著者
二瓶 マリ子
出版者
東京大学大学院総合文化研究科附属アメリカ太平洋地域研究センター
雑誌
アメリカ太平洋研究 (ISSN:13462989)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, pp.151-164, 2008-03

This paper examines the social conditions of Mexican American youths of the 1940s, particularly of a group known as the pachucos. Pachuco is a term that refers to working-class Mexican American male youths who wore zoot suits in southwestern cities during the 1940s. Often seen as gangsters by mainstream Los Angeles the pahucos became increasingly marginalized in the city.//Thirty years later during the 1970s many ethnic groups began to undergo a phenomenon known as ethnic revival or an awakening of their own ethnicity. Under this influence, some Mexican American intellectuals and artists such as Luis Valdez and Ruben Salazar recognized the pachuco as the origin of Mexican American consciousness.//Why did some Mexican Americans of the 1970s equate the pachucos with their ethnic origin in spite that they were terribly feared and despised a generation ago? There were several Mexican heroes such as Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata who could be used as the origin of ethnic consciousness. But why did the pachucos feature as the roots of this ethnic awakening?//This paper deals with this question by looking at the relationship between pachucos and other ethnic groups in Los Angeles during the 1940s. It does so, by analyzing two historical incidents that involved pachucos: the Sleepy Lagoon murder in 1942 and the Zoot Suit Riots of 1943.
著者
徳田 勝一
出版者
東京大学大学院総合文化研究科附属アメリカ太平洋地域研究センター
雑誌
アメリカ太平洋研究 (ISSN:13462989)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.81-95, 2010-03

This paper analyzes three memoirs written by David P. Conyngham, William Corby and St. Clair A. Mulholland who joined the Irish Brigade which served in the Union Army in order to investigate how the Irish immigrants memorized the Civil War. The Irish Brigade was authorized in September 1861 thanks to the assistance of the Irish community in New York, and originally consisted of the 63rd, 69th and 88th New York regiments comprised predominantly of Irish immigrants. Under the command of Thomas F. Meagher, one of the Young Ireland in exile, the Irish Brigade fought many fierce battles, but virtually ceased to operate as a brigade after the battle of Fredericksburg, where the unit suffered fearsome casualties, because of having trouble in enlisting recruits. // Conyngham intended to leave behind him the “correct memories” of the Irish Brigade, which were characterized by Irish soldiers’ supreme loyalty to the Union and the oblivion of the Emancipation Proclamation and the Draft Riots. Corby added the solidarity among all the Christian soldiers to Conyngham’s “correct memories” because he was concerned about the revival of nativism caused by floods of new immigrants in the late 19th century and the decline of Liberals in the Catholic Church and intended to appeal for religious tolerance. Mulholland added the memory of the solidarity between born Americans and immigrants in the battlefields because he intended to reveal the role of immigrants in the American society in order to resist nativism.
著者
加藤 祐三
出版者
東京大学大学院総合文化研究科附属アメリカ太平洋地域研究センター
雑誌
アメリカ太平洋研究 (ISSN:13462989)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, pp.9-18, 2005-03

The aim of this article is to reconsider the meaning of the Treaty of Peace and Amity between Japan and the United States of America signed at Yokohama on March 31, 1854 and to place it in the context of world history and Japanese history. When proceeding with the analysis, I considered three issues: (1) war and diplomacy two expressions of international politics, which are still as important today as in the 1850s given current international politics; (2) a comparison of Japan-U.S. diplomatic power, which is the key when negotiations take place between states; and (3) the avoidance of outdated views of history, which is important to understanding modern history. Since Commodore Perry's expedition to Japan and the Japanese encounter with the West was a big event in our history, many documents and materials are reserved in both countries including pictures and prints. Although it is necessary to analyze this chain of events-the cause, the process and the results of the first official U.S.-Japan political negotiation-by a pluralistic approach, this article exclusively analyzes two factors: one is the purpose of Commodore Perry's expedition to Japan (cause) and the other is the negotiation between Japan and the U.S. (process), that enabled both sides to avoid war through the talks of Uraga in 1853 and of Yokohama in 1854. The Treaty of Peace and Amity (result), which eventually led to the opening of Japan, can be highly evaluated because it was a negotiated treaty that was not accompanied by war. Modern Japan was founded on "the modern international regime of four pieces of polity" (the Great Powers, the colony, the loss treaty nation and the negotiation treaty nation), which later changed its feature in 1895, 1905 and 1945.
著者
服部 雅子
出版者
東京大学大学院総合文化研究科附属アメリカ太平洋地域研究センター
雑誌
アメリカ太平洋研究 (ISSN:13462989)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.112-127, 2009-03

論文Articles本稿は、トルーマン政権期の連邦民間防衛局(FCDA)が、民間防衛への市民の動員を目的に実施した一連の宣伝・教育事業に着目し、そこで将来の戦争がどう語られたかを考察する。民間防衛に関する従来の研究の多くは、1945 年の夏に原爆が開発されて以来、民間防衛は原爆対策として行われるようになった、という前提に立つ。しかしながら、民間防衛を通じて人々が描いた戦争像は、果たして原爆の登場とともに即座に変化したのであろうか。1940 年代末の米ソ対立の危機的悪化を受けて設立されたFCDAは、全国的な民間防衛体制構築のために1750 万人の市民の参加が必要であると想定し、人々に民間防衛の急務を訴えるための様々な事業に着手した。まず、各地で民間防衛の指導を担う人材の養成機関が設立され、卒業生は全米各地で市民の動員と指導に当たった。大学の研究機関や各種メディアも大きく貢献した。さらに、トルーマン期FCDAの一大事業として、1952 年に一連の「アラート・アメリカ」事業が実施された。これは、民間防衛に関する展示品を載せたトラックが全国各地に出向き、訪問先で展示行事を催す企画を中心に、人々に民間防衛への参加を促そうとするものであった。展示では、現代戦の恐怖や民間防衛の手順が、人々の五感に訴える特殊効果を駆使して説明された。以上の事業を通じ、米国本土が攻撃対象となる「次の戦争」では、敵は、原爆をその攻撃の中核としながらも、焼夷弾、細菌・化学兵器、破壊活動等を含むあらゆる攻撃手段を総動員して戦うと想定された。すなわち、市民を敵の攻撃による被害から守るべく民間防衛に精力を注いだ人々の間では、原爆の登場によって即座に戦争観が「核戦争」へと変化したわけではなかったのである。当時の人々の描いた「次の戦争」は、「核戦争」より、先の大戦の「総力戦」に近いものであった。
著者
天野 由莉
出版者
東京大学大学院総合文化研究科附属グローバル地域研究機構アメリカ太平洋地域研究センター
雑誌
アメリカ太平洋研究 = Pacific and American studies (ISSN:13462989)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, pp.95-108, 2014-03

This article is about American attitude toward white refugees from Saint Domingue during the early years of the Haitian Revolution. It focuses on the charity project taken place in 1793. In the summer of that year, about 15000 refugees rushed into American cities because of the turmoil of the capital of Saint Domingue. This article pays special attention to the surge of interest in "sensiblity" during the 18th century. The term sensibility denoted an innate susceptibility to others' suffering. This article shows how the pitiful state of the refugees appealed to Americans' sensibility. American newspapers at that time depicted the situation of the distressed refugees sentimentally. In result, the slave rebellion which was going on in Saint Domingue was drained of political implications and perceived as a mere tragedy. This transition resulted in three outcomes. First, white Saint Dominguans, who had been blamed for the devastation of Saint Domingue, were suddenly victimized after the summer of 1793 and gained Americans' sympathy. Second, shared compassion and the relief project toward refugees appealed to patriotic sentiment in American society. Third, shared sensibility toward refugees' plight made the federal government assist voluntary associations under public funding, regardless of the French officials' objection. However, sensibility toward the whites' suffering obscured the cause of the slaves who stood up for their freedom in Saint Domingue. Thus, this article offeres a nuanced explanation of the Americans' disregard of the revolutionary meaning of the Haitian Revolution in its early stage.論文Articles
著者
Araki Junko
出版者
東京大学大学院総合文化研究科附属アメリカ太平洋地域研究センター
雑誌
アメリカ太平洋研究 (ISSN:13462989)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, pp.77-93, 2003-03

This paper focuses on the narrative of Elizabeth Knapp's possession in 1671 and attempts to explain the occurrence of witchcraft as a form of religious enthusiasm. This narrative is well known as a detailed and quintessentially demoniac description in early New England. Because social expectations within the historical setting determine the authenticity of possession, the narrative reflects the kind of religious experiences that ministers and people in the colony shared. During Knapp's possession, the central issue was whether she had signed the devil's compact. Her master and pastor, Samuel Willard, cautiously and patiently led her to the confession, which was a ritual of cleansing and restoring her to the divine territory. Knapp responded to him well. Both of them faithfully fulfilled roles consistent with the contemporary idea of witch-craft despite a slight difference in ministerial ideas and popular beliefs of it. When Knapp confessed, she suffered from such pains and displayed spectacular body languages, both of which were archetypal features of religious enthusiasm. She even wanted God's goodness during those fits, although she was mostly under the control of the devil. As a truly godly person in her heart, Knapp wanted to be saved. Her possession can be then explained as a somatic conversion experience, which was extraordinary and would not have been accepted by the Puritan orthodoxy. Thus, witchcraft has its place in the history of religious enthusiasm in New England from heresies such as Antinomians to revivals such as Jonathan Edwards.
著者
廣部 泉
出版者
東京大学大学院総合文化研究科附属グローバル地域研究機構アメリカ太平洋地域研究センター
雑誌
アメリカ太平洋研究 (ISSN:13462989)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, pp.14-21, 2013-03

特集 : 太平洋関係のなかのアメリカと日本 : 歴史からの問い
著者
加治屋 健司
出版者
東京大学大学院総合文化研究科附属アメリカ太平洋地域研究センター
雑誌
アメリカ太平洋研究 (ISSN:13462989)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, pp.105-117, 2005-03

This paper investigates the ways in which American art critic Clement Greenberg transformed his art criticism in relation to the revival of figurative paintings among young artists in downtown New York in the 1950s. Greenberg has been considered to be a lifelong advocator of abstract art. In his early stage, Greenberg contended that advanced art should be abstract through emphasis on its own medium rather than on what it represents. The 1950s, however, saw the emergence of figurative painters who were inspired largely by Willem de Kooning's Woman I, the painting that broke away from the burden of abstraction. Their popularity urged Greenberg to reconsider the significance of abstract art, discovering the important role of visuality as a common ground between abstract and representational art. He thus came to recognize the importance of abstract art once again because it tells us more clearly how to apprehend the visual features of works of art than representational art does. Greenberg's propagation of abstract art in the 1960s should be considered not to be the extension of his reductionist position in the 1940s but rather to be the consequence of his attention to the visual function of abstract art which he discovered through his experience of figurative paintings in the 1950s
著者
日高 優
出版者
東京大学大学院総合文化研究科附属アメリカ太平洋地域研究センター
雑誌
アメリカ太平洋研究 (ISSN:13462989)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2, pp.147-162, 2002-03

This paper aims to analyze the street as a topos in contemporary American photography. Historians of photography claim that contemporary American photography originated with the work of William Klein and Robert Frank, photographers who viewed American culture from an alien, critical perspective. In contrast, more recent photographers, who learned from these two pioneers how to use their cameras for more personal purposes, represent the street as a place to encounter people and to frame them extemporaneously. In this paper I will consider a representative of the new generation, Garry Winogrand, as a street photographer. As with his contemporaries, Winogrand never plans his photos in advance. After reading Winogrand's photographs from the perspective of photographic technique and content, I will discuss the meaning of his photographs both from his point of view and from that of the viewer. Photographs of streets become conduits not only of the photographer's but also of the viewer's memory. The memory of the photographer and the viewer passes back and forth through the medium of the image. Through visual stereotypes of experience, the memory of the photographer and of the viewer penetrates the photograph and is released into the image. Likewise, in the opposite direction, the image works upon their memories. Through the two-way circuit of the image and the viewer, images of the street reappear as a common topos of memory. The topos of street comes into being only through the photographic event.
著者
三牧 聖子
出版者
東京大学大学院総合文化研究科附属グローバル地域研究機構アメリカ太平洋地域研究センター
雑誌
アメリカ太平洋研究 (ISSN:13462989)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, pp.22-31, 2013-03

特集 : 太平洋関係のなかのアメリカと日本 : 歴史からの問い
著者
三吉 美加
出版者
東京大学大学院総合文化研究科附属アメリカ太平洋地域研究センター
雑誌
アメリカ太平洋研究 (ISSN:13462989)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2, pp.183-201, 2002-03

Dancing is indispensable to Dominican life. At the same time, the popularity of Hip Hop has been influential to the youth in the Dominican neighborhood in New York City. This paper explores how the learning of Dominican dances has affected the youth in terms of the knowing of "how to move". I examine the developing desire of the youth for finding of African and Dominican styles in quotidian lives, as well as in Hip Hop and Dominican dance lessons, as a result of the learning of dances. The experiences as blacks in the US society are certainly implicated in their findings of "African" styles. Paying attentions to the achievements through the dance practices, such as self-esteem and sophisticated eyes towards bodily movements, I point out the subjective construction of being a person as Dominican and as black in their daily negotiations. Moreover, the bodily experience, characterized as "flow" invites them to learn more about the activities that involve their bodies, which in this case, dancing. In observing the people in the neighborhood, they have come to be aware of essential bodily styles that are expressed in behaviors and gestures. And they have implicitly studied it through the dances both in Dominican dances and Hip Hop. Through this whole process, they developed "bodily bilingualism", motivated by the dance lessons. The "bodily bilingualism" further promotes the adhesion to their living in the Hip Hop world in the Dominican neighborhood.