today. These cases are relevant to the fact that the developments of Assisted Reproductive Technology after IVFs, or in vitro fertilization, caused different problems since the anxiety that the argument for women's rights to choose might have an effect on encouraging Assisted Reproductive Technology after IVFs in its development and pervasion is spreading over feminists.<br>This article aims to analyze the reasons why the argument for women's rights to choose has an effect on encouraging Assisted Reproductive Technology after IVFs in its development and pervasion if it really has. And I'd like to prove that one of the reasons consists in a concept of a body which attributes reproduction to women's responsibility.
著者
江原 由美子
出版者
The Japan Sociological Society
雑誌
社会学評論 (ISSN:00215414)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.1, pp.74-91, 2006-06-30 (Released:2010-01-29)
参考文献数
9
被引用文献数
1

本稿の主題は, ジェンダーの社会学が, 社会生活に対してどのような意味を持っているのかを, シュッツの社会的行為論の枠組みを使用して, 記述することである.本稿では「理論化」という行為を, 実践的目的のために, 情報を縮減することと, 定義する.社会成員は誰も, 社会生活に適応するために, 多くの「理論化」を行っている.「ジェンダー」は, 社会成員のこのような「理論化」によって生み出される「理論」の1つである.「ジェンダー」は, 人びとの知覚を構造化し, 男女間のコミュニケーションの困難性を生み出す.ジェンダーの社会学は, 男女間のコミュニケーション困難性を探求することによって, 男女の相互理解を促進することに貢献してきた.ジェンダー・バッシングは, こうした男女の相互理解に向けた活動を, 破壊したのである.
著者
江原 由美子
出版者
日本社会学会
雑誌
社会学評論 (ISSN:00215414)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, no.4, pp.553-571, 2013

本稿の主題は, 現代フェミニズムと家族との関連性を考察することである. まず, 第1に, 現代フェミニズムの家族に関する主要な論点を明らかにする. それは「家族の否定」ではなく, 「性別分業家族」批判であった. 「性別分業家族」においては, 女性の過重な家庭内役割のゆえに, 女性の経済的自立が困難だったからである. 次に, 現代フェミニズムの家族批判の根底にある公私分離規範に関する論点を, 「家族領域」を社会から切り離す公私分離規範批判と, 女性の「身体の自由」権を認めない公私分離規範批判の, 2点で把握し, それらがいずれも, いわゆる「近代家族」への批判につながることを示す. この観点から「近代家族」類型を位置づけると, 「近代家族」とは, 女性の人権を認めない前近代的要素を含んでいる家族類型と位置づけることができる. 最後に, 現代フェミニズムの公私分離規範批判から導かれた論点に関連する家族変動要因を, ハビトゥスの水準と, 社会制度的水準において把握し, 「ジェンダー秩序論」の視点から, 「これからの家族」を考える.
著者
江原 由美子
出版者
日本社会学会
雑誌
社会学評論 (ISSN:00215414)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.3, pp.54-69, 1981-12-31 (Released:2009-10-19)
参考文献数
55

シユッツのレリヴァンス概念は、彼の理論において重要な位置を与えられている。だがその理解は非常に困難である。おそらくその一因は、彼が文脈によって意味を変えて使用していることにあると思われる。この観点から本稿では第一にレリヴアンス概念の多様な文脈を整理する。次に、従来のシユッツのレリヴァンス概念についての解釈を手がかりに、レリヴァンスの意味が、 (1) 個人が選択された側面に帰属する属性、 (2) 個人の選択機能、又は選択する作用、 (3) 類型や知識の関連性という相異なる三様に解釈できることを示す。さらにレリヴァンス (体糸) の共有という論点においても、シユッツの記述に矛盾が見出せることを示す。次にレリヴァンスの問題とは何かを考察し、それが、自然的態度においてはけっして問われない、常識的思考そのものを成りたたしめている諸前提を明らかにするという問題であったことを把握する。しかしシユッツがそれを論じる視点は一様ではなく、 (1) 現象学的反省の視点、 (2) 観察者の視点という相異なる視点から考察していたのだと考えられる。ここから先に述べたレリヴァンス概念の三様の解釈の意義を明らかにする。すなわち、彼は、 (1) 日常生活者の視点、 (2) 現象学的反省の視点、 (3) 観察者の視点という三視点のそれぞれに応じてレリヴァンス概念を別の意味で使用したという仮説を呈示する。以上の考察に基づき、レリヴァンス問題の特異性を論じた上で、レリヴァンス論の継承方向を検討する。