著者
加藤 悠二
出版者
国際基督教大学
雑誌
ジェンダー&セクシュアリティ (ISSN:18804764)
巻号頁・発行日
no.4, pp.61-72, 2009

This study is based on interviews with heterosexual women who have closefriendships with gay men. In the Japanese media's "Gay Boom" phenomenon that arosein the 1990s, gay men were represented as being the ideal partners for heterosexualwomen. While this has stimulated research and incurred various criticisms from gay andlesbian academics and activists, there has been no qualitative research of heterosexualwomen.This study is based on interviews of 14 heterosexual women who have closefriendships with gay men. The interviews were of one hour in length and consisted ofquestions such as "Where did you meet your gay friend and what kind of relationshipdo you have with them?," "What kind of relationships do you have with heterosexualwomen and men?," and "Do you have lesbian friends?" Various patterns were discoveredin the way heterosexual women got to know gay men and in the kinds of relationshipsthey formed. It also became apparent that even if the initial motivation for meeting had been out of mere curiosity, the relationships eventually developed into close friendships.
著者
石井 由香理
出版者
国際基督教大学
雑誌
ジェンダー&セクシュアリティ (ISSN:18804764)
巻号頁・発行日
no.5, pp.3-22, 2010

This paper considers the transitions in the "Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatmentof GID" , which was created by the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology. By analyzing the text of the guidelines, we observe that the current concept of gender has become less influential in representing a consistent identity model for society today.This is reflected in the following distinctions in the transitions of the guidelines in which there are five issues to be emphasized: First, gender identity is defined as being of multiple forms. Second, the approach to medical treatment is determined not only by an individual' s gender identity but also by his/ her life, world and value system. These factors explain the need for more diversity in medical treatment. Third, it is supposed that gender identity has coherence. Fourth, since diversity of gender is more emphasized, a patient's decision concerning treatment is more highly regarded than ever. And lastly, due to the extended scope of decision-making, the range of patients' self-responsibility for the risk is extended accordingly. It is evident from these guidelines that the concept of gender that has hitherto disciplined people has become weaker.However, this does not necessarily mean that society has become an ideal world.There are still various problems concerning the issue of transgenderism that must beconsidered.
著者
北仲 千里
出版者
国際基督教大学
雑誌
ジェンダー&セクシュアリティ (ISSN:18804764)
巻号頁・発行日
no.5, pp.95-109, 2010

Domestic violence typically tends to be regarded as a crime against women. Menand LGBTs (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people) who suffer violence fromtheir partners have been left out from the domestic violence prevention policy. A recent investigative survey found that some male and LGBT victims asked the DV Center for help. However, a major institutional problem is that the DV victim center was originally set up on a former existing women's support center. The definition of a sex crime is also a problem. Rape is defined as a behavior in which a man rapes a woman. The fact that there is little understanding among support staff is a major problem as well.
著者
田多井俊喜
出版者
国際基督教大学
雑誌
Gender and sexuality : journal of Center for Gender Studies, ICU (ISSN:18804764)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, pp.93-104, 2011-03-31

This report examines aspects of social activities based on the name of "gender identity disorder," which have recently become known. The terminology "gender identity disorder" describes those people trying to live as a different sex from which they were born; they showsome aspects of sex conflicted between biological and social genders. Issues of labor trouble those people most. In the current Japanese labor market, there are problems regarding the exclusion of people marked as "gender identity disorder"- only those who agree that theirbiological gender matches their social gender can become regular and dispatched workers. In order to solve these issues, there has been a social movement that requires the central and the local governments to make a settlement. This activity allows the intervention of the health system in gender, since it is conducted under the name of the medical discourse of "gender identity disorder." Such interference has been criticized for its attempts to control the diversity of sexuality. This study utilizes previous studies criticizing medical intervention in gender and controlof sex. In particular, it reports that although they take the course of accepting control of sex, social activities bearing the name of "gender identity disorder" aim at more diverse sexualities than existing systems. It claims that social activities do not naively medicalize or control acertain sex but rather paint a picture of the society which approves of sexual diversity by placing "gender identity disorder" in the field of policies aspiring for equality in both sexes. This report will to show some cases that demonstrate how the control and the medicalizationof sex do not simply enhance control of sex.
著者
Khor Diana
出版者
国際基督教大学
雑誌
ジェンダー&セクシュアリティ (ISSN:18804764)
巻号頁・発行日
no.5, pp.45-59, 2010

筆者は日本におけるレズビアンの経験・生活を分析するにあたって、その背景となる理論を確立する過程で、英文で書かれた日本の同性間セクシュアリティに関する研究が、数人の研究者によるものによって占められている状況に直面した。それらの英語文献における主張は、日本における同性愛に対する寛容さ、セクシュアリティの多様さ、さらにアイデンティティの一貫性のなさを想起させるものである。本稿ではそれらの主張および、日本の同性間セクシュアリティの一般化に対して意義を唱える。第一に、日本の同性愛に対する寛容さが誇張されることで、ジェンダーによる不平等やレズビアンに与えられるスティグマの問題をいかに無視しているかを示す。第二に、日本におけるアイデンティティの一貫性のなさという主張は、「西洋における一貫したアイデンティティ」を誇張することで可能となっており、アイデンティティに関する論考の対象が個人なのか集団なのかを混合したまま比較している、という分析レベルに問題があることを指摘する。これらの問題含みの主張や、日本のゲイ・レズビアン運動や活動家らは柔軟性がなく、西洋の真似に過ぎないという彼らの批判は、ある種のオリエンタリズムを反映しているとも考えられる。英語話者による日本のジェンダー・セクシュアリティ研究のコミュニティにおいては、見解の多様化を奨励し、日本におけるクィアな人々の経験や生活についての実証研究を推進して行くことが急務である。
著者
藤高 和輝
出版者
国際基督教大学ジェンダー研究センター
雑誌
Gender and Sexuality (ISSN:18804764)
巻号頁・発行日
no.12, pp.183-204, 2017-03-31

Gender performativity is the most famous and influential theory in Judith Butler. It questioned the sex/ gender distinction which some feminists took for granted at that time when Gender Trouble (1990) was published. This distinction regarded sex as the natural category on the one hand, gender as the cultural expression of sex on the other hand. It means naturalizing the dualistic representation of gender. On the contrary, Butler's performative theory suggested that sex is not a natural category, but is a fiction which is constructed by repeating gender performances. Through denaturalizing gender, her theory criticizes the representation of gender/ sexual minorities as "unnatural" and "abnormal," and seeks to theorize the way to make their survival possible. This paper examines how gender performativity was theorized from the 1980s to Gender Trouble. Interestingly, her performative theory cannot be reduced to speech act theory, but it was also formed in relation to other theories; feminist/ queer theory and performance theory. Indeed, in her article "Performative Act and Gender Constitution" (1988) in which she referred to "performative" at first, Butler started from Simone de Beauvoir's text, The Second Sex, and then reread Beauvoir's idea of "gender as act" as "social performance" in performance theory. Moreover, she extended Beauvoir's argument of denaturalizing sex, referring to Gayle Rubin's study of kinship, Monique Wittig's theory of sex, and Esther Newton's analysis of Drag Queen. Thus, her performative theory is found not only in the context of speech act theory, but also in contexts of feminist/ queer theory and performance theory. From this genealogical perspective, this article seeks to rethink gender performativity.
著者
川坂和義
出版者
国際基督教大学
雑誌
Gender and sexuality : journal of Center for Gender Studies, ICU (ISSN:18804764)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, pp.39-60, 2009-03-31

This paper aims to investigate the characteristics of contemporary sexuality studies through a study of Michel Foucault's The History of Sexuality Vol. 1: The Will to Knowledge which has had such a wide-ranging influence on queer theory and sexuality studies. The History of Sexuality Vol. 1 and subsequent research related to it will be examined from the perspective of how contemporary sexuality studies not only confront but also resist the concept of "sexuality" presented by Foucault. The analysis shall then be used to elucidate the characteristics of sexuality studies and the theoretical limits that arisefrom them. This paper focuses on the functions of Foucault's discourse on "sexuality" and defines it as "latent" and "dangerous," for it is based on an idea of sexuality that is closely associated with power. Along with interpretations of a wide range of sexuality theories, a hypothesis is presented here: the politics of contemporary sexuality studiescan arguably be seen in their production of discourses that oppose this "latent" and"dangerous" nature of "sexuality" in the realms of individual personality, relationships and the state.
著者
ALZATE Juliana Buritica
出版者
国際基督教大学ジェンダー研究センター
雑誌
Gender and sexuality : journal of Center for Gender Studies, ICU (ISSN:18804764)
巻号頁・発行日
no.10, pp.133-157, 2015

この論文は、フェミニスト障害学を通して、身体肯定と自己肯定の関連における相互信頼(interdependence)の問題について論じる。著者は「倫理の想像力」の概念に目を向けつつ、障害のある身体の経験に対して関心を持っており、このアプローチが、身体を恥じることから身体を肯定することへの文化的態度の変化という提案して大きく寄与することを論じる。 相互依存に対する肯定的な視点は、身体についての肯定的なイメージと自己肯定のより高い感覚を明るみに出す。相互依存の概念は次の三つのセクションで論じる。第一のセクションでは、間主観性の概念について明らかにし、身体と自己の間に生じる断裂を修復することに焦点を当てる。第二のセクションでは互恵関係とケアの概念について論じ、自立という理想に挑む。第三のセクションでは、自らの身体を肯定することおよび自尊心の観念と照らし合わせ、相互依存の概念について論じる。 相互依存は、障害者にも健常者にも影響を与えるもので、自立と自己充足の神話を解体する鍵となる語である。フェミニズムの障害学的視点からすると、我々は自由のしるしとしての自立の概念について再検討することが推奨される。相互依存は、自らの身体を肯定することと自尊心に対する一つのアプローチとして考えられる。相互依存を受け入れることは自分の弱さを受け入れることである。 身体障害者の経験から得られる重要な教訓とは、自己受容、ケア、そして他者の受容という三者の関係性や、身体は決して単独で存在しないという事実を含んでいる。つまり、相互に信頼しあうこととは、我々が関わりあう主体としての他者のことを慮るよう我々に促すものである。他者と関わりあうという行為は、団結と互恵モデルにとって決定的なものである。ゆえに、相互依存は我々を身体肯定と自己肯定に近づける。