著者
丸山 千歌
出版者
国際基督教大学
雑誌
ICU日本語教育研究センター紀要 (ISSN:13447181)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, pp.15-42, 1997-03-31

現在の用法での「〜的」という語は英語からの影響を受け明治十年ごろから使われ始めたようである。ここ100年のうちに急速に使用が広まった「〜的」を調べることは現代日本語の特質を把握することに通じるものと思われる。本稿は,一世代前の1962年の雑誌から抽出された「〜的」を,「〜的」と話題との関係,「〜的」の語種や表記との関係,語の意味との関係などの観点から分析しその使用状況を明らかにする。
著者
武田 清子
出版者
国際基督教大学
雑誌
国際基督教大学学報. I-A, 教育研究 (ISSN:04523318)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, pp.47-103, 1965-03

Kanji Kato (1884-) was a unique educator of farmers who aspired to regenerate agricultural communities as the spiritual and material foundation of the nation. He was once converted to Christianity under the influence of an American missionary, but later he became an enthusiastic follower of Dr. Katsuhiko Kakei, a Shinto theorist and professor of law at Tokyo University. Kakei, having adopted Hegelian philosophy, developed a new interpretation of Shintoistic Nationalism. Thus it became Kato's mission to educate the farmers to Shintoistic Nationalism. From another approach, Tadaatsu Ishiguro, a pioneering leader in the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, was seeking ways to solve the serious problem of farmers' poverty, which was aggravated by a continuous agricultural crisis in the 1930's. Ishiguro attempted to implement two policies. One was a kind of reform of the landlord system (which, however, only became realized by command of the U.S. Occupation Forces after World War II), and the other was a plan to develop an educational program for training leaders in rural communities. Ishiguro was planning to establish a Japan Higher Folk School, adopting the pattern of that developed in Denmark under the leadership of Nikolai F. S. Grundtvig, an outstanding Christian leader who worked to solve that country's ruraIproblems. Kato was invited to serve as the first principal of this school, which, first in Tomobe and later in Uchihara, in Ibaraki prefecture, became the center of education of farmers in Japan. Same or similar kinds of folk schools with Kato's educational thought and method, spread all over the country. This educational movement in its early stage was expected to be like that in Denmark. It might have given the impression of sharing some of the humanistic and democratic sentiments of other new educational movements of the Taisho period, which were typically critical of the formalistic public school system (under direction of the Ministry of Education) and emphasized informal educational methods, pragmatic combining of "labor" and "education", and practical concern for social problems, etc. But in reality Kato's movement contributed to preparing, spreading and supporting the idea of Shintoistic Nationalism and fascistic ultra-nationalism in the thought pattern of the rural Japanese. Kato, when he realized that the second and third sons of poor peasants had no land to cultivate, was convinced simply that land had to be found for them somewhere in the world, and Manchuria offered the best opportunity. He persuaded military authorities, as well as the government itself, to adopt an agricultural emigration policy under which 5,000,000 poor peasants were to be sent to Manchuria. After the Manchurian War in 1931, this program became national policy, and Kato's school became the center for training the emigrants to Manchuria. Later Kato proposed sending out young boys between the ages of 16 and 19, besides the adult emigrants. At the government's request, many schools all over Japan were forced to select the best ten in ability and health among their graduating students and to send them to the school in Uchihara. They were trained there, and later at branches in Manchuria, in both agricultural and military practices. Then they were sent out to the northern frontiers as kind of colonial troops… a total of more than 300,000. Many of these capable and healthy boys, living under inhuman conditions in a severe climate, with poor food and heavy labor, suffered illness or died. Later, at the end of World War II, more than 80,000 boys, women and children were left behind by the Japanese troops and became tragic victims to the attacking Russians and Chinese. This paper is an analytical study of Kato's Shintoistic Nationalism and the nature and role of his educational movement in the historical process of modern Japan. The content is as follows: I . Preface…the purpose of this paper. II. The Folk School Movement for "regeneration" of rural communities in the period of agricultural crisis. III. Kanji Kato's Shintoistic Nationalism and his educational thought and method practiced and demonstrated through the Japan Higher Folk School Movement. IV. Emigration of farmers and youth troops to Manchuria as the result and continuation of Kato's educational activities. V. The significant nature and problems of Kato's nationalistic educational thought and movement in the history of educational thought in modern Japan.
著者
加藤悠二
出版者
国際基督教大学
雑誌
Gender and sexuality : journal of Center for Gender Studies, ICU (ISSN:18804764)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, pp.61-72, 2009-03-31

This study is based on interviews with heterosexual women who have closefriendships with gay men. In the Japanese media's "Gay Boom" phenomenon that arosein the 1990s, gay men were represented as being the ideal partners for heterosexualwomen. While this has stimulated research and incurred various criticisms from gay andlesbian academics and activists, there has been no qualitative research of heterosexualwomen.This study is based on interviews of 14 heterosexual women who have closefriendships with gay men. The interviews were of one hour in length and consisted ofquestions such as "Where did you meet your gay friend and what kind of relationshipdo you have with them?," "What kind of relationships do you have with heterosexualwomen and men?," and "Do you have lesbian friends?" Various patterns were discoveredin the way heterosexual women got to know gay men and in the kinds of relationshipsthey formed. It also became apparent that even if the initial motivation for meeting had been out of mere curiosity, the relationships eventually developed into close friendships.
著者
岡本 葵 藤田 英典
出版者
国際基督教大学
雑誌
国際基督教大学学報. I-A 教育研究 = Educational Studies (ISSN:04523318)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, pp.93-102, 2009-03-31

アファーマティブ・アクションの目的は,過去の社会的・構造的差別によって何らかの不利益を被ってきた人々に対して積極的な配慮を行うことによって,実質的な機会均等を社会全体として達成することにある.しかし,今日,この概念の起源国アメリカにおいて,アファーマティブ・アクションを「逆差別」「反能力主義」とする批判が増加している.本稿は,アメリカにおけるアファーマティブ・アクションの展開を概観する中で,真の意味での「能力主義」を達成するためには,実質的な「機会均等」をめざすアファーマティブ・アクションの実施が有効な手段になり得ることを検討する.
著者
石井由香理
出版者
国際基督教大学
雑誌
Gender and sexuality : journal of Center for Gender Studies, ICU (ISSN:18804764)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, pp.3-22, 2010-03-31

This paper considers the transitions in the "Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatmentof GID" , which was created by the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology. By analyzing the text of the guidelines, we observe that the current concept of gender has become less influential in representing a consistent identity model for society today.This is reflected in the following distinctions in the transitions of the guidelines in which there are five issues to be emphasized: First, gender identity is defined as being of multiple forms. Second, the approach to medical treatment is determined not only by an individual' s gender identity but also by his/ her life, world and value system. These factors explain the need for more diversity in medical treatment. Third, it is supposed that gender identity has coherence. Fourth, since diversity of gender is more emphasized, a patient's decision concerning treatment is more highly regarded than ever. And lastly, due to the extended scope of decision-making, the range of patients' self-responsibility for the risk is extended accordingly. It is evident from these guidelines that the concept of gender that has hitherto disciplined people has become weaker.However, this does not necessarily mean that society has become an ideal world.There are still various problems concerning the issue of transgenderism that must beconsidered.
著者
北仲千里
出版者
国際基督教大学
雑誌
Gender and sexuality : journal of Center for Gender Studies, ICU (ISSN:18804764)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, pp.95-110, 2010-03-31

Domestic violence typically tends to be regarded as a crime against women. Menand LGBTs (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people) who suffer violence fromtheir partners have been left out from the domestic violence prevention policy. A recent investigative survey found that some male and LGBT victims asked the DV Center for help. However, a major institutional problem is that the DV victim center was originally set up on a former existing women's support center. The definition of a sex crime is also a problem. Rape is defined as a behavior in which a man rapes a woman. The fact that there is little understanding among support staff is a major problem as well.
著者
田多井俊喜
出版者
国際基督教大学
雑誌
Gender and sexuality : journal of Center for Gender Studies, ICU (ISSN:18804764)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, pp.93-104, 2011-03-31

This report examines aspects of social activities based on the name of "gender identity disorder," which have recently become known. The terminology "gender identity disorder" describes those people trying to live as a different sex from which they were born; they showsome aspects of sex conflicted between biological and social genders. Issues of labor trouble those people most. In the current Japanese labor market, there are problems regarding the exclusion of people marked as "gender identity disorder"- only those who agree that theirbiological gender matches their social gender can become regular and dispatched workers. In order to solve these issues, there has been a social movement that requires the central and the local governments to make a settlement. This activity allows the intervention of the health system in gender, since it is conducted under the name of the medical discourse of "gender identity disorder." Such interference has been criticized for its attempts to control the diversity of sexuality. This study utilizes previous studies criticizing medical intervention in gender and controlof sex. In particular, it reports that although they take the course of accepting control of sex, social activities bearing the name of "gender identity disorder" aim at more diverse sexualities than existing systems. It claims that social activities do not naively medicalize or control acertain sex but rather paint a picture of the society which approves of sexual diversity by placing "gender identity disorder" in the field of policies aspiring for equality in both sexes. This report will to show some cases that demonstrate how the control and the medicalizationof sex do not simply enhance control of sex.
著者
ダイアナ・コー
出版者
国際基督教大学
雑誌
Gender and sexuality : journal of Center for Gender Studies, ICU (ISSN:18804764)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, pp.45-59, 2010-03-31

筆者は日本におけるレズビアンの経験・生活を分析するにあたって、その背景となる理論を確立する過程で、英文で書かれた日本の同性間セクシュアリティに関する研究が、数人の研究者によるものによって占められている状況に直面した。それらの英語文献における主張は、日本における同性愛に対する寛容さ、セクシュアリティの多様さ、さらにアイデンティティの一貫性のなさを想起させるものである。本稿ではそれらの主張および、日本の同性間セクシュアリティの一般化に対して意義を唱える。第一に、日本の同性愛に対する寛容さが誇張されることで、ジェンダーによる不平等やレズビアンに与えられるスティグマの問題をいかに無視しているかを示す。第二に、日本におけるアイデンティティの一貫性のなさという主張は、「西洋における一貫したアイデンティティ」を誇張することで可能となっており、アイデンティティに関する論考の対象が個人なのか集団なのかを混合したまま比較している、という分析レベルに問題があることを指摘する。これらの問題含みの主張や、日本のゲイ・レズビアン運動や活動家らは柔軟性がなく、西洋の真似に過ぎないという彼らの批判は、ある種のオリエンタリズムを反映しているとも考えられる。英語話者による日本のジェンダー・セクシュアリティ研究のコミュニティにおいては、見解の多様化を奨励し、日本におけるクィアな人々の経験や生活についての実証研究を推進して行くことが急務である。
著者
佐々木 輝美
出版者
国際基督教大学
雑誌
国際基督教大学学報. I-A, 教育研究 (ISSN:04523318)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, pp.143-152, 2004-03
被引用文献数
1

The main purpose of this study was to examine how sexually explicit media would affect college students' attitudes towards sex. Previous study results based on Gerbner's theory of cultivation would suggest that students exposed to sexually explicit media would accept distorted sexual information or behavior depicted in the media. A survey was conducted to investigate this relationship among college students (N=350). The survey consisted of eight items probing sexual media exposure and their attitudes toward sex. x^2 analysis results indicated a positive correlation between the items of sexual media exposure and attitudes toward sex. The discussion further considers details surrounding the mechanism of accepting distorted sexual information, media exposure, the formation of attitudes and the roles of peers.
著者
玉井 航太 藤田 英典
出版者
国際基督教大学
雑誌
国際基督教大学学報. I-A 教育研究 = Educational Studies (ISSN:04523318)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, pp.5-16, 2017-03-31

近年,「エビデンスに基づく教育」が注目を集めている。「エビデンス」という言葉は実証された科学的根拠の意味で用いられ,ランダム化比較試験(RCT)による実験デザインを用いた研究が焦点化される。しかし,教育という社会的現実は流動的であり,多くの変数で構成されるため,RCTによる実験デザインは因果関係の検証に有効だが,社会調査の文脈において現実的ではない。そこで,本稿はRCTの方法論的側面における既存の問題を議論し,縦断データの解析方法を紹介した。まず,教育の文脈におけるRCTに関する方法論的問題を概観した。次に,2 時点データから因果関係を分析するモデルとして交差遅延効果モデルと同時効果モデルについて述べ,3 時点以上のデータを分析するモデルとして,潜在曲線分析,潜在曲線混合モデル,混合軌跡モデルの基本的概念を説明した。最後に,本稿は,教育学的研究が実証科学のための適切な方法論を用いることを提唱し,エビデンスに基づく教育のための方向性を示唆した。Recently the term "evidence-based education" has been attracting a great deal of attention. The word'evidence' is used to mean substantiated scientific grounds, based on studies using experimental designs that are known to gather data through randomized control trials (RCT). However, while an experimental design with RCT is effective for examining causal relationship, it is not realistic in the context of social surveys,because the real social world of an educational setting is highly fluid, confaining many variables. Thus, in this paper the existing problems with RCT in terms of methodological aspects are discussed, and analytical methods for longitudinal data are introduced. First, this paper examines methodological issues concerning RCT in the context of education. Second, a cross-lagged effects model and a synchronous effects model are described as models by which to analyze causal relationship in data collected over two points in time. Third,basic concepts of latent curve analysis, a latent curve mixture model, and group-based trajectory analysis are explained as a model by which to analyze data collected over three or more points in time. Finally, this paper proposes that educational research use an appropriate methodology for empirical science, and suggests directions for evidence-based education research.
著者
中野 佑一 川口 遼
出版者
国際基督教大学
雑誌
社会科学ジャーナル = The Journal of Social Science (ISSN:04542134)
巻号頁・発行日
no.78, pp.65-84, 2014-09-30

This paper argues for the possibility of “research-education separated model” in order to achieve better social research education.In particular, firstly, we look at the current state of social research education under the Social Research Qualification System and confirm that “research-education integrated model” is now dominant in social research training classes. Secondly, we argue that “research-education integrated model” tends to focus mainly on knowledge and skills in social training, not on the sociological imagination, which is essential to sociology and social research. Thirdly, we examine the common ground between the sociological imagination and reflexive thinking about self and society, one of the goals of liberal arts. Fourthly, we deliberate possible ways of class management to enable a course model which separates education from research on the basis of our educational experiments in “Qualitative Analysis in Sociology” at International Christian University. Finally, we analyze the educational effect of this class on the students participating in the class. As a result, we reveal that there are three educational effects which are mutually related: the understanding of research process, the cultivation of social and communicational skills and the realization of sociological imagination.
著者
ホッファー ベイツ L.
出版者
国際基督教大学
雑誌
国際基督教大学学報. I-A, 教育研究 (ISSN:04523318)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, pp.241-260, 2000-03

アメリカの市内高校では機能的非識字率が高い。国の昨年の発表によると、フィラデルフィアでは90%以上の非識字率を示している。このような場合、読解教育は悲惨なものと考えられる。しかし、読解教育と言語発達が関係していることは1世紀もの間知られている。単に読解の教科書がふさわしい読み物を載せていないだけなのだ。この30年以上もの間、教科書は悪くなる一方であり、ある高校の英語の授業の教科書では、文構造の複雑さが小学校3年生のレベルしかない。学校側や教師が読み物を評価できるような道具は存在している。これを使えば、生徒の能力に合った読み物を与えることができ、生徒の能力が最大限発達するようにしてやれるのだ。