著者
江原 由美子
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
新聞学評論 (ISSN:04886550)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, pp.51-65,322-321, 1988-04-30 (Released:2017-10-06)

The audience "interprets" messages from mass media. Would this fact be inconsistent with an emphasis on the strong impact of mass media ? Phenomenological sociology and ethnomethodology been analyzing conversations in "every day", face-to-face interactions. This article is an attempt to apply this face-to-face, interactive communication model to the analysis of communication between mass meida and the audience. The audience does not "passively" receive the massage from mass media as expressed, but "actively" makes out the meaning by interpreting it. In these interpretative-practices, however, the audience is strongly influenced by mass media. In this article, we take up the complaint of the women's movement against a TV commercial as an example. Hearing a news report on the complaint against the commercial, some of the audience took exception to the act of complaning and expressed various opinions about it. These opinions reval the audience's interpretative-practices clearly. The audience imaginatively categorized the complanants according to certain personality types and expessed a sense that the complaint was not relevant to the audience. Acoording to this analysis, we can build up a model for the interpretative -practice on TV commercials of the audience. The audience, (1) interprets cemmercial messages in terms of the primary interest in an advertisement for the goods. (2) distinguishs "serious" messages from "joking" ones, and restrains the interpretation which confuses the difference between them. (3) makes up for "tacit" messages, which are not directly expressed in the commercial messages, by interpreting them. As analyzed above, it is obvious that the audience is actively engaged in interpretative-practices of making sense out of both TV commercials and news reports. The interpretative-practice, however, should not deny the great influence of mass media. The audience is under the strong influence of the "tacit messages" of mass media in terms of interpretative-practices.
著者
後藤 嘉宏
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
新聞学評論 (ISSN:04886550)
巻号頁・発行日
no.36, pp.1-13,195-196, 1987-04-30

Voltaire has been generally regarded as an absolute defender of freedom of expression. But Peter Gay in his work "Voltaire's Politics"opposes this legendary image of Voltaire. I agree fundamentally with Gay's point of view bacause in "Traite sur la tolerance" Voltaire repeatedly insisted "Pas de tolerance pour les ennemies de tolerance (Never tolerate the enemies of toleration.)" In this context Voltaire can be seen as a situational defender of freedom of expression. Based on that suggestion of Gay's, I discussed Where Voltaire attempted to estabish the boundary between issues worthy of pubic discussion and those not worthy of public discussion. Further, I examined the tactical significance of Voltaire's relative idea of freedom of expression relating it to the historical situation in his day.'The enemies of toleration' in his "Traite sur la tolerance" were Catholics in authority. But French Catholics in those days were divided.The two most dominant sects were Jesuits and Jansenists. The former exerted influence on 'roi' (the court) and the latter on 'parlement'(court of justice). The court was further divided into two factions-the progressives who were on intimate terms with 'philosophes', and the conservatives who were influenced by Catholic authority. In other words, the political situation in France in the 18th cerltunry was char-acterized by critical divisions within the 'establishment'. Voltaire managed to avoid censorship by his use of rhetoric, which revealed and deepend such divisions within the establishment. I described his tactics, drawing on an example from "Traife sur la tolerance". What was intolerance for Voltaire? According to him, intolerance was caused by an insistence on a particular view of the world, specifically, the clergy regarding their particular or private view of the world as general imposed it on many people who did not have a chance to develop their own judgment. The clergy wasted their time on religious disputes, libels etc., issues not worthy of being discussed. So, Voltaire insisted that one should nerer tolerate the enemies of toleration. It is obvious from the above that Voltaire's idea of freedom of expression was not one of absolute freedom in as much as it denied freedom to libel or to conduct religious debates. But in the context of the censorship situation at the time, this idea of incomplete freedom of expression was extremely effective tactically because, according to the censorship policy of those days, which was more tolerant to books than to newspapers or pamphlets, Catholics in authority should, at least in a nominal sense, be punished more frequenthy than "philosophes".
著者
江原 由美子
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
新聞学評論 (ISSN:04886550)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, pp.51-65,322-321, 1988

The audience "interprets" messages from mass media. Would this fact be inconsistent with an emphasis on the strong impact of mass media ? Phenomenological sociology and ethnomethodology been analyzing conversations in "every day", face-to-face interactions. This article is an attempt to apply this face-to-face, interactive communication model to the analysis of communication between mass meida and the audience. The audience does not "passively" receive the massage from mass media as expressed, but "actively" makes out the meaning by interpreting it. In these interpretative-practices, however, the audience is strongly influenced by mass media. In this article, we take up the complaint of the women's movement against a TV commercial as an example. Hearing a news report on the complaint against the commercial, some of the audience took exception to the act of complaning and expressed various opinions about it. These opinions reval the audience's interpretative-practices clearly. The audience imaginatively categorized the complanants according to certain personality types and expessed a sense that the complaint was not relevant to the audience. Acoording to this analysis, we can build up a model for the interpretative -practice on TV commercials of the audience. The audience, (1) interprets cemmercial messages in terms of the primary interest in an advertisement for the goods. (2) distinguishs "serious" messages from "joking" ones, and restrains the interpretation which confuses the difference between them. (3) makes up for "tacit" messages, which are not directly expressed in the commercial messages, by interpreting them. As analyzed above, it is obvious that the audience is actively engaged in interpretative-practices of making sense out of both TV commercials and news reports. The interpretative-practice, however, should not deny the great influence of mass media. The audience is under the strong influence of the "tacit messages" of mass media in terms of interpretative-practices.
著者
天野 祐吉
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
新聞学評論 (ISSN:04886550)
巻号頁・発行日
no.35, pp.166-172, 285-284, 1986-04-30

Advertisements are, so to speak, "sketches of the unconscious" of people's everyday lives. And because of being "unconscious", they sometimes have more reality than intentional sketches. If we regard advertisements as "diaries of the age", then we see them not only as sourses of news information about commodities but also as sketches of ordinary people's everyday lives in ordinary words and seen through the goods they advertise. Advertisers order adpersons to sell goods, and adpersons always have to take advantage of ordinary people's ordinary desires. These pressures make advertisements sketches of ordinary people's everyday lives. If advertisements fail to grasp the "new", then at that very moment they lose all value. Japanese poet Junzaburo Nishiwaki said that "Life is a concept created by literature." We may rightly say that what we refer to as "the masses" is an image created by advertisements. Of course, the vital image of the masses appears not only in advertisements, but it is in them that the masses present their most journalistic form. It seems almost impossible to capture the masses without advertisements which depict ordinary people's lives along with their feelings and make them visible. Nevertheless, it is far from an easy matter to capture the vital image of the masses without debasing them by superficial interpretations because what appear only in expressions often lose their vividness when discussed by words. If we are to capture "the masses merely in the advertisements", then we may have to create some methods of expression which are free from the already established academic ones.
著者
土屋 礼子
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
新聞学評論 (ISSN:04886550)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, pp.184-199,317-31, 1992-05-20 (Released:2017-10-06)

Following the publication of major newspapers addressed to the intelligentsia, there emerged a number of popular papers which were mainly directed toward the general public by the extensive use of furikana on the Chinese characters. These popular papers were relatively cheap and widely read, added an entertainment aspect to other papers, and functioned as a means of developing a new style of written Japanese. The ultimate objective of the present study is to clarify the development process of the new style of the language adopted by three representative popular papers, Yomiuri Shinbun, Tokyo Eiri Shinbun and Kanayomi Shinbun, during the period from 1875 to 1880. For this purpose, this study attempts to identify the nature and characteristics of regular readers by analyzing 8,352 letters from approximately 3,700 readers. Major findings of the present study are as follows: (1) Nearly half the letters were in fact contributed from regular readers, who accounted for a small proportion of the public. However, more than 70 percent of the contributors were residents of Tokyo, especially from the downtown sections of Asakusa, Nihonbashi, Fukagawa, and Shitaya. Of the 59 contributors for whom details could be ascertained, 57 were male and about half were merchants while the other half were of samurai origin and now professionally engaged in journalism or public service. (2) Regular contributors formed an informal support group for these papers and often gathered at the publisher in order to have direct communication. Their letters functioned as a source of news for other readers. More importantly, the conversation within the group was often directly written up as letters, thus preparing the way for the formation of a new style of written Japanese language.